Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science

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EISSN : 2640-9208
Current Publisher: Crimson Publishers (10.31031)
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Antonia Sinesi
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 481-483; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2021.05.000617

Abstract:
Antonia Sinesi1* and Ruggiero Damato2 1RDH, Freelancer in Canosa di Puglia, Italy 2RDH, Freelancer in Barletta, Italy *Corresponding author: Antonia Sinesi, RDH, Freelancer in Canosa di Puglia, Italy Submission: January 15, 2021;Published: January 28, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2021.05.000617 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue3 The term “Functional Food” originated in Japan during the 1980s. Japan was the first country in the world to define the concept of functional foods by calling them FOSHU, an acronym that stands for “Food for specified health use” and which indicates a particular category of food or drink, which boast the ability to act on certain organs to prevent and treat particular ailments. A Functional Food is therefore a potentially healthy food, whose positive effect is attributable to intrinsically present components or to components it has been enriched with capable of interacting positively with the organism, obtaining a significant improvement in the state of health and well-being and/or a decrease in the risk of contracting chronic diseases. Although there are a number of ways to define the term ‘functional food’ [1], to date, there is no universally accepted definition for this group of foods [2]. Several national authorities and scientific organizations have formulated definitions [3]. The International Food Information Council defines functional foods as “foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition” [4]. The American Dietetic Association defines functional foods as “foods that provide additional health benefits that may reduce disease risk and/or promote optimal health” [5]. The EU Project “Functional Food Science in Europe” specifies functional foods as “foods that are satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way that is relevant to either an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease” [6]. Among functional foods we find extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), an essential food of Mediterranean diet (MD) in the countries of the homonymous area such as Spain, Italy and Greece which represent the most important producers in the world. As documented by numerous studies published in recent decades, most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on promoting human health can be attributed to EVOO [7]. Extra-virgin olive oil is regarded as functional food since epidemiological studies and multidisciplinary research have reported convincing evidence that its intake beneficially affects one or more target functions in the body, improves health and reduces risk of disease. Its health properties have been related to the major and minor component fractions of extra-virgin olive oil. Among olive oil chemical components, the phenolic fraction has received considerable attention due to its bioactivity in different chronic diseases. The bioactivity of the phenolic compounds could be related to different properties such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones, although the molecular action mechanism of these compounds in relation to many diseases might have different cellular targets. Its unique composition and biological properties are largely responsible for this association (Figure 1). The beneficial properties of EVOO have been attributed to its high content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), which represent up to 80% of its total lipid composition. However, recent evidence has shown that the minor components of EVOO, such as phenolic compounds and other compounds with antioxidant actions, determine an increase in the health characteristics of the oil itself [8]. These components make up only 1-2% of EVO and are completely absent in other types of oils derived from seeds or fruits [9]. The nutritional and antioxidant properties of EVOO are related to the presence and concentration of tocopherols, carotenoids and phenolic compounds which are of great importance for human health [10]. Extra virgin olive oils contain different classes of phenolic compounds such as phenyl alcohol (hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), cynic acid (caffeic and p-coumaric acid) and benzoic acid (vanillic acid), flavones (apigenin and luteolin) and secoiridoids (oleuropein and ligtroside derivatives) [11]. The main polyphenol in EVOO, hydroxytyrosol, is a ROS scavenger. In EVOO we find oleuropein, an anti-inflammatory molecule that promotes the production of nitric oxide in macrophages [12] and oleocanthal which exerts an anti-inflammatory action similar to ibuprofen [13,14]. EVOO itself is rich in vitamins D, A, E and helps the absorption of the whole group of fat- soluble vitamins. EVOO, rich in polyphenols, is able to reduce heterocyclic amines and plasma levels of C reactive protein [15]. Nutrigenomic studies by De Santis et al. [16] reveal that the EVOO cultivars characterized by a high content of polyphenols such as the “Coratina” [17] cultivar present in a geographical area of Puglia, are able to act on transcriptome and to modulate the expression of different miRNA transcripts involved in different pathways, for example glucose or lipid metabolism and cell proliferation, so polyphenols are fundamental biomolecules in nutrigenomic modulation. Therefore, the positive impact of EVOO on human health could be attributed to a synergistic effect of polyphenolic compounds with the high content of oleic acid. Figure 1: In 2011 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approved a health claim stating that the dietary intake of virgin olive oil (poly) phenols is able to protect blood lipids from oxidative damage. The panel considers that in order to bear the claim, 5mg of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives should be consumed daily [18,19]. Extra virgin olive oil has such important beneficial properties that the FDA (Food and Drug Administration, USA government body) has...
