Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science

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EISSN : 2640-9208
Current Publisher: Crimson Publishers (10.31031)
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Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science; doi:10.31031/ntnf

Hajisaheb Lnf, Kavera B, Ramesh Sb, Mangesh Pj, Malagoud Dp
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-4; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.04.000599

Abstract:
Hajisaheb LNf1*, Ramesh SB2, Kavera B1, Mangesh PJ2 and Malagoud Dp2 1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, India 2Department of Biotechnology, India *Corresponding author: Hajisaheb LNf, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, India Submission: June 11, 2019;Published: March 19, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.04.000599 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue5 19th century; Prisoner nutrition; Rumford soup Cultivated peanut is an important oilseed and legume crop. The quality of the peanut oil depends on its chemical properties especially the fatty acid composition. Oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids have health benefits and enhanced oil quality such as better oil stability, flavor and nutrition. Oleic acid, a monounsaturated (C18:1) has cholesterol-lowering properties [1]. In addition, oleic acid helps to decrease the inflammation of the endothelial cells [2]. Dietary intake of oleic acid can also protect endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide oxidative stress and thus reduce susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins to oxidative modifications [2]. Therefore, one of the major goals for peanut breeding is to increase the oleic acids and thereby enhancing the ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid. Although as many as 12 fatty acids have been reported in peanuts, only three (palmitic, oleic and linoleic) are present in amounts exceeding 5% [3]. These three fatty acids comprise about 90% of the total fatty acid composition of the oil, with oleic (36-67%) and linoleic (15-43%) comprising about 80% depending on the variety [4]. It has been reported that Virginia-type peanuts naturally produce oil with slightly lower linoleic percentage and therefore have greater oil stability than Spanish and Valencia-types [5]. Accessions belonging to A hypogaea (Virginia-types) had higher oleic acid (54.16%) compared with those of ssp. fastigiata (Spanish and Valencia) (45.70%). An O/L ratio up to 6.93 was found among ssp. hypogaea. Among the Florida breeding lines, the oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio ranged from 0.9 to 35: l [6]. Among the ICRISAT mini core collection accessions [7], oleic acid ranged from 33.60% to 73.54%. Additional varieties, mutants, germplasm lines and breeding lines had oleic acid within the range of mini core accessions [8,9] screened US mini core [10] for the point mutation (G-to-A at position 448 resulting in a D150N amino acid substitution) at ahFAD2A using CAPS marker and found mutant allele in 31.6% of the accessions. A naturally occurring high-oleate spontaneous mutant, F435 was identified in the germplasm F78-1339 [6]. This high-oleate mutant produces the seed oil comprising of 80% oleate and as little as 2% linoleate [6]. One spontaneous (8-2122) and two chemically induced (Mycogen-Flavo and M2-225) mutants were developed from a normal oleate content line, AT-108 [11]. Subsequently, Sun Oleic 95R was developed from a breeding program involving F435 and F519-9. Sun Oleic 95R with 49% oil and 80.6% oleic acid was released in 1995 [12]. Sun Oleic 97R, an improved genotype over Sun Oleic 95R, derived from the backcrossing between F435-2-2-E-2-l-b4-E-b2-b3-l-E, a high oleic line and F519-9 (Sun runner, recurrent parent) was released in 1997. It recorded 48.5% oil and 81.8% oleic acid [13]. Microsomal oleoyl-PC (phosphatidyl choline) desaturase is responsible for the conversion of oleate to linoleate in non-photosynthetic tissues and developing seeds. Activity of microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturase is significantly lower in some high-oleate peanut seeds [14]. The high-oleate trait in peanut is due to a recessive mutation [4]. In the previous work from [15], two homologous oleoyl-PC desaturase genes (ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B), each having its origin in different diploid progenitor species, were isolated and characterized from the cultivated peanut. The expression patterns of both the genes were examined in peanut varieties with normal oleate and high-oleate phenotypes. Both the homologous genes expressed in normal oleate peanuts, whereas the expression of one gene (ahFAD2B) is severely reduced or absent in high-oleate mutants (8-2122 and M2-225). Also, there was a mutation in the ahFAD2A gene in normal oleate and high-oleate lines that encode a protein of reduced function [15]. Therefore, a significant reduction in the transcript levels of ahFAD2B and a mutation in ahFAD2A are responsible for the high-oleate phenotype in these peanut varieties, and the expression of one gene encoding a functional enzyme appears to be sufficient for the normal oleate/linoleate phenotype. Further, a detailed examination was carried out at the coding regions and the regulatory elements of both these genes in the high-oleate mutants (8-2122, Mycogen-Flavo and M2-225) and the normal variety (AT-108). The two chemically induced, high-oleate mutants (Mycogen-Flavo and M2-225) showed an insertion of the miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITE) in the ahFAD2B gene at the base position 656 in the Mycogen-Flavo, and at 998 in M2-225. This MITE led to premature stops in both the mutants. In all mutant lines, the ahFAD2A gene contained a point mutation previously described by Jung et al. [15]. Studies on the putative promoter region of the ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes in both the normal and mutant lines did not reveal any significant changes. Interestingly, no differences were found at ahFAD2B gene of the 8-2122 mutant and that of the normal; hence it is difficult to explain the high-oleate phenotype of 8-2122. Wang et al. [16] reported six novel full-length cDNA sequences (named as AhFAD2-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -6) in peanut, The results suggested that there might be more candidate genes controlling levels of oleate in developing seeds and the presence of complex gene networks controlling the fluxes between the endoplasmic reticulum and the chloroplast within the peanut cells. With this background knowledge on the genetic nature of the oleic acid content in peanut, various methods of breeding have been...
