Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine

Journal Information
EISSN : 2642-9128
Current Publisher: Fortune Journals (10.26502)
Total articles ≅ 31
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Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine; doi:10.26502/jbb

Oredoyin A Ogungbemile, Peter M Etaware, Adegboyega C Odebode
Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280021

Oredoyin A Ogungbemile, Peter M Etaware, Adegboyega C Odebode
Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280022

Abstract:
Aflatoxins were reportedly detected in the kidney of 58% of deceased children caused by kwashiorkor at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife. The incidence of kwashiorkor in West Africa has since been associated with aflatoxin contamination of human diets. Although, more researches need to be conducted to proper ascertain the level of menace caused by Aflatoxin ingestion in humans, the frequency of occurrence on stored cowpea seeds in Nigeria was the aim of this research. The procedure described by Association of Official Analytical Chemists AOAC [1] was used in the detection and quantification of Aflatoxins present in stored cowpea seeds in Ibadan, Nigeria. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were detected in all cowpea samples analyzed. Samples collected from Oja-Oba market were found to contain the highest amount Aflatoxins i.e. B1 (1.5 x 10-2µg/g), B2 (0.80 x 10-2µg/g), G1 (0.60 x 10-2µg/g), and G2 (1.0 x 10-2µg/g) compared to those found in other market locations, the control setup and WHO [2] standards (P≤0.05). The result of this study calls for public health concern due to the high level of Aflatoxins found in cowpea seeds from local markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Utmost care should be taken to minimize or totally eliminate postharvest pathogens that produce mycotoxins in stored grains and pulses.
Gunness Deepshi, Lisa Ah-Shee-Tee, Haadiyah Hosany, Vishwakalyan Bhoyroo
Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3, pp 104-110; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280031

Abstract:
Compared to traditional production method (chemical method), biological synthesis of nanoparticles tend to be cheaper since no chemical reducing agents are required, secondary metabolites easily reduced metal ions to nanoparticles in simple steps. The present study compared the antimicrobial activities of both chemically and biologically produced nanoparticles. Aqueous extract of Pittosporum senacia, an endemic medicinal plant, was used to produce silver nanoparticle. Sodium citrate was used as reducing agent in the chemical production of silver nanoparticle. Produced silver nanoparticles were then characterised using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Absorption peak were produced at 400 nm by both type of nanoparticles indicating their spherical nature. Peak at 600 nm was also observed for the biosynthesized nanoparticle denoting other shapes of nanoparticles or possible aggregation. Phytochemical test revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates and phenols that were responsible for the reduction and stabilisation of biosynthesized silver nanoparticle. The antimicrobial activities of both type of synthesized nanoparticle were tested against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Excellent antimicrobial activities were recorded against Escherichia coli using both chemically and biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles, reporting inhibition zone of 20.0 ± 0.0 mm and 21.67 ± 1.15 mm respectively. No synergistic interaction was found between biologically synthesized nanoparticles and antibiotic, chloramphenicol. This study demonstrated that there was no significant difference in the antimicrobial properties of both type of nanoparticle and Pittosporum senacia leaves can be effectively used to synthesize silver nanoparticles.
Ahmad M Khalil, Israa F Alemam, Khaled M Al-Qaoud
Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280027

Keaton A Logan, Helen Asemota, Chukwuemeka Nwokocha, Mark A Lawrence, Rory Thompson, Magdalene Nwokocha, Mohammed Bakir
Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3, pp 67-77; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280028

Abstract:
Hypertension has been for decades a major contributor to overall mortality and morbidity worldwide. This study was aimed towards evaluating changes in blood pressure in normotensive and L-NAME hypertensive induced rats subjected to treatment with a synthesized semicarbazone copper complex (CSCZ)**. CSCZ was synthesized from the reaction between di-2-pyridylketone semicarbazone (dpksc) and CuCl2.2H2O in refluxing ethanol and characterized from its spectroscopic and elemental analyses. The infrared and electronic absorption spectra are in accord with the proposed formulation of the complex. Animals were rendered hypertensive by oral administrations of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) daily (dose 40 mg/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Oral daily dosages (20 mg/kg body weight) of CSCZ was administered to the animals. A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 132.91 ± 7.62 was observed in the L-NAME/CSCZ treated group (LCZ) when compared to the L-NAME group at 161.00 ± 5.34 while no significant changes were observed in heart rate (HR) and pulse pressure (PP). Treatment with CSCZ also seemingly normalised and prevented the development of L-NAME induced hypertension in the rats. A significant decrease in SBP and PP was also seen in the normotensive group treated with CSCZ at 91 ± 2.11 and 21.67 ± 1.43 respectively when compared to the control group at 130.63 ± 2.98 and 44.10 ± 5.15 respectively. These findings reveal the blood pressure lowering effects of CSCZ in normotensive rats and its ability to prevent L-NAME induced hypertension.
Kenmoe Lr, Kotue Tc, Chandra K, Djouhou Fm, Pieme Ac, Kansci G, Fokou E, Arumugam N
Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3, pp 78-92; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280029