Snehasis Jana, Alice Branton, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Dahryn Trivedi
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 473-480; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2021.05.000616

Abstract:
Alice Branton1, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Dahryn Trivedi1 and Snehasis Jana2* 1Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA 2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Thane (West), Maharashtra, India *Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt Ltd, Thane (West), Maharashtra,India. Submission: December 05, 2020;Published: January 12, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2021.05.000616 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue4 Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is a water-soluble vitamin commonly found in food and also provided using dietary supplements. It plays an important role in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and maintaining healthy levels of homocysteine, the amino acid in the blood, gluconeogenesis, immune function, haemoglobin formation, etc. This study was performed to determine the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on the structural properties and the isotopic abundance ratio of pyridoxine hydrochloride using LC-MS and GC-MS spectroscopy. Pyridoxine HCl sample was divided into two parts, one part of pyridoxine was considered as control (no Biofield Energy Treatment was provided), while the second part was treated with the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and termed as a treated sample. The LC-MS spectra of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated pyridoxine hydrochloride samples at retention time 2.33 minutes exhibited the mass of the protonated molecular ion peak [M+H]+ at m/z 170 (calculated for C8H12NO3+, 170.08) with 100% base peak intensity in the MS spectrum in +ve ion mode was found to be pyridoxine. The LC-MS based isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the treated pyridoxine were significantly increased by 20.45% and 116.67%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, 13C, 2H, 15N, 17O, and 18O contributions from (C8H12NO3)+ to m/z 171 and 172 in the treated sample were significantly increased compared with the control sample. Similarly, in the GC-MS chromatograms, the peak area% of the treated sample was increased by 4.06% compared to the control sample. But the mass peak intensity of the treated pyridoxine at m/z 151 was significantly decreased by 14.16% compared to the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 17O/16O), PM+2/PM (18O/16S), and peak area% in the treated pyridoxine were significantly increased compared to the control sample. It can be assumed that the changes in isotopic abundance, peak area%, and mass peak intensities could be due to changes in nuclei possibly via the interference of neutrino particles controlled by The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment. The new form of pyridoxine HCl would be better for designing novel pharmaceutical formulations which would be more soluble, absorbable, and bioavailable, that might offer better therapeutic response for the prevention and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency, anaemia, seizures, cardiovascular disease, tuberculosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, anxiety, hypertension, asthma, depression, dysmenorrhea, breast pain, etc. Keywords: Pyridoxine HCl; The trivedi effect®; Biofield energy; Consciousness energy healing treatment; LC-MS; GC-MS Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is a water-soluble vitamin commonly found in food and also provided using dietary supplements [1]. Vitamin B6 naturally available in food sources like fish, meat, poultry, tofu, chickpeas, avocados, nuts, whole grains, bananas, spinach, etc. [2]. Inside the body for more than 100 enzymatic reactions, it acts like cofactors or prosthetic groups and also plays an important role in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and maintaining healthy levels of homocysteine, the amino acid in the blood, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, immune function (lymphocyte and interleukin-2 production), and haemoglobin formation [3-5]. The active form of vitamin B₆, pyridoxal 5’ phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5’ phosphate (PMP) are the coenzymes which involved in the metabolism of amino acid, carbohydrates, and lipids. Pyridoxine hydrochloride is the commonly used salt form of vitamin B6 [6]. Vitamin B6 generally used in vitamin supplements and also as a component of multivitamin preparations for the prevention and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, metabolic disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, pulmonary tuberculosis, hyperhomocysteinaemia, cancer, cardiovascular disease, anxiety, asthma, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dysmenorrhoea, diabetes, post-partum lactation suppression, McArdle’s disease, osteoporosis, problems from isoniazid, mushroom poisoning, etc. [1,3-8]. Vitamin B6 rarely shows side effects like a headache, sleepiness, numbness, sensory neuropathy (ataxia), etc. It can interact with many medications, i.e., antiepileptic drugs (valproic acid, carbamazepine, phenytoin, etc.), cycloserine, and theophylline, which might adversely affect vitamin B6 levels [3,5]. Pyridoxine HCl is light-sensitive material and degrades slowly when exposed to light. It is soluble in water and alcohol; sparingly soluble acetone; insoluble in ether and chloroform. When it heated to decomposition, it emits very toxic oxide fumes of nitrogen and hydrogen chloride [9]. Intrinsic physicochemical properties play a vital role in the drug solubility, absorption, bioavailability, etc. In this scenario, it was observed that Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) has the incredible impact on the particle size, surface area, and thermal behaviour of pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compounds [10-14]. The Trivedi Effect® is a natural and only scientifically proven phenomenon in which a person can harness this inherently intelligent energy and transmit it anywhere on the planet via the possible mediation of neutrinos [15]. The human body...
Vojinovic Tanja, Lalatovic Ninoslava, Joksovic Marko
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 467-469; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2021.05.000615

Abstract:
Vojinovic Tanja*, Lalatovic Ninoslava and Joksovic Marko University of Montenegro Faculty of Medicine, Montenegro *Corresponding author: Vojinovic Tanja, University of Montenegro Faculty of Medicine, Montenegro Submission: November 05, 2020;Published: January 8, 2021 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2021.05.000615 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue3 Childhood obesity represents a global public health crisis. It is caused by an imbalance between calories consumed and consumed [1]. The trend of increasing prevalence of obesity leads to an increased risk of endocrine, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, orthopedic, skin, neurological health disorders [2]. Children who are obese are likely to develop diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease at a young age [3]. Disorders that occur as a result of obesity are numerous and severe [4]. The table shows the complications that occur as a result of obesity (Table 1); [4]. Table 1: Obesity complications of children and adolescents [4]. Treating obesity in the pediatric population is one of the most important health priorities. The therapeutic approach to obesity should be comprehensive, first of all it is necessary to change the diet and increased physical activity and thus weight