International Journal of Environment and Climate Change
ISSN / EISSN : 2581-8627 / 2581-8627
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 379
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 19 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 7-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030487
Aim: To identify the proper variety and suitable date of planting of potato for North Central Plateau Zone (NCPZ) of Odisha. Study Design: The experiment was laid in a Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was carried out at Field Experimental Block, Regional research and Technology Transfer Station (RRTTS), Keonjhar, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha. The investigation was conducted during rabi-2015-16 and rabi-2016-17. Methodology: There were four high yielding potato genotypes used as sub-factor for the study such as V1: Kufri Jyoti, V2: Kufri Surya, V3: Kufri Ashoka and V4: Kufri Pukhraj. The materials were planted in three different dates (D1: 15th November, D2: 25th November and D3: 5th December) as main-factor to identify the superior variety with suitable dates of planting. Results: The results of pooled analysis of variance (ANOVA) shown that the genotypes had significant differences for the dates of planting on yield. Higher tuber yield was recorded in the variety Kufri Pukhraj in both rabi-2015-16 (28.37 t ha-1) and rabi-2016-17 (35.53 t ha-1) along with higher mean yield (31.95 t ha-1). All the varieties have higher yield when planted on D1 (15th November) as compared to the other two date of planting. Conclusion: The varietal and environmental variations as well as their interaction had a considerable influence on yield and its attributes. In this investigation, Kufri Pukhraj was identified as higher yielder and 15th November was found best suitable planting date for north central plateau zone of Odisha, as this date given higher yield as compared to the other two dated of plating. Therefore, if a specific window of date of planting can be ascertained to the farmers of this region then it would help to cultivate potato exactly when the climatic conditions are favorable for its growth and ultimately to get a high crop yield.
Published: 18 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 117-128; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930485
In this study, eight unbiased plotting position formulae recommended for Pearson Type 3 distribution were evaluated by comparing the simulated series of each formula with the annual maximum series (AMS) of River Niger at Baro, Koroussa and Shintaku hydrological stations, each having data length of 51years, 53 years and 58 years respectively. The parameters of Pearson Type 3 distribution were computed by the method of moments with corrections for skewness. While the fitting of Pearson Type 3 distribution proceeds with the development of flood – return period (Q-T) relationship, followed by application of the derived Q- T relation to compute simulated discharges for comparison with AMS of the study stations. The plotting position formulae were evaluated on the basis of optimum values of the statistically goodness-of-fit of probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC), relative root mean square error (RRMSE), percent bias (PBIAS), mean absolute error (MAE) and Nash-sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), across the stations. The plotting position formulae were ranked on scale of 1 to 8. Thus a plotting formula that best simulates the empirical observations using the goodness-of-measures was scored “1” and so on. The individual scores per plotting position were summed across the gof tests to obtain the total score. The study show that Chegodayev is the best plotting position formula for Baro, Weibull is the best plotting position Formula for Kourassou and Shintaku hydrological stations. The overall performances of the eight plotting position formulae across the hydrological stations show that weibull distribution is the overall best having scored 27, seconded by Chegodayev with 30 and thirdly, Beard with 38. The Pearson Type 3 distribution had been found one of the best probability distribution model of flood flow in Nigeria and this study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of the distribution. Finally, this study recommends extension of the studies to Log-Pearson Type 3 distribution.
Published: 18 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i1030486
Background: An experiment on “Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth, Yield Attributes and Economics of Spiny Brinjal (Solanum melongina L.) var. VRM (Br)-1” were conducted at Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College farm, Vellore District, Tamil Nadu. Methods: Eleven treatments of integrated nutrient management viz., T1-RDF of N:P:K (100:50:30 kg/ha.), T2– FYM (25 t/ ha.), T3- Humic acid (20 kg/ha.), T4- RDF of N:P:K (100:50:30 kg/ha.) +FYM @25 t/ ha, T5- Humic acid (20 kg/ha.) + RDF of N:P:K (100:50:30 kg/ha.), T6- Azospirillum (2 kg/ha.), T7- Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha.), T8- Azospirillum (2 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha.), T9 – 75% RDF of N (75 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of P&K (50:30 kg/ha.) + Azospirillum (2 kg/ha.), T10 - 75% RDF of P (37.5 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of N&K (100:30 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha.) and T11 - 75% RDF of N & P (75:37.5 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of K (30 kg/ha.) + Azospirillum (2 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (kg/ha.) replicated thrice in Randomised block design. Results: The various treatments of integrated nutrient managementin spiny brinjalclearly showed that growth and yield attributes were high in T11.The economic assessment of different treatments revealed that maximum net profit Rs.2,16,570/ha.with benefit cost ratio (2.60) was also recorded in treatment T11 75% RDF of N & P (75:37.5 kg/ha.) + 100% RDF of K (30 kg/ha.) + Azospirillum(2 kg/ha.) + Phosphobacteria (kg/ha.).
