International Journal of Environment and Climate Change

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2581-8627 / 2581-8627
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 673
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, Amit Dadheech, Heera Lal Barupal
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 438-448; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030817

Abstract:
Crop production is the function of genotype, environment and their interaction (GEI) and evaluation of genotypes in multi environments helps to identify their adaptation and stability. The 45 hybrids along with their 18 parents and two check cultivars were evaluated in three environments viz., E1 (Kharif-2019, Instructional Farm, RCA, Udaipur), E2 (Kharif -2019, Agriculture Research Sub-Station, Vallabhnagar, Udaipur) and E3 (Rabi-2019-2020, Instructional Farm, RCA, Udaipur) in randomized block design with three replications at each environment to assess the phenotypic stability of genotypes by using Eberhart and Russel (1968). The mean squares due to genotypes and environments were found significant for all the traits under study indicated inherent genetic differences among the genotypes. The G x E (linear) interaction was found significant for most of the traits under study The mean squares due to pooled deviation were found non-significant for all the traits indicated major portion of the genotype x environment interaction was formed by predictable portion. The majority of the hybrids depicted non-significant deviations from regression (S2di) for grain yield per plant indicated their predictable response across the environments. A great majority of genotypes revealed non-significant non-linear estimates (S2di) for different traits under the study indicated the prediction of stability was more or less accurate and reliable. The top three hybrids suitable for all environments (bi1) were EI-2653 x EI-102, EI-2639 x EI-670 and EI-2505 x EI-102 with non-significant S2di values. The hybrids EI-2176-3 x EI-03 (bi1) and EI-2159 x EI-670 (bi>1) out yielded the best check cultivar CC-1. Thus, these hybrids may be used in future breeding programmes of maize after further multi location yield testing.
, Amit Dadheech, Heera Lal Barupal, Amit Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Yadav
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 432-437; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030816

Abstract:
The