reduction, pharmacological approach, but it is limited due to the efficacy and safety of drugs for weight loss in children and bariatric surgery [5]. Obesity therapy drugs have the potential to reduce body weight and reduce weight-related comorbidities. However, these drugs can have serious adverse effects, and most have not been adequately tested for efficacy and safety in the pediatric population. Data on long-term experience with weight loss drugs in this population are still lacking. Potential side effects and risks, the patient’s current body weight, previous weight, therapeutic options for trying to lose weight, age, puberty, and comorbidities must be considered when prescribing these drugs [6]. Metformin is an oral antihyperglycaemic drug approved by the Food Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in children older than 10 years for use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, metformin has been shown to lead to weight loss [7]. The only drug currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat obesity in the younger population, ages 12 and older, is orlistat [8]. Orlistat is also approved by the EMA but only for patients 18 years of age and older. In addition to orlistat, the FDA has approved four drugs in the treatment of adult obesity-liraglutide, lorcaserin, naltrexone-buproprion and phentermine-topiramate, and the EMA has approved liraglutide and naltrexone-bupropion. These drugs are possible potential candidates for the treatment of pediatric obesity [9]. Influence of obesity on drug pharmacokinetic parameters in the pediatric population Pharmacokinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion depend on the size of the body, the process [10,11]. In adult obese patients, small changes in absorption were observed with oral, subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of drugs, which had no clinical significance. No information is currently available to compare absorption in obese and normal weight children [12]. The volume of distribution is a key factor in calculating the initial dose of the drug. It primarily depends on the solubility of the drug. Obese people have a higher percentage of body fat and generally a higher volume of distribution of lipophilic drugs, due to the distribution of these drugs in adipose tissue. The volume of distribution of hydrophilic drugs is variable and depends on the total percentage of water in the body. Dosage recommendations for most pediatric medications are weight-based. In pediatric obesity, the dosage depends on the solubility of the drug. Ideal body weight should be used to determine the dose of hydrophilic drugs, dose calculation should be based on current total body weight for lipophilic drugs, and adjusted body weight should be used for partially lipophilic drugs [13]. Drugs that are primarily metabolized in the liver should be used with caution until the age of twelve. Variations in the metabolism of some drugs have been observed in obese individuals through changes in the activities of enzymes involved in phase I and/or II metabolism [14]. Drug clearance is the primary determinant to consider when designing a maintenance dose regimen, largely controlled by hepatic and renal physiology. The effects of obesity on renal tubular secretion, tubular reabsorption, and glomerular filtration have not been fully elucidated. For drugs that are eliminated by the renal, the effect of obesity on glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption are of great importance. Significantly higher mean serum creatinine concentrations were observed in obese children and adolescents compared to normal weight subjects. The variability in clearance in the obese pediatric population can be explained by the principles of allometry and the maturation process of this population [15]. The elimination half-life of a drug depends on the volume of distribution and clearance. As these are two biologically independent entities, changes in drug elimination half-life in obese individuals may reflect changes in distribution volume and clearance, or both [16]. Current research results indicate that pediatric obesity may alter the volume of distribution and clearance and elimination half-lives of a large number of drugs, requiring dosage adjustment, especially for drugs with a low therapeutic index. Obesity is one of the leading diseases of modern times. Obesity leads to a significant increase in morbidity and mortality, various health complications and diseases, with a significant reduction in quality of life. Pediatric obesity therapy is an imperative in health care and crucial for improving the health of children and adolescents. There are...
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-2; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000614

Abstract:
Jaime Paiva Lopes Aguiar* and Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Brazil *Corresponding author: Jaime Paiva Lopes Aguiar, National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Food (LFQA) Manaus, AM,Brazil. Email: [email protected] Submission: December 08, 2020;Published: December 16, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000614 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue3 Fruits of the Amazon; Products with added value, Food and nutritional security What is the nutritional value of typical Amazonian products such as açaí wine (Euterpe precatoria Mart.), Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh), cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) and peach palm flour (Bactris gasipaes Kunth).? Can these foods be used to prevent common diseases in the Amazon, such as energy-protein malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia and hypovitaminosis A? If not as a preventive way, can these foods be used to minimize these public health problems still registered in different population groups in the Amazon region? For these questions, a group of researchers from the National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA) is looking for answers. The work mainly targets the school population and also aims to identify the technological and nutritional agronomic potential of the mentioned plant species. An essential part of the research is the analysis of the chemical composition of the fruit and the evaluation of products and diet. The impact assessment regarding the use of pupunha flour as a source of pro-vitamin A has as a sample group voluntary preschooler aged 2 to 7 years old, in a total of 90 children, divided into three groups of 30: an experimental group (which received the product extracted from Amazonian food), a control group, which received vitamin A and the placebo group, thus constituting the preventive evaluation. It is concluded that pupunha flour is an excellent source of energy, fiber, oil, and is highly recommended for the prevention of hypovitainosis A. The assessment of the impact of açaí “wine” on preschoolers was done by studying the hemoglobin concentrations in the blood. For this purpose, a sample of 60 children aged 2 to 6 years was selected, divided into three groups of 20: an experimental group (which received iron from açai), a control group, which received iron and a placebo group, constituting thus the evaluation in the preventive form. The results showed that açaí juice is an energy source reflecting the weight gain of the children studied. As it is an energy source it can contribute to the reduction of Protein Energy Malnutrition. The evaluation of the hypoglycemic action of cubiu is initially tested in diabetic rats, for a period of 45 days. The information generated by this project allows the expansion of the food composition table at regional and national level, as well as the elaboration of a national database of regional products with potential in the domestic