Published: 16 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 107-116; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930484
The present investigation was conducted to study the spectrum of mycoflora associated with phylloplane and rhizosphere of Aloe vera and to assess their effect on plant growth parameters and antagonistic activity against the C. gloeosporioides causing black spot disease in Aloe vera. During the study total 15 mycoflora belonging to ten genera were isolated from Aloe vera plant by leaf washing technique from phylloplane and serial dilution from rhizosphere soil. Among these, fungal species belonging to the genera of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Penicillium was found to be more abundant. In course of study some of mycoflora associated with phylloplane and rhizosphere of Aloe vera were found to exert plant growth promoting effect and also exhibited strong antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
Published: 16 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 98-106; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930483
Aim: The experiment is aimed to identify ideal sowing date and nitrogen level in browntop millet during rainy season on alfisols of Telangana. Study Design: Randomized Block Design with factorial concept and replicated thrice. Place and Duration of Study: College Farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India during rainy season, 2019. Methodology: Browntop millet variety VZM-1 was tested under four dates of sowing viz., D1- June 15th, D2- June 30th, D3-July 15th and D4 - 30th July and four N levels viz; N1- 0 kg ha-1 N2 - 20 kg ha-1, N1- 40 kg ha-1 and N4-60 kg ha-1. The growth parameters, yield attributes, yield, nitrogen uptake at different crop growth stages and monetary returns were studied. Results: The results indicated that plant height, tillers hill-1, leaf area, dry matter accumulation at all crop intervals and yield attributes viz; effective tillers, panicle length, panicle weight, number of grains, grain, straw yield, N uptake at different crop stages and monetary returns were highest with sowing on D1- June 15th.Among the N levels tested, crop fertilized with 40 kg N ha-1 registered higher plant height, tillers hill-1, leaf area, dry matter accumulation at all crop intervals, yield attributes viz; effective tillers, panicle length, panicle weight, number of grains, grain, straw yield N uptake at different crop stages and monetary returns. Conclusion: On alfisols of Telangana during rainy season, sowing of browntop millet on June 15th fertilized with 40 kg N ha-1 helps to realize higher yield and monetary returns.
Published: 16 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 92-97; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930482
The present study was conducted at Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh with the objectives to find out the relationship between the turmeric farmers’ profile and their marketing behaviour. Ex post facto research design was used for the study. Two mandals of Kadapa district namely Mydukur and Duvvur were purposively selected based on the highest area under turmeric cultivation and data was collected from a randomly drawn sample of 90 respondents by a structured questionnaire administered personally as per schedules. The correlation results of the study revealed that the independent variables viz., age, farming experience, education, material possession, extension contact, training received, achievement motivation and social interaction had positive and statistically significant relationship with the marketing behaviour of the turmeric farmers. Whereas, area under turmeric cultivation and economic status had non-significant relationship with the marketing behaviour of the turmeric farmers. Multiple Linear Regression analysis revealed that all the selected 10 independent variables put together explained about 79.10 per cent variation in the marketing behaviour of turmeric farmers. The analysis of turmeric farmers’ profile indicated that majority of them were middle aged, with less than 2.5 acres of area under turmeric cultivation with medium farming experience, high school level of education, medium economic status, extension contact, training received, achievement motivation and social interaction and they also had medium level of marketing behaviour due to medium levels of planning orientation, production orientation, marketing orientation, market information sources utilization, decision making ability, risk taking ability and innovativeness.
Published: 15 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 81-91; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930481
The present investigation was carried out including 10 parents and their 45 half diallel crosses with the objective to study the relationship between heterosis and diverse genotype. The Mahalonobis D2values resulted in grouping of 10 parents into 3 clusters. Cluster I was comprised of four genotypes, cluster II comprised of five genotypes while, cluster III was found monogenotypic. Cluster II and Cluster III had maximum mean values for 4 traits. Highest intercluster distance was also observed in these 2 cluster followed by cluster I and III . Maximum intra cluster distance was observed in cluster II followed by cluster I. The highest contribution in the manifestation of total genetic divergence was exhibited by grain iron content followed by grain zinc content. The relationship between parental diversity and heterosis indicated that majority of crosses belong to moderate divergence class. The cross P4×P5 exhibiting better parent heterosis for maximum traits also exhibited at par mean performance for 5 traits including grain yield per plant over the better parent. For grain zinc content, two crosses from high and low while, nine crosses from moderate divergence classes reported positive significant heterosis and SCA effects. For grain iron content, 1 cross with high, 2 crosses with moderate while four crosses with low divergence classes reported significantly positive heterosis and SCA effects.