Anna Trojanowska
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.04.000598

Abstract:
Anna Trojanowska* Department of Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland *Corresponding author: Anna Trojanowska, Department of Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland Submission: February 10, 2020;Published: February 19, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.04.000598 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue5 19th century; Prisoner nutrition; Rumford soup At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Europe saw the birth of prison reform. The repressive approach to prisoners underwent gradual changes. The penalty of the deprivation of liberty lost its character of revenge, was supposed to be educational and to serve social rehabilitation. Starvation as a deterrent to crime was considered too cruel. However, punishment had to be severe and acute, and poor diet was one way of mortifying the body. Therefore, the prisoners' diet was to meet the needs of physical workers, but at the same time it had to be unvarying and cheapest. It was modeled on a peasant diet, consisting mainly of plant products. Prison reform was also introduced in Poland. In 1819 ‘The Prison Reform Project [1] was established in the Kingdom of Poland, and in 1823 ‘The Prison Instruction [2] regulating prison administration and economic affairs was published. It was recognized then that prisons should have such conditions that prisoners could preserve their moral and physical health. The food was supposed to be simple, easily digestible, but without spices, so as not to whet prisoners’ appetite, because it was thought that light, homogeneous food made a man calm, obedient, capable of hard work and more resilient. Once a day prisoner got a warm meal called the Rumford soup consisting of interchangeably peas, cabbage, potatoes and buckwheat or barley groats, and additionally rye whole meal bread with salt and drinking water. Depending on the type of prison (There were six types of detention centers in the Kingdom of Poland), various menus were used-the heavier the prison, the more severe and monotonous diet, deprived of meat, on some days deprived also of a hot meal. In a fortified prison in Zamość (in the Kingdom there was only one prison of this type), the Rumford soup was served for two days, and every third day only bread and water. The type of soup was changed once a week. In heavy prisons, the type of soup was changed every three days; on Friday prisoners only got bread and water. In lighter prisons, the soup was to be changed every day, and on holidays about 100 grams of meat per person was added to it. In all prisons, apart from a hot meal, daily portions of whole meal rye bread (0.8kg for men, 0.6kg for women), 6.5g of salt and 13g of lard (butter on fasting days, fat on other days) were issued. Another menu was provided for sick prisoners, nursing mothers, Jews, and sometimes political prisoners had a separate kitchen. The 1823 instruction had a number of additions and modifications, usually detrimental to prisoners [3]. In 1845 the amount of bread was reduced by 25%, butter was removed from the diet of healthy prisoners, and oil was introduced; and the number of public holidays on which meat was served was limited to five a year. This change reduced the nutritional value of the diet (on average around 2234kcal) and contributed to the deterioration of prisoners' health. In 1859 another ‘Instruction for Penitentiary Institutions [4] had been introduced, and, with minor changes, stayed in force until the outbreak of the Great War. Meat was excluded from the menu, only bacon, oil or a bit of butter was envisaged as supplementations. Sour soup from flour, dumpling soup or gruel (portion approx. 0.5l) were prepared for breakfast for dinner-interchangeably: potatoes or sauerkraut, peas, and barley in various combinations. Prisoners got 0.6kg of whole meal bread and 13g of bacon (for Christians) par day, or on fasting days-oil; butter was provided for Jews. According to the calculations of one of the prison doctors, Leon Wernic, this diet contained on average: 111g protein; fat 8g; carbohydrates 354g (about 3023kcal per day) and in terms of caloric content was insufficient for hard-working people [5]. It lacked meat, dairy and fat. It was also monotonous, which led to a loss of appetite. A similar diet was introduced in Prussian prisons, and meals were prepared in the form of unpalatable soups and gruel, which quickly caused aversion to food, and consequently led to the destruction of body and even the death of prisoners. After the introduction of more varied meals (more meat, cheese and fish were served), prisoners’ mortality decreased. In the Kingdom of Poland, when the nutrition tariff of 1866 was being prepared, the case was consulted with the Medical Council which proposed: limiting the amount of potatoes and replacing them with more valuable products (dumpling soup and cabbage with peas), increasing the daily bread ration to 0.8kg for working prisoners; oil was to be replaced with butter; healthy prisoners were to receive meat (200g twice a week). These changes were supposed to reduce the morbidity and mortality of prisoners, and thus also the expenses for medicine, but they increased the cost of food. Not all proposals came into existence. Only a new type of soup was introduced for breakfast-beetroot soup, and instead of potatoes, peas and cabbage were served once a week, as more nutritious and healthier. Prisoners demanded mainly fat, bought it for money earned in prison workshops, or asked doctors for oil [6]. The following years brought a further increase in food prices, which adversely affected the nutrition of prisoner’s dependent on the treasury. However, in some prisons, including prisons in Kalisz, Piotrków and Łomża, efforts were made to enrich and diversify the diet-a small amount of meat was served three times a week; in the evening, hot water was given to the tea. The diet after changes contained more protein (121g animal protein, 19g vegetable), fat (20g) and...