and foreign markets. The nutritional diagnosis of population groups answers questions about the prevalence and extent of energy-protein malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia and hypovitaminosis A in the Amazon region and consequently supports the direction of public policies in several sectors, particularly health. The minimization of nutritional deficiencies in the region using potentially nutritious regional foods will reflect in the improvement of the socio-economic cultural and environmental standard of low-income populations and in the quality of life. The additional advantage of working with children is also in their assimilation power, since, together with the projects, nutritional education is always a work of great scope. With this research, we hope to contribute to the rescue of healthy eating habits and practices, through the insertion of fruits from Amazonian biodiversity and products with added value, in addition to promoting health, it can contribute to reinforce food sovereignty and assist in the preservation of cultural identity of the region and Brazil. In the economic and social aspect, the availability of technically viable products will favor the timidity of the market, combined with a public policy involving the entire production chain. It is expected to contribute to healthy and varied food, public policies, income generation, social inclusion, food and nutritional security and improving the quality of life of the population in the Amazon. The authors declare to have no conflict of interest about the publication of this paper. © 2020 Jaime Paiva Lopes Aguiar. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
Socorro Vanesca Frota Gaban
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000613

Abstract:
Socorro Vanesca Frota Gaban1* and Otília Mônica Alves Borges1,2 1Universidade Federal do Ceará, Department of Food Engineering, Campus do Pici, Brazil 2Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology ofCeará, Campus Aracati, Brazil *Corresponding author:Socorro Vanesca Frota Gaban, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Department of Food Engineering, Campus do Pici, Brazil Submission: November 05, 2020;Published: December 16, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000613 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue3 With the increased focus on a healthy diet based on the consumption of organic and natural foods, nonconventional food plants are becoming a more prevalent option to add variety and greater nutritional value to the daily diet. Non-conventional foods are a reliable and inexpensive alternative healthy food source to replace or complement current conventional food choices. These underutilized plants have the potential to be used not only in daily food preparation as an ingredient in soups, salads, etc., but also as a source of dietary supplements, for new food formulations and product development. These plants are also endowed with bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, among others. This literature review provides an overview about some of the most popular plants, their uses, nutritional aspects, and medicinal properties. Keywords: Organic; Plants; Healthy; Nutrition Countries in the world rich in floral biodiversity and abundant vegetation, benefit from a variety of non-conventional edible plants. These plants are vegetables and fruits unusual in daily life. They are defined as wild and semi-wild species that naturally grow in forests, forest margins, community lands, degraded and discarded lands [1]. The consumption of these plants stimulates food diversification, maintenance of the forest, enhancement of natural resources and reduction of environmental impacts if carried out in a sustainable manner [2]. Since they are drought-resistant plants that are simple to cultivate, grow organically and do not need soil additives, maintenance or care in planting, without the need to use pesticides or chemicals, as they occur with those that are frequently consumed. However, many of these plants, although available at low cost, are still unknown and underutilized by a significant portion of the population [2]. These plants are known to be part of the culture, identity, agricultural practices, and eating habits of various traditional populations in different regions of the World. The increasing influence, and invasion of urban culture in rural areas and tribal societies has contributed to the rapid erosion of ethnic culture and knowledge of non-conventional food plants. Additionally, increased accessibility to modern, genetically modified vegetables, has led to disuse of these plants in the modern diet. Thus, the lack of supply of unconventional plants made them unknown to new generations, as they started to have reduced economic and social expression, losing space for other products [2,3]. Nom-conventional food plants are of great importance for human consumption because they can provide vitamins, dietary fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, and proteins. In addition, they have sensory characteristics that facilitate their consumption, being the same consumed “in natura” or used in raw salads, soups, cookies, pasta, puree, and omelettes. Thus, the consumption of these unconventional vegetables can present itself as an excellent nutritional option, especially for populations with less purchasing power. In some countries of the world, there are still established practices of using unconventional food plants as a food source in times of famine and natural disasters [4- 7]. The use of non-conventional food plants has been increasing by people looking for a healthier life, due its high nutrition value. In addition, they are usually seasonal and regional reducing consumer impact on the environment and contributing to a more sustainable food system. They are easy and cheap plants to find and can be a low-cost vegetable alternative. Moreover, they are an option to escape the food monotony that the food industry imposes, for the perpetuation of good eating habits [8]. In addition, the intake of these non-conventional vegetables is known for their pharmacological properties. The following are nutritional summaries of some of the most popular non-conventional plants available (Pereskia aculeate, Sonchus oleraceus, Basella alba, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Xanthosoma sagittifolium, Stachys byzantine). Pereskia aculeata The genus Pereskia (Cactaceae family), popularly known as orapro- nobis, is a leafy climbing cactus, originally from the American continent. Leaves contain high levels of protein when compared to other plants commonly used for human food, and it is a remarkable source of nutritionally important minerals and vitamins (vitamin C, folic acid, calcium, iron and zinc). It also presents in its composition Sitosterol, stigmasterol, flavonoids, and phenols. Widely consumed in soups, sausages, scrambled eggs, omelettes and salads [9,10]. Studies also show that consumption of Pereskia can result in the improvement of biological parameter markers of diseases such as protein malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus [11]. The leaves have antioxidant activity and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities [10,12]. Sonchus oleraceus Sonchus oleraceus L, a member of the Asteraceae family, originates from Europe and is found almost everywhere in the world. It is popularly known as milkweed, wild chicory, smooth milkweed, jealousy or sawmill. It contains appreciable amounts of mineral elements (iron, zinc, manganese, copper, calcium), vitamin C and bioactive compounds such polyphenols [13]. It is an important herb used in popular medicine to treat liver disease, inflammation and infections. It is used as ingredient in some preparation...