Published: 13 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 74-80; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930480
Aims: Screening of pearl millet genotypes lines for high temperature and drought tolerance. Study Design: Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: ICAR-AICRP on Pearl Millet, Mandor during summer 2017-18. Methodology: Fifteen genotypes (J-2290, J-2340, J-2479, J-2500, J-2503, J-2507, J-2517, J-2534, JMSB-9904, JMSB-101, JMSB-20064, JMSB-20102, JMSB-20071, JMSB-20082 and JMSB-20091) of pearl millet received from Main Pearl millet Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Jamnagar were evaluated during summer season of 2017-18 at research Farm of ACIRP on pearl millet, Mandor, Agricultural University, Jodhpur under terminal moisture stress and irrigated conditions in two sets of randomized block design with three replications. Grain yield, stover yield, Relative Water Content (RWC), harvest index, threshing percentage and chlorophyll content were recorded. Results: The suitability of the genotypes was judged in terms of grain yield, stover yield, RWC, harvest index, threshing percentage and chlorophyll content. The results showed that due to the terminal stress, the mean performance of all yield attributing characters including grain yield and chlorophyll, RWC and seed setting was reduced. The inbreds J-2479, J-2503 and J-2507 were high yielders due to high seed setting percentage under terminal stress conditions. Conclusion: The lines viz., J-2479, J-2503 and J-2507 can be used for further breeding programme to develop varieties suitable under high temperature and low moisture conditions.
Published: 13 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 67-73; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930479
Aims: Here in this experiment, the investigation was done for the relationship among the various soil health parameters i.e., soil organic carbon (SOC), soil texture, and wet aggregate stability (WAS). Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Collection of soil samples were done from 0-15 cm depth from East Champaran is situated in Bihar and is located at 26038’N and 84054’E in the year 2019-2020. Methodology: Soil texture: 14g (+/- 0.1g) of sieved soil was added to a 50 ml centrifuge tube holding 42 ml of a dispersant 3% sodium hexametaphosphate solution follwed by 2 hr shaking and 0.053 mm sieved. Water stable aggregates: Each 0.25-mm sieve contained 4g of air-dried, 2-mm aggregate soil. Each sample's precise weight was recorded. The soil samples were dispersed for 3 minutes with 100 mL distilled water and then for 10 minutes with a 2 g/L sodium hexametaphosphate solution. Pre-weighed filter sheets were used to filter both solutions. Each filter paper was weighed after being oven-dried at 105°C. Soil organic carbon: The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) was calculated using the Walkley and Black technique (1934). Results: Wet aggregate stability and soil organic carbon storage were shown to have a strong positive connection. Soil carbon stock in soils of East Champaran varied between 5.27-19.60 Mg ha-1 with an average of 12.98 Mg ha-1. WAS ranged from 3.82 to 36.43% with a mean of 16.11%. The results revealed that WAS increased with increase in SOC stock. This experiment also revealed that clay (%) and silt (%) directly affect WAS and hence enhance SOC storage. Conclusion: So, it can be concluded that WAS and soil texture directly and positively impact SOC storage in soils of East Champaran, Bihar.
Published: 11 October 2021
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 60-66; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2021/v11i930478
Agriculture is the basis of our economic activity. For improving agricultural production greenhouse technology was developed to prevent adverse climatic conditions. Even though higher yield and profit were obtained from greenhouse production compared to open field cultivation farmers were not satisfied with this technique due to the drastic reduction of crop yield with the aging of cladding material. To test this, an experiment was conducted in the instructional farm of Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (KCAET), Tavanur, Kerala during the period from April to June 2021. Amaranthus variety CO1 was planted inside two greenhouses where one is having cleaned cladding material and the other is an old one. Microclimatic parameters and the biometric observations of crop in both conditions were compared. Mean monthly values of temperature and light intensity were higher inside the cleaned greenhouse than the old one while relative humidity was higher inside the old greenhouse. Crop growth parameters were higher inside the cleaned greenhouse than the old one except the internodal length. From this study, it was clear that the aging of cladding material has a significantly higher influence on crop performance under greenhouse.