Daphne Page
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.04.000597

Abstract:
Daphne Page1* and Martin Caraher2 1Researcher at center for food policy, UK 2Professor emeritus of food and health policy, UK *Corresponding author: Daphne Page, Researcher at center for food policy, UK Submission: January 28, 2020;Published: February 12, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.04.000597 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue5 This case study-based research was influenced by the growing movement of UK municipalities joining the Sustainable Food Cities (SFC) Network and developing food policies. This comes at a time of “growing tensions between global and local dynamics of food”. The national devolution of power to UK municipalities has resulted in Local Authorities (LAs) joining forces with Civil Society (CS) groups out of mutual need at a time of over £700 million in cuts to local public health funding and social services over the last decade [1,2]. Recognition of diverse skillsets, networks, access to funding as well as formal power for policy change highlight these mutually beneficial partnership arrangement at a time where cities are being seen as drivers of change for social policy [3]. As an examination of local food policy development, this work examined five cases from within the SFC network (Bath and Northeast Somerset (BNES), the cities of Bristol, Belfast, and the counties of Durham and Devon). These cases represent three different coalition structures, ranging from council/public authority-led to civil society-led and a hybrid partnership. This research examined how the concept of sustainability and local food production were understood and linked to one another by Civil Society (CS) and Local Authority (LA) actors to achieve local objectives. Based on the idea that policies and programs reflect the “translated beliefs” of those actors involved in the policy development process [4], this research compared interview material and the content of the local food strategy as a process output. Acknowledging the role of power as one that is central to policy research [5], the cases were examined according to their governance structures, to illustrate how power was concentrated and exercised within these partnerships. Ultimately, this had significant bearing on how sustainability and local food production content were presented in the documents and framed for the audience. Researching policy means navigating complexity and drawing on appropriate tools in order address questions relating to governance and politics in a simplified way [4,5]. In the case of this research, the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) developed by Sabatier [6] was utilized, drawing on its updated and revised assumptions [4,7]. The framework also acknowledges a methodological flexibility which allows the ACF to be applied to various research approaches and policy topics, while still being centered on the assumptions of the framework [4,7]. This allowed for it to be adapted into a format to specifically address a focus on local level food policy groups. The ACF’s focus on the beliefs of individual actors within policy coalitions and its recognition of the concept of bounded rationality made it an attractive tool to apply to interviews. Interviews were designed to reveal the beliefs of actors relating to the concept of sustainability and how they felt local food production actions were associated with its social, environmental and economic pillars. These reflected the Policy Core and Secondary beliefs of actors. Policy Core beliefs relate to “the “basic orientation and value priorities for the policy subsystem” as well as “the overall assessment of the seriousness of the problem, its basic causes and preferred solutions for addressing it” [4]. Secondary beliefs address the “instrumental means” for achieving the policy core [4]. Literature on the ACF notes that as a framework, it offers a language for conceptualizing the components of policy work [4,7]. The case study-centered design of this research found significant overlap with components of the ACF in this sense: the subsystem (food policy, in this case), the coalition (the food policy group), the territorial scope (the municipal boundaries of each case study). Smith [4] and colleagues note that the term ‘coalition’ is the title “used metaphorically” in reference to the collection of individual actors. Through conceptualizing each municipality in these terms, the qualities and boundaries of the individuals case studies could be identified. This showed that showing that through these overlapping considerations, the ACF could act as an appropriate lens through which to examine these case studies as place-based and food-specific policy initiatives (Figure 1). Figure 1: Data collection approach used for strategy documents and interviews. Two tools were applied to operationalize the ACF for this work. The first was MacRae & Donahue’s [8] food policy council models, which served to categorise the coalition structures (Table 1). Of their six categories of municipal food policy councils, this research represented three: Belfast and BNES as Category 1, Devon as Category 2, and Bristol and Durham falling into Category 3. Table 1: Coalition structures of local food policy groups [8]. The second tool was drawn from policy framing theory for the study of social movements. Snow & Benford [9] offered three framing tasks which were adapted to categorise and analyse the beliefs of actors according to the ACF’s Policy Core and Secondary beliefs. These are: a) “Diagnostic” frames identified unsustainable issues b) “Prognostic” frames reflected food production actions to address the unsustainable issues, as well which actors should ‘do’ these actions c) “Motivational” frames were the ideal sustainable outcomes that food production could help achieve. These represented a vision to unify actors for action. From a policy...