Kıvılcım Çelik, Aslıhan Tüğen, Bülent Ergönül
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000612

Abstract:
Kıvılcım Çelik*, Aslıhan Tüğen and Bülent Ergönül Department of Food Engineering, Turkey *Corresponding author: Kıvılcım Çelik, Department of Food Engineering, Turkey. Submission: October 23, 2020;Published: November 24, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000612 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue3 Since the first month of 2020, the whole world has faced an epidemic not seen since the Spanish flu pandemic. The new type of coronavirus, COVID-19. It is an easily transmissible disease caused by SARSCoV- 2, first identified in December 2019 and declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. As of October 2020, 37 million cases and more than 1 million deaths from COVID-19 have been recorded worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a very significant and negative impact on every area from global trade to individual life and economy due to the measures taken against the epidemic and the social restrictions that must be implemented. The food sector is also the most important among the groups affected by this pandemic. In this COVID-19 pandemic, as in every disease, nutrition has a very important place for human health. Keywords: COVID-19;Pandemic;Nutrition;Food sector The whole world has faced an epidemic since the first month of 2020 that has not been seen since the Spanish flu pandemic. The new type of coronavirus, COVID-19. It is an easily transmissible disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, first identified in December 2019 and declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Since the first infection case was linked to the Huanan Seafood Market (Wuhan, China), it was initially featured in the media as the Wuhan virus [1]. Zhou et al. [2] It has been revealed that the virus is transmitted to humans by consumption of bats, SARS-CoV-2 and bat coronavirus have a gene sequence similarity of up to 96.2%, while it has been determined that the starting point of the infection is due to the consumption of bat and pangolin and that it is passed on to humans through consumption of these creatures. As of October 2020, 37 million cases and more than 1 million deaths from COVID-19 have been recorded worldwide. It is known that COVID-19 infections are seen in more than 200 countries where these numbers are increasing exponentially every day. Flu-like symptoms of COVID-19 usually appear 5-6 days after infection and manifest themselves with symptoms such as cough, sore throat, fever, muscle and body aches, and loss of smell and / or taste [1,3]. COVID-19 poses a major threat to countries suffering from poverty and poor healthcare infrastructure. It continues to threaten the masses in South America, especially in India, some African countries and Brazil, due to the weak health infrastructure. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director General of the World Health Organization, explains that their biggest concerns are the potential of the virus to spread to countries with weaker health systems, and points out that there is a significant risk, especially for the refugee population today. Today, more people than ever since the Second World War have chosen to become refugees and leave their countries in order to escape from violence, conflict and persecution. Most of those who have left their country live in camps, the refugee population living close to each other and lacking adequate medical facilities are at a particularly high risk from COVID-19. It is thought that the disease may pose five main threats in terms of food security [4]. The first of these is that the epidemic has become a bigger threat for some countries due to poverty and insufficient health infrastructure, followed by the possibility of more severe consequences in countries without a strong social security system. Another important threat is that those with chronic or acute nutritional deficiencies are more likely to be affected by this epidemic. The probability of spreading extreme poverty and hunger due to breakdowns in food supply chains, food shortages and sudden increases in prices and the slowdown or stagnation of the global economy are also perceived as important threats. COVID-19 is fatal for people suffering from chronic or acute hunger or malnutrition due to weak immunity. It is widely known that especially the elderly or those with chronic illnesses are those who suffer the most from COVID-19 infection. In addition to these, it is necessary to consider the weakened immune system caused by inadequate and unbalanced nutrition as an important factor. During and after the Ebola epidemic, many scientific sources state that there is a linear relationship between patient survival and good nutrition and strong immune systems. As a result of the restrictions announced by the increase in the number of cases and deaths worldwide, especially in European countries, in mid- March 2020, there have been interruptions in food supply chains, difficulties in accessing certain foods due to stocking and significant and sudden increases in food prices. Due to the consumers’ desire to make their breads at home, their access to basic food and food additives such as flour and yeast has been restricted and the prices of these products have increased significantly. At the beginning of the restrictions and curfews, the same situation was observed in pasta consumption. People have resorted to resolving their hesitations about accessing food by stocking up, and consumers have become difficult to access certain foods in some regions due to excessive food intake and storage. A similar situation occurred during the Ebola epidemic in 2014, leading to dramatic increases in prices of basic food in affected countries in West Africa [5]. Moreover, increases in food prices, export restrictions, speculation and panic behavior in the market were partly responsible for the dramatic and sudden increase in global food prices at that time. Millions of families in many...
Galina Ma, Rosa Isabel Higuera Piedrahita, Ortíz Rm, Pineda J, Hummel Jd, Puga Dc, Haenlein Gfw
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-9; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000611

Abstract:
Galina MA1*, Rosa Isabel Higuera Piedrahita1, Pineda J2, Puga DC3, Hummel JD2, Ortíz RM1 and Haenlein GFW4 1Facultad de EstudiosSuperioresCuautitlan, México 2Department of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, México 3Department ofNutrición, México 4Departament of Animal and Food Sciences, USA *Corresponding author: Galina MA, Facultad de EstudiosSuperioresCuautitlan, México. Submission: October 15, 2020;Published: November 03, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000611 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue3 An experiment was conducted to measure the effects of feeding Lactobacilli (LAB) with a slow intake urea supplement (SIUS) blended into a probiotic/prebiotic mixture, fed at pre partum and early postpartum, using 84 Jersey cows. Two integrated diets (ID), pre and postpartum, were fed to two groups of 42 cows: first, pre partum starting 21 d before calving as follows: 1) ID without supplement 2) ID with LAB/SIUS; Second, post calving cows (20 animals each) were fed a lactation diet (LD) T1 with LAB/ SIUS pre and postpartum, T2 LAB/SIUS only prepartum, T3 LAB/SIUS only postpartum and T4 without LAB/SIUS supplementation. LAB probiotic supplementation contained approximately 4x107 cfu of lactic acid bacteria composed of 4x106cfu of Lactobacillum plantarum; 10x106cfu of Lactobacilumdelbrueckii; 8x106cfu L. helveticus; 10x106cfu Lactococcus lactis; 10x106cfu Leuconostocmesenteroides; and 5x104cfu of Bifidus spp. mixed into a liquid 250g supplement/cow per d in both pre partum and post-partum periods. SIUS composition was: 17% corn, 17% molasses, 16% poultry litter, 14% rice polishing, 8% cottonseed meal, 5% lard, 4% fish meal, 4% salt, 4% urea, 3.2% calcium carbonate, 3% orthophosphate, 2.2% ammonium sulfate, 1.6% cement kiln dust and 1% mineral salt. DMI, milk yield, and milk protein content were higher for cows receiving the LAB/SIUS probiotics compared with the LAB/SIUS diet (P Keywords: Probiotics;Lactobacilli; Milk production;Cows;Supplementation;Blood parameters;Rumen parameters Probiotics and prebiotics have, recently, gained attention [1] for their role in controlling digestive infectious diseases and improving productive performance in cattle. Lactic acid bacteria are well known as probiotics and have been used as growth promoters, to prevent intestinal infections by pathogenic bacteria, decrease stress, and stimulate immune response [2]. A beneficial bacterium, such as Bifido-bacteria, Lactobacilli and some species of Enteroccocci, provide nutrients for the animal intestinal cells, promote absorption of nutrients, create a healthy intestinal environment, and promote a vigorous immune system [3]. Prebiotics have been defined as selective non-digestible carbohydrate food sources that promote the proliferation of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli [4]. It has been reported that symbiotics (combination of pre and