Abstract:
Background: Peptides have shown anti-sickling effect and are able to reduce oxidative stress, thus contributing to the management of sickle cell disease. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to characterize and to assess the antisickling and antioxidant properties of albumins and globulins fractions from black bean seed (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) used to manage sickle cell disease in West Region of Cameroon. Methods: NaCl 5% (1:10 w/v) and dialysis were used for extracting albumins and globulins respectively. The concentration of proteins was determined by the Bradford method. Molecular size was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In vitro antisickling properties, investigate was carried up using microscopic enumeration. Membrane stability effect and antioxidant potentials were determined using colorimetric method. Results: In non-reducing buffer showed both albumin and globulin in native form, had the main proteins with dense band of about 130 and 37 kDa. Antisickling tests revealed the best inhibition (79.15 ± 3%) and reversibility (73.49 ± 6%) rates with globulin fraction at 3.82 mg/ml. Hemolysis decreased significantly with albumin and globulin fractions at different concentrations showing the stability effect on the membranes of erythrocytes. However the concentration of globulin at 3.82 mg/ml has shown the best activity (from 100 to 4.62%). The FRAP test has shown that the proteins extracted from black bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have a global antioxidant power of 48.38 ± 5 mg FeII/100g (albumin fraction) and 7.26 ± 4 mg Fell/100g (globulin fraction). The value obtained from the albumin fraction was significantly lower (p
Hugh Y Cai, Kimberly K Cai, Julang Li
Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3, pp 93-103; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280030

Abstract:
Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread to over 200 countries since it was first reported in December of 2019. Significant country-specific variations in infection and mortality rate have been noted. Although country-specific differences in public health response have had a large impact on infection rate control, it is currently unclear as to whether evolution of the virus itself has also contributed to variations in infection and mortality rate. Previous studies on SARS-CoV-2 mutations were based on the analysis of ~ 160 SARS-CoV-2 sequences available until mid-February 2020. By mid-April, > 550 SARS-CoV-2 sequences had been deposited in GenBank, and over 8,200 in the GISAID database. Methods: We performed a sequence analysis on 474 SARS-CoV-2 genomes submitted to GenBank up to April 11, 2020 by multiple alignment using Map to a Reference Assembly and Variants/SNP identification. The results were verified on a larger scale, 8,126 hCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) sequences from GISAID database. Results: We identified 5 recently emerged mutations in many isolates (up to 40%). Our analysis highlights 5 frequent new mutations that have emerged since late February 2020. These mutations are: one each missense (non-synonymous) mutation in orf1ab (C1059T), orf3 (G25563T) and orf8 (C27964T), one in 5’UTR (C241T), one in a non-coding region (G29553A). The final mutation (G29553A) was found to be almost exclusive to the US isolates. The first 3 mutations are non-synonymous, leading to amino acid substitutions in the viral protein sequence. Except for C241T, all the novel mutations identified are absent in the isolates from Italy and Spain in the SARS-CoV-2 genomes deposited in GenBank and GISAID by April 13, 2020. Conclusion: The results of current study indicate that new mutations are emerging as COVID-19 pandemic are spreading to different countries and that geography specific mutants may exist. The findings of the current study lay the foundation for further investigation into the impact of SARS-CoV-2 mutations on disease incidence, severity, and host immune response. In addition, it may also provide insights into vaccine development and serological response detection for the virus.
Miora Koloina Ranaivosoa, Tinà Rakotoniaina, Valdo Rahajanirina, Tahinamandranto Rasamoelina, Zely Arivelo Randriamanantany, Olivat Rakoto Alson, Andry Rasamindrakotroka
Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280023

Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Volume 3, pp 111-119; doi:10.26502/jbb.2642-91280032

Abstract:
There is an increased resorption of alveolar bone both in horizontal and vertical direction after the extraction of teeth in first 6 months thus affecting aesthetic value of prosthodontics treatment. Implant placement immediately after extraction can decrease resorption of alveolar bone. The clinical study discussed in this article describe the various steps used in atraumatic extraction technique, and then installation of dental implant immediately after extraction. This technique is quiet simple and can be performed easily in clinics and shows excellent results.
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