Zeynep Aksoylu Özbek, Kıvılcım Çelik, Pelin Günç Ergönül
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-8; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.04.000596

Abstract:
Zeynep Aksoylu Özbek, Kıvılcım Çelik and Pelin Günç Ergönül* Manisa Celal Bayar University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, Manisa/ Turkey *Corresponding author: Pelin Günç Ergönül, Department of Food Engineering, Turkey Submission: January 24, 2020;Published: February 03, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.04.000596 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue5 The aim of this study is to identify the predictors of edible oil and fat consumption. A questionnaire to evaluate the attitude of consumers toward various edible oils and fats was administered to 300 individuals in Manisa. Twenty six percent of participants reported olive oil is the healthiest edible oil. Most of the participants believed that consumption of oils does not lead to health risk if it is not consumed too much. Margarine was reported as the most cholesterol containing item. Fats were associated with health concerns by majority of participants. Seventy six percent of participants believed that there was a relationship between oil and fat consumption and cardiovascular diseases. The findings of this study suggest that Turkish consumers hold positive attitudes towards edible oils such as olive oil and other vegetable oils. On the other hand, they are aware of the health risks linked to fat consumption. Keywords: Consumption; Fat; Health; Oil; Questionnaire; Turkey Nutritional habits of human beings have undergone radical changes over time. A number of studies have shown that there is a relationship between eating habits of people and the diseases they face. Therefore, especially in developed countries, people who want to live a healthy life take care of their nutrition. In balanced diet, carbohydrates, proteins and fats play an important role. People can obtain their fat needs from vegetable and animal origin foods. Fats and oils are carries of various nutrients and fat-soluble vitamins found in foods as well as being one of the most important energy sources [1]. Fats, which are one of three basic nutrients, meet the majority of human organism energy needs and have many other physiological and biological functions [2]. Lipids have numerous biological functions in the body and act as the structural material of all cells and organs [1]. Fats are essential because they contain essential fatty acids and vitamins A,D,E, and K also have flavor-enhancing properties. They are significant elements in terms of their contribution to human health and high nutritional value [3,4]. Additionally, they improve textural quality of foods [5,6]. Besides serving as thermal insulator for human body and protector of internal organs against external influences, fats also have important roles in hormone synthesis, intelligence and reproductive organs [3,5,7]. There are two aspects of lipid requirement in human nutrition: qualitative and quantitative. Firstly; some lipids contain essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, so there is a need for health [8]. Then, 25-30% of total daily calorie necessity in a normal diet should be provided by oils [8,9]. In developed countries, 35-40% for children, 30-35% for young people and for adults 25-30% of daily consumed calorie is provided by fats. In developing countries, this rate is as low as 5% [8]. An adult person should consume about 24kg of fat per year in the name of balanced diet [4]. In 2016, a total of 966.000 tons of vegetable oils (including olive oil) were produced in Turkey. The amount of vegetable oil per capita was determined as 21.9kg [10,11]. Experts have introduced nutritional guidelines to deal with malnutrition. However, many countries make effort to prevent chronic illnesses such as heart disease, obesity and diabetes, and re-prepare these dietary guidelines. Nutritional recommendations continue to emphasize the low-fat and total fat-free diet to reduce the risk of obesity and the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease [12]. The American Heart Association recommends that dietary intake of saturated fat should be between 5-6% per day [13]. On the other hand, a daily intake of cholesterol less than 300mg is suggested by FDA [14]. Excessive consumption of saturated fats and cholesterol is known to increase the amount of LDL, a low-density lipoprotein, namely bad cholesterol. This leads to increase of coronary heart disease risk [5,6,13-15]. Most of the vegetable oils are obtained from seeds such as sunflower, canola, soybean and cotton. They are also derived from olives and palm fruits, and 97-99% of its composition consists of triglycerides [16]. Cooking oils and fats may be of vegetable or animal origin. Olives in the Mediterranean, rapeseed in Europe, sesame seeds in India and soybean in China have been used as oil rich products for centuries. Today; 80% of the world's oil and fat production consists of vegetable oils and soybean oil is the most commonly used diet oil [5]. In Turkey, the most consumed oils are sunflower oil and olive oil [4,17]. Sunflower oil contains very high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among these, approximately 68-72% of the total fatty acid content is composed of linoleic acid, which reduces cardiovascular risk and also shows hypocholesterolemia effect. It also contains vitamins A,D,E,K and natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol [18-21]. Olive oil is composed of 98% triacylglycerol, the majority of them is triolein (OOO) which is beneficial for health [22]. When the benefits of olive oil are examined; It is known to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular, hypertension, cancer, digestive system and nervous system diseases and has cell retention and aging retarding effects [22,23]. Up to now a lot of survey studies have been conducted about edible vegetable oils, olive oil, animal fat consumption habits and buying attitudes of individuals [4,24-38]. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has been carried out to examine consumers awareness...