probiotics), mixed into feed improve milk production in Holstein dairy cows, inhibit Salmonella contamination, and prevent diarrhea while increasing weight gain in calves [5]. Nutritionists now consider that the transition period, which is the time between the last 2-3 weeks of gestation (close-up dry period) and the first 2 weeks of lactation (early fresh period), are the key phases in the lactation cycle. During this period, cows go through a high demand of nutrients, a phase associated with important physiological, metabolic and dietary changes. This vulnerable period, which can be extended for a further 3 weeks until the peak of lactation, represents a turning point in the productive cycle of cows [6]. To improve milk yield and quality [7] offered LAB supplementation with a direct-fed combination of Lactobacillum plantarum and Enterococcus faecium beginning 21 d prepartum through d 70 of lactation, increasing DMI, milk production, and milk protein percentage through the first 21 d of lactation. This bacteria mixture was supplemented daily into the rumen to increased ruminal pH within the diurnal cycle. The results showed diminished lactate formation to sequester more lactate at specific times, when lactic acid concentrations undulated as a result of the diurnal feeding behavior. LAB supplementation increased DMI and milk production in early lactation. Blood metabolite information suggested this response was associated with more glucose being made available and fewer fatty acids being mobilized from lipid stores [7]. The rational for this response was that the supplemented direct-fed-microbials (DFM) were providing a constant level of lactic acid to the rumen microbiota. The tonic production of lactate might allow the fastidious lactate-utilizing microbes to sustain a metabolic active population [7]. Bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus (LAB) have been proven to be beneficial microorganisms of particular interest because of their long successful history in human health [8]. Lactobacilli were among the first organisms used by man for processing foodstuffs [9] and for preserving food by inhibiting invasion by some pathogen microorganism [10]. Supplementation with LAB probiotics as beneficial microorganisms could be an important alternative for feeding dairy ruminants [11]. Previously, the use, of LAB probiotics in ruminants demonstrated enhanced performance, used alone or with slow consumption nitrogenous supplements to improve rumen fermentation [11,12]. LAB probiotics resulted in accelerated growth when feeding different diets. Stimulation of lactic acid fermentation showed nutraceutical functions due to bacteriocin production that destroyed pathogenic bacteria, or methane-forming bacteria, coupled with improving the quality of the supplement for their fibrolytic capacity. Adding prebiotic ingredients, which cannot be digested by ruminants in the alimentary tract, such as oligosaccharides or dextran, stimulate growth of lactic acid bacteria [5,13]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LAB/ SIUS supplementation...
Sarkar S
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-9; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000610

Abstract:
Sarkar S* Department of Quality Assurance, Keventer Agro Limited Barrackpore-Barasat Link Road, Subashnagar, P.O. Neelgunj Bazar, Kolkata-700121, West Bengal, India. *Corresponding author: Sarkar S, Department of Quality Assurance, Keventer Agro Limited Barrackpore- Barasat Link Road, Subashnagar, P.O. Neelgunj Bazar, Kolkata-700121, West Bengal, India. Submission: May 16, 2020;Published: October 09, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000610 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue2 Health consciousness coupled with enhanced health care cost has led consumer’s inclination towards functional foods. Documented health benefits have projected probiotics as a new functional ingredient in the current era of self-care and complementary medicine. It has been established that the probiotic viability is necessary for the exhibition of health benefits but is lost during processing, storage and gastrointestinal transit. Probiotic viability can be retained with the adoption of spray drying encapsulation technique and better survival of the encapsulated probiotics than the free cells in the food matrix have been reported. Major challenges faced during the encapsulation of probiotic by spray drying are modulation of processing parameter, selection of probiotic strains and coating materials and stability during gastric transit. Proper selection of probiotic strains and cell wall materials, modulation of technological parameters of spray drying and storage conditions would yield spray dried encapsulated probiotics with greater viability. Spray dried encapsulated probiotics had higher viability than free cells and its supplementation may be a practical alternative for better retention of viability and functionality of probiotics during the formulation of functional foods. Keywords: Functional food; Health benefits; Microencapsulation; Probiotic; Spray drying encapsulation Globally, consumer’s inclination towards health promoting foods has led to development of functional foods due to health deterioration, busy lifestyles, low consumption of convenience foods and insufficient exercise, increased incidence of self-medication, increased awareness of the link between diet and health [1]. Although functional foods lack a standard definition [2], but the production and consumption of functional foods has increased due to their capabilities of providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition [1], meeting the needs of the aging population and to cope with the rising costs of health care [3]. Documented health benefits of probiotics [4] and their capability to colonize gut [5] have projected probiotics as a new functional ingredient. Functional foods containing probiotic bacteria are gaining popularity in the global market [6,7], especially in Japan, Europe and the United States [8]. It has been established that survival of probiotics in the harsh acidic conditions during gastric transit and reaching the large intestine in an adequate amount for colonization and proliferation are prerequisites for exhibiting health benefits [9]. Therefore, retention of probiotic viability in the food matrix during processing, subsequent storage as well as during gastric transit are key issues during formulation of functional foods. Microencapsulation is defined as “the technology of packaging of solid, liquid or gaseous materials miniaturized in capsules that can release their contents in a controlled manner and only under certain conditions”. Microencapsulation has emerged as an alternative technology for the protection of probiotic bacteria from adverse environments [10], resisting processing and packaging conditions, improving taste, aroma, stability, nutritional value and product appearance [11]. Furtherer, microencapsulation also allows controlled release of functional components at targeted sites and masks unpleasant taste and odour of the substances [12]. Desai et al. [13] reported the following reasons for adoption of microencapsulation process in the food industry: a) Protection of the core material from degradation by reducing its reactivity to its outside environment b) Reduction of the evaporation or transfer rate of the core material to the outside environment c) Modification of the physical characteristics of the original material to allow easier handling d) Tailoring the release of the core material slowly over time or at a particular time e) To mask an unwanted flavors or taste of the core material f) Dilution of the core material when only small amounts are required, while achieving uniform dispersion in the host material g) To help separate the components of the mixture that would otherwise react with one another. Microencapsulation of probiotics can be done by employing various encapsulation techniques, but spray drying is widely adopted by the food industries during the development of functional foods. In the present paper an attempt has been made to highlight potentiality of spray drying technique for probiotic encapsulation and their subsequent application for functional food formulation. Modulation of gut flora by probiotics Human intestine is sterile at birth and is subsequently seeded with microorganisms due to swallowing of colonized amniotic fluid [14] and from various sources such as environment, maternal vagina and faeces [15,16]. Early colonization and balance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria is of utmost importance for normal function, immunology and homeostasis in the healthy intestine and any disruption of this balance may lead to disease conditions [17] such as allergies, obesity and diabetes [18]. Beneficial microbes capable of colonizing the gut regulate overall health of humans by restructuring the gut microbial balance [19]. Diversity in microflora of gastrointestinal tract of humans during different stages of life have been noted (Table 1) and modulation of the gut flora with suitable probiotic formulations may be a practical solution for maintaining good health. Table...