Bell Sj, Wijendran V, Bauer K, Baker Ra, Marsland C
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-8; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2019.04.000594

Abstract:
Wijendran V1, Bauer K1, Baker RA2, Marsland C3 and Bell SJ4* 1Senior Clinical Research Associate, USA 2Department of Quality Control Quality Assurance Nutritionist, USA 3Co-Founder and Vice Chairman, USA 4Department of Chief Science Officer, USA *Corresponding author: Bell SJ, Chief Science Officer, USA Submission: December 07, 2019;Published: December 16, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2019.04.000594 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue4 Background: Blood pressure (BP) is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is the leading cause of death in the US. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of nutrient-dense, portion-controlled, functional foods coupled with E-nutrition counseling on BP in patients with hypertension. Methods: Forty-one adults (17 males, 24 females) with a medical diagnosis of hypertension and elevated BP (BP>120/80mm Hg) were recruited. Subjects consumed three nutrient-dense, portion-controlled, functional foods daily for 8 weeks. The foods included 25-35% of the Daily Value (DV) for all nutrients (including potassium) except for sodium and chloride. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP and body weight were measured weekly by participants and self-reported. Quality of life was assessed using a validated questionnaire (SF-12), which measured physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores. Results: Baseline mean age, BMI and BP of study participants were 57±7 years, 32.8±4kg/m2 and 146±18/89±8mm Hg SBP/DBP, respectively. BP decreased by 11.4/11.2mm Hg (SBP/DBP, p4g/day is associated with elevated BP [5,6]. Additionally, evidence shows that inadequate potassium intake was associated with elevated BP [5,7]. Clinical guidelines for BP management recommend limiting dietary sodium intake to 2.3g/day or less and consuming adequate dietary potassium intake to meet the Daily Value (DV) of 4.7g/day for adults to control BP [2]. Further, weight management is an important factor contributing to BP reduction [2,8]. To date, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is the most effective diet therapy for BP management and prevention of HTN [2,9,10]. The DASH diet is high in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and limits saturated fats and high sodium foods [9]. While evidence clearly supports the benefits of diet therapy for BP control in patients at risk or with HTN, practitioners are not clear on the effectiveness of dietary modification as a treatment option for HTN. Furthermore, compliance with drug and diet therapy is generally less than optimal, with only 53% of adult patients with hypertension able to maintain BP control within the targeted range [2]. Dietary strategies to improve diet quality and compliance with BP management therapies are clearly needed. Functional foods improve diet quality and can be incorporated easily based on individual food preferences. These are foods enhanced with bioactive ingredients and have demonstrated health benefits [11]. Functional foods usually have demonstrated beneficial physiological effects in the prevention, management, and/or treatment of chronic disease. Functional foods can come from conventional foods, or from the addition of a bioactive constituent (e.g., vitamins or minerals) to conventional foods. Thus, nutrient-dense, functional foods with added essential nutrients that are inadequately consumed in the typical western diet (e.g., potassium, vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids), can be an effective strategy to optimize BP management. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a dietary intervention with nutrient-dense, portion-controlled, functional foods coupled with E-nutrition counseling based on DASH dietary guidelines on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and on quality of life in patients with HTN and/or elevated BP. Participants Adult men and women aged 50 years or older with a BP of greater than 120/80mm Hg were recruited using the social media platforms of Instagram and Facebook. Adults with hypertension related to congenital conditions and/or with a history of heart failure or stroke were excluded from the study. Study design In this interventional study, the participants consumed three nutrient-dense, portion-controlled, functional foods daily for 8 weeks. The packaged nutrient-dense foods were provided free of cost. Participants were encouraged to consume one snack and/or one meal of their own choice in addition to the three nutrient-dense foods, adhering to the DASH diet principles. Each week, participants measured BP and body weight, and completed a general quality of life questionnaire; this information was provided electronically to a HIPAA-compliant data collection storage site. At baseline, week 4, and week 8, participants measured their waist circumference and completed the validated SF-12 quality of life questionnaire. E-nutrition counseling based on the American Heart Association’s (AHA) recommended DASH dietary guidelines was provided weekly or as needed, free of charge. Diet Each nutrient-dense, portion controlled, functional food provided to the participants included 25-35% DV for all essential nutrients, including potassium, vitamin D and other micronutrients, except for sodium and chloride; and 25% of the Adequate Intakes (AI) or more for omega-3 fatty acids. All foods were low in saturated fat and added sugar (
Alejandro Córdova I
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2019.04.000595

Abstract:
Alejandro Córdova I1* and Estela Rodriguez DB2 1Department of Agricultural and Animal Production, Mexico 2Private practice, Mexico *Corresponding author: Alejandro Córdova I, Department of Agricultural and Animal Production, Mexico Submission: December 09, 2019;Published: December 16, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2019.04.000595 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue4 Animal nutrition is the part of animal husbandry that studies the use of different foods or more specifically, the immediate principles that constitute them to satisfy the needs of animals useful to man [1]. This is defined as the series of processes through which an organism acquires and assimilates food to promote its growth and replace worn or damaged tissues. The nutrients are fundamental for the animals to carry out their different productive functions [2]. Nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract include volatile fatty acids, glucose, minerals, and vitamins. These are used in the synthesis of many different compounds found in meat, milk and wool, and to replace nutrients used to support living processes including reproduction. For the purposes of calculating nutrition, they are usually divided into two groups: The total food needs are calculated by adding the support and production needs [1], the nutritional needs of animals with respect to reproduction are critical, to achieve an adequate level of maintenance. Undernutrition during growth produces delays in sexual maturity. If there are nutrient deficiencies before the mating season, they can render animals sterile, produce low fertility or fail to maintain and establish pregnancy. On the other hand, nutritional requirements should be taken as basic and fundamental within the diet, taking into account the intake, which is defined as the ingestion of nutrients by the animal, and is regulated by factors that in turn interrelate as Rinehart, 2008. Palatability, it is the flavor and texture of the food. Ruminants seek sweetness in their food, probably because the sweet taste is an indicator of soluble carbohydrates, the most critical element of the diet for the animal after water. Ruminants avoid bitter flavors, which are usually associated with toxic secondary chemicals. The foraging behavior describes how the animal performs the foraging process. According to Fred Provenzano, a pastoralist researcher at UTA State University, the study of foraging behavior involves understanding: The bite size and the bite rate also influence the intake. The denser a pasture, the more forage the animal can take with each bite. This exemplifies the fact that the relationship between grazing management, animal behavior, and nutrient intake is not a simple relationship. It is a complex and constantly changing relationship that follows changes in seasons, forage quality and amount of forage. Chemical factors include nutrients, but also secondary chemicals that are usually associated with the defense of the plant. It usually refers to secondary chemicals as toxic substances, but the toxicity depends on the degree, or dosage. All plants contain secondary chemicals to some degree, but animals have evolved an innate sense of what is good to eat [3]. Animals limit the number of plants they consume that contain secondary chemicals through a feedback mechanism, which results in satiety, or the feeling that they have eaten enough. According to Webster, satiety is the "quality or state of being fed or gratified up to or beyond the capacity point, or the repulsion or disgust caused by overindulgence or excess. "When ruminants consume enough of a certain toxic substance, a feedback mechanism induces a switch to an alternative source of nutrients. This is the reason why cattle, sheep and goats graze more (have a higher intake) in a diverse pasture. Variety stimulates their appetite and provides alternative sources when they have reached the limit of their preferred source of food. Quantity, density and availability of forage directly influence the intake of forage, and intake is directly related to the density of the meadow. Ruminants can only take a limited number of bites per minute as they graze, and cattle only graze for 8 hours a day. Therefore, it is important to make sure that each bite taken by the animal is as large as possible. A bovine graze surrounding the forage with its tongue and then tearing it upwards; sheep and goats use their lips and teeth to select highly nutritious parts of the plant. Large bites of forage are therefore insured by maintaining high density of pastures. © 2019 Alejandro Córdova I. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Naveen Puppala, Mulindwa J, Kaaya Na, Tumuhimbise G
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-11; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2019.04.000593

Abstract:
Mulindwa J1, Kaaya NA1, Tumuhimbise G1 and Naveen Puppala2* 1School of Food Technology, Nutrition and Bioengineering, Makerere University, P.O.BOX 7062, Kampala, Uganda. 2New Mexico State University, Agricultural Science Center at Clovis, New Mexico 88101, USA. *Corresponding author: Naveen Puppala, Department of Agricultural Science Center at Clovis, USA Submission: November 1, 2019;Published: December 04, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2019.04.000593 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue4 Peanuts worldwide are popular for their nutritional quality and commercial potential. Their consumption in Uganda is high and second after common beans thus making them a suitable food for fortification to fight the increasing vitamin A deficiency in the country. Consumption of orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is equally high in the country and this too offers potential to fortify peanut butter for increased intake of vitamin A. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of producing a nutritious peanut butter, with high shelf-life. An OFSP ratios of 0% (Control), 5% (Treatment 1), 10% (Treatment 2) and 15% (Treatment 3) were mixed with peanut butter. The product was assessed for proximate composition using AOAC methods and sensory qualities. The shelf-life of product was also established by determining the fat quality, beta-carotene retention and microbial quality. Fortifying peanut butter with OFSP significantly increased the protein content from 20.47 to 27.76%, fat from 30.8 to 32.4%, sugars from 2.96 to 25.51% and, beta-carotene from 244 to 1388μg 100g-1. In all treatments, the control had the lowest amount of nutrient, while OFSP that was fortified with 15% peanut butter had the highest levels of the nutrient. When OFSP was fortified with 10 and 15% peanut butter it resulted in higher retention of β-carotene between 400 to 600μg 100-1g which could meet the daily World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations of 350 to 500μg 100-1g. After storing the product for five months, OFSP that was fortified with 10 and 15% peanut butter had good fat quality as reflected by the low acid value (AV) below 0.9mg KOH-1 and peroxide value (PV) below 4mEq kg-1 respectively. There was a strong negative correlation (r=0.049; p˂0.05) between peroxide formation and the amount of β-carotene in the peanut butter. All peanut butter samples were free of dangerous levels of microbes. The peanut butter treated with OFSP had acceptable sensory score of 6-7 on the scale of 1 to 9. The results suggest that