Elis Penteado Arantes, Giuliana Vieira Pretti, Soo Yang Lee, Fabiana Penedo Leme
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000609

Abstract:
Elis Penteado Arantes1*, Giuliana Vieira Pretti1, Soo Yang Lee2 and Fabiana Penedo Leme2 1Department of Medicine, Brasil 2Department of Neurology, Brasil *Corresponding author: Elis Penteado Arantes, Department of Medicine, Brasil Submission: September 11, 2020;Published: October 09, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000609 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue2 Since it was first described in 1928 by neurologist Melkersson [1], and complemented in 1931 by Rosenthal C [2], the Melkersson [1] and Rosenthal [2] Syndrome (SMR) has been shown to be a rare disorder and still in need of specific treatment [3,4]. We describe the case of a young patient, who at 23 years old had the first episode of peripheral facial paralysis on the right. At the time, it was conducted in a protocol manner, with prednisone, paracetamol and eye care, as well as pertinent physiotherapy. There was an improvement in facial asymmetry, when in 2006 she presented a new peripheral facial paralysis, this time on the left, which was conducted in a similar way. Then, she presented 2 more episodes of facial paralysis in the interval of 3 years, already with aesthetic sequelae. In 2009, in the 5th episode of paralysis, she associated facial edema and cheilitis, when biopsy of the upper eyelid was requested, which was unspecific. In 2012, after the 8th facial paralysis, she underwent a new biopsy, in which an inflammatory infiltrate was demonstrated, consistent with clinical suspicion of SMR. Imaging exams (skull resonance and angioresonance), face electroneuromyography - for prognosis, and CSF study, without abnormalities, were performed. That year she began to experience involuntary and rhythmic contractions of the orbicularis musculature of the eyes and mouth on the right, in addition to risory and platysma, featuring facial hemispasm, treated every 4 to 6 months with 100 IU Onabotulinum. Throughout the treatment period, alternating use of 10mg prednisone with deflazacort 6mg, and in 2019, due to persistent headache, she underwent a new resonance with arterial and venous cranial angioresonance, which brought elements suggestive of Intracranial Hypertension (IH). Currently, the patient is undergoing surgical programming for facial nerve decompression bilaterally and undergoing treatment for IH. Keywords: Facial hemispasm; Cheilitis; Intracranial hypertension; Facial edema; Facial paralysis Facial paralysis and edema were first described by Melkersson [1]. Three years later, Rosenthal associated these symptoms with a cleft tongue [2]. his triad was called Melkersson- Rosenthal syndrome by Lüscher [5]. However, some authors argue that the complete syndrome is rare, being the most common monosymptomatic or sequential presentation [6]. The Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome has an estimated incidence of 0.08% and an unknown etiology [7]. According to Ang et al. [8], there is a slight predilection for the female sex, usually around the second decade of life [8], there is no racial predilection [9] and there are no reports that associate S.M.R with malignant transformation [10]. The syndrome has a classic triad, consisting of recurrent or persistent orofacial edema, recurrent facial paralysis and plicate or scrotal tongue, which occurs very rarely [11]. Frequently, SMR manifests itself in its oligosymptomatic (combination of 2 signs) or monosymptomatic forms, such as Miescher’s granulomatous macroqueilitis, which can be a diagnostic difficulty [9,11]. The first manifestation is, predominantly, acute diffuse edema involving the upper lip (75- 100%), and less the lower lip, which completely regresses in hours or days [11]. O Edema develops through outbreaks, sometimes unilateral, for days or weeks, at irregular intervals, with an increase in volume that can reach two to three times the normal size until a permanent infiltration is established [11]. The involvement of the intraoral mucosa may also appear, namely edema of the gums, palate, oral, sublingual mucosa, tongue and even pharynx and larynx [8,11]. Peripheral facial paralysis occurs as an initial manifestation in 30 to 50% of patients with SMR. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from Bell’s Palsy [12], usually having a sudden onset or, rarely, gradually over 24 to 48 hours, with complete resolution after a few weeks [11]. Although at first it is intermittent, it can become persistent [11]. Facial paralysis often develops after granulomatous cheilitis, but there are reports of cases in which it precedes it for several months or years or occurs simultaneously [11]. In most cases it is unilateral, corresponding (although not always) alongside orofacial infiltration and, rarely, it is bilateral, it can be partial or complete [11]. The diffusely fissured tongue (plicated or scrotal tongue) is described in 20 to 60% of patients with SMR and may be associated with a burning sensation, edema, loss of taste and decreased salivary secretion [11]. Some signs and symptoms are defined as minor criteria that are also part of the Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome [13]. The involvement of other cranial pairs, migraine and dysfunctions of the salivary and lacrimal glands and pupillary motricity constitute these minor criteria, in addition to the presence of hyperhidrosis, hyperacusis, acroparesthesia, epiphora, hypergeusia and multiple ophthalmological findings such as lagophthalmos, keratitis by exposure, blepharocalasia, retrobulbar neuritis, anomaly of the retinal veins and paralysis of the medial rectus muscle. The histopathology of cutaneous or mucous biopsies in patients with SMR may show, in an initial phase, only a nonspecific lympho-plasmacytic and histiocytic infiltrate, predominantly perivascular, which may represent the primordial stage of granuloma formation [11]. However, even in complete forms, this granulomatous infiltrate is not observed in more than half of the cases and its absence should not exclude the diagnosis of SMR [11]. The involvement of unusual locations in the...
Pinar Sengul
Novel Techniques in Nutrition & Food Science, Volume 5, pp 1-3; doi:10.31031/ntnf.2020.05.000608

Abstract:
Pinar Sengul* Department of Psychology, UK *Corresponding author: Pinar Sengul, Department of Psychology, UK Submission: August 19, 2020;Published: September 24, 2020 DOI: 10.31031/NTNF.2020.05.000608 ISSN:2640-9208Volume5 Issue2 Nutrition influences a wide range of physiological and cognitive mechanisms. Vegan (Plant-Based) diet is known to be associated with a healthy cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system. Studies on the Mediterranean diet have shown that diets high in fruits and vegetables are linked with better cognitive performance and lower rates of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease. The present study assessed verbal memory and sleep quality in a cohort of sixty-two adults aged 40 and above. Participants were split into strictly defined diet categories: vegan, vegetarian, pescatarian, omnivores with low meat/fish consumption and omnivores with high meat/fish consumption, using a modified Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener questionnaire. Verbal learning memory was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test, and sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Diet was found to have a significant effect on memory but no significant effect on sleep quality. The sample size, diluted by the five diet categories, may have been insufficient to capture the effects on sleep. Further research is needed to elucidate the protective role of plant-based diets on cognitive functions and sleep quality. Unlike main-stream knowledge in the relationship between memory and eating animal-based food, this research has debunked that hypothesis by showing that there are no significant relationship be-tween consuming animal products and having a better memory. Further research can even support a hypothesis that suggests that more plant-based eating habits would strengthen memory if gender is controlled with a larger sample size. Previous studies have indicated that the modern Western diet (high in animal fat and animal protein) is associated with raised incidences of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and cancer as well as mood and neurological disorders [1-5]. Evidence also exists of a correlation between macronutrient intake and the quality of sleep [6], and that reductions in sleep quality are related to lower cognitive functioning [7]. Another study [8] suggests that a vegan diet is associated with improvements in mood and neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Studies on the effects of a Mediterranean diet [9] indicate that it is associated with improved mood and cognitive processing speeds. There are, however, a number of conflicting findings and the levels of statistical significance of some of the results referred to above are low due to small participant numbers, short study periods and diverse nutritional patterns [10,11]. The possible implications of the effects of diet on the physical, mental and emotional health of the general population makes a controlled study of the effect of specific classified diets on defined sleep quality measures and on objectively measured memory performance highly relevant. For the present pilot study, the independent variable is diet over the last five years in five classifications: vegan, vegetarian, pescatarian, omnivore-low and omnivore-high, as established by the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener, (MEDAS) questionnaire. The two de-pendent variables are sleep quality, self-reported on the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, (PSQI), and memory performance measured by the California Verbal Learning Test, 3rd Edition, (CVLT-3). Measures The primary measures used in the study were the California Verbal learning Test-3rd Edition, the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. CVLT-3 The CVLT-3, standard form, was used to measure memory performance. Participants were given word lists to memorize and recall was tested after a timed delay. Raw scores were standardized for age. For the current study the key outcome measure was total recall. MEDAS The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener consists of 14 questions on food and drink consumption. For the present study an amended scoring system was used to categorize individuals to one of the five specified dietary groups. PSQI The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Questionnaire assesses sleep quality and disturbances over the previous month. It contains a list of 19 questions giving scores for sleep quality, latency, duration and efficiency and also disturbances, use of medications and dysfunctions during day-time activities. Procedure Once informed consent had been given by the participant and they have been given instructions to be focused as much as possible, the experimenter started the questionnaire booklet. This consisted of the CVLT test followed by the MEDAS and PSQI questionnaires. The delayed components of the CVLT were completed after the questionnaires. The entire procedure took between 40 and 60 minutes to complete. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Birkbeck, University of London. Statistical analysis Analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Version 25. The main hypothesis concerning the effect of diet on memory was assessed using ANCOVA with dietary group as the independent variable and the memory score as the dependent variable with sleep quality as the covariate. All participants were adults aged between 40 and 77 years of age. All were fluent English speakers, with English as their first or second language. There were 62 participants, 33 male and 29 females. Using the diet questionnaire, each participant was placed in one of the five dietary categories as shown in Table 1. Table 1: Number of participants by diet group. Table 2 shows the mean memory score for each diet group and the overall mean. Figure 1 shows the differences between the individual group scores and the overall mean. The statistical analysis confirmed that there was a...
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