peanut butter fortified at 15% OFSP had greater shelf-life and meet the vitamin A requirements of school going children. Keywords: Peanut butter; OFSP; β-carotene; Fat quality Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L) are popular worldwide because of their value as plant protein source (23-35%) and fat (45-52%) [1]. The peanuts possess high nutritional and commercial value due to the presence of fatty acids, protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins [2,3]. Globally, peanut consumption is relatively high and is consumed either as roasted, cooked or as peanut butter [4]. In Uganda, peanuts rank second with annual production of 210,000 tons in shell after common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris; FAO, 2017). Peanuts are potential food source for fortification since they are consumed widely in Uganda in various forms as sauce, peanut butter and paste. In Uganda increasing prevalence of vitamin A deficiency amongst children and pregnant women has been reported at a rate of 19% to 20% respectively [5]. This situation along with limited access to nutritious foods adversely affects the wellbeing of children and adults. Consumption of peanut butter fortified with vitamin A is considered as a way to reduce vitamin A deficiency [6,7]. Peanut butter is a semi-perishable product with prolonged shelf life due to its low moisture content [8]. Peanut products in storage are exposed to ambient conditions, with exposure to sunlight. The heat accumulated during storage and accelerates rancidity [8-10]. The rancid peanut butter is unfit for consumption because of off flavors [11,12]. The β-carotene is a powerful antioxidant that provide protection against oxidative processes in food systems [13,14]. The antioxidant activity of β-carotene is attributed to their polyene frameworks [15]. Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP), one of the major sources of beta-carotene is widely grown and consumed in Uganda [16]. In the year 1995, researchers recognized the potential of OFSP varieties to address widespread vitamin A deficiency in Sub Saharan Africa using integrated agriculture-nutrition approach [17]. Use of OFSP is a rich plant-based source of β-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A [17]. Through the multi-partner initiative, OFSP was launched in Uganda headed by Harvest-Plus. Various Non-Government Organizations (NGO), Volunteer Efforts for Development Concerns (VEDCO), Farming for Food and Development Program-Eastern Uganda (FFDP-EU) and National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) have since disseminated OFSP in Uganda to create awareness and have released varieties such as Ejumula, Vita, and Kabodeamong others; and value addition for increased consumption [18]. Research has shown that OFSP has the potential to improve the vitamin A status of individuals [19,20]. Study by Jaarsveld et al. (2005) showed that, there was a 10% significant improvement in Vitamin A that liver stores amongst the school children who were fed on OFSP. Product diversity can be a driver to its increased consumption especially amongst the children. This study therefore aimed at production of a shelf stable, high nutritious OFSP-fortified peanut butter product that could be used by school-going children. Materials Twenty kilograms of peanut (Valencia variety) were obtained from the National Semi-Arid Resources Research Institute, Soroti, Uganda. Triglyceride stabilizer was purchased from Dansico Company, United States of...
Farid Ahmed E
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2019.04.000592

Abstract:
Farid Ahmed E* Institute for Research in Biotechnology, USA *Corresponding author: Farid Ahmed E, Institute for Research in Biotechnology, USA Submission: November 04, 2019;Published: November 07, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2019.04.000592 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue4 No validated micro(mi) RNA diagnostic test currently exist for the diagnostic screening of colon cancer (CC). MiRNAs are good candidates for markers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis or response to therapy. Profiles of miRNA expression differ between normal tissues and tumor types, and evidence suggests that miRNA expression profiles cluster similar tumor types together more accurately than expression profiles of protein-coding mRNA genes. A small number of miRNAs can differentiate cancer from normal, and miRNAs in stool remain mostly intact for detection We first carried a microarray study on immunocaptured stool colonocytes on 15 subjects and selected a panel of 14 preferentially expressed mature miRNAs associated with colon cancer (12 Up-Regulated, miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-31, miR-34a, miR-96, miR-106a, miR-133a, miR-135b, miR-206, miR-224 and miR-302; and 2 Down-Regulated, miR-143 and miR-145). We then used absolute quantitative digital PCR on these 15 stool samples from stages 0-4 using a chip based Absolute Quant Studio™ 3D Digital PCR Applied Biosystem 3D instrument, using 96 well plates. To ensure that we have chosen human and not bacterial small total RNA, we have carried out co-extraction protocols with Escherichia coli K1 strain RS18, Agilent electrophoretic patterns, and sequenced random samples throughout this research using mRNA/miRNA sequencing. The miRNA expression data are first analyzed with parametric statistics such as Student t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) test if the data distribution is random, or with nonparametric Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact tests if the distribution is not random. If necessary, more complicated models such as multivariate analysis and logistic discrimination are employed. For the corrected index, cross-validation is used to protect against overfitting. Digital PCR is a new approach to miRNAs quantification that offers alternate method to qPCR for absolute quantification, by partitioning a sample of DNA or cDNA into many individual, parallel PCR reactions; some of these reactions contain the target molecule (positive), while others do not (negative). A single molecule can be amplified>million-fold. During amplification, TaqMan chemistry with dye-labeled probes is used to detect sequence-specific targets. If no target sequence is present, no signal accumulates. Following PCR, the fraction of negative reactions is used to generate an absolute count of the number of sample’s target molecules, without standards or endogenous controls. Our quantitative DPCR miRNA data showed that the quantitative changes in the expression of a few mature miRNA genes in stool, associated with right and left colon cancer, provides for a more convenient, sensitive and specific diagnostic screening markers, more useful than test markers currently available on the market, such as the low-sensitivity (
Tekeba Eshetie, Tadesse Teshome, Elfinesh Bekele, Birhanu Million, Seyum Hagos
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 4, pp 1-6; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2019.04.000591

Abstract:
Tadesse Teshome, Elfinesh Bekele, Birhanu Million, Seyum Hagos and Tekeba Eshetie*> Ethiopia Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute, Ethiopia *Corresponding author: Tekeba Eshetie, Ethiopia Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute, Ethiopia Submission: October 16, 2019;Published: November 04, 2019 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2019.04.000591 ISSN:2640-9208Volume4 Issue4 As opposed to the high national demand for broiler meat in Ethiopia, the production and processing companies are not benefited from the market. A huge amount of broiler meat has been imported to Ethiopia by International star hotels, supermarkets and Ethiopian airlines from different parts of the world. Therefore, this research work is initiated to assess the status of broiler production and processing practices in Ethiopia so as to identify major causes of poultry products importations and propose the way forward. The research is basically a field study supplemented with secondary data from the national and international data sources. The primary data was collected from selected broiler producers, processors, supermarkets and international star hotels and Ethiopian airlines. This research was conducted in purposively selected sites where you find broilers production, processing establishments and the market. For the interview purpose, 21 broiler farms and 4 broiler meat processors were used. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS. The result of this study generally indicated that the broiler production systems observed by the study team is classified into two broad categories, commercial broiler production system and small-scale broiler production system. Facilities used in both production systems are different based on their investment capacity, level of their knowledge, input access and scope of their market outlets. In both production systems and processing units, there is no standard for their products, traceability for their products is very challenging and the type of transport system they are using for their products is not up to the standard. The informal marketing channel is dominant, the application of international food safety measures like ISO, HACCP and GMP are literally absent, shortage of skilled manpower in the sector is a very serious problem and the market information system and access to credit and incentive is very shallow. The other challenge is the involvement of the middlemen in the marketing process who take the major share of the margin. Therefore, because of these interlinked challenges and others, the producers and processors are not benefited from their business as a result there is continuous broiler meat imported from other parts of the world. Hence, there are efforts to continue capacity building in-terms of man power, facilities, access to credit, strategic incentives, market information system, issuance of rules and regulations for binding challenges in marketing, products traceability system, cold chain facilities, policy direction in products importation, food safety measures and investment promotion in production and processing are very important. Strong and sustainable linkage among major stakeholders is very crucial as well. Further research is needed to see the origin of the products, trends and the actors involved. Keywords: Importation; Marketing; Processing; Production Poultry production and product consumption are gradually growing in the world. Poultry accounts for about 33% of the global meat consumption and is expected to grow at 2 to 3% per year in the world. Several publications indicate that large size poultry farms were more efficient, but these farms are few in the developing countries. As one of developing country, Ethiopian poultry sector is not yet to satisfy the growing needs of customers. The data shows that contribution of the subsector to the GDP is estimated 4.172 million ETB per year. According to CSA [1], in Ethiopia there exists around 60.04 million chicken populations of which 88% indigenous, 2.79% hybrid and 1.35% exotic breeds. The estimated annual production of poultry meat in Ethiopia is 61,840 tons, which accounts for 1.3% share of the production in Africa and 11.7% of East Africa [2]. As a country to address the protein demand and improve the livelihood of the people, development of poultry production and processing sectors are some of the focus areas by the government. Towards to this end, the livestock master plan document was produced to serve as national guiding document. Against the government poultry development strategy, now a day, a huge amount of broiler meat is imported from different countries to Ethiopia by Ethiopian airlines, by five-star hotels like Sheraton Addis, Hilton, Radisson Blue and others. Ethiopian airline alone has been importing 2,000kg of broiler meat every day from Brazil and South Africa and other sources. As a result of this, the local chicken meat processors are not benefiting and complaining on the lack of reliable market system in the country and demanding some market protections from the government. Similarly, the country is scarifying its meager foreign currency resources by importing these products. Therefore, this study is initiated to evaluate the current broiler production and processing and marketing activities in Ethiopia and to identify the major reasons why we import broiler meat from outside world and to propose possible solutions with the following specific objectives. Study sites This study has been conducted at selected sites of Oromia (Adama, Bishoftu, Awash, Modjo, Addis Ababa and Hawasa (SNNP) where we can find more broiler production and processing establishments. The target groups for the study include; broiler producers of all kinds; broiler meat processors; supermarkets; resource people from major and relevant sectors; retail traders’ consumers and researchers. The research is a field study and utilizes different data sources including primary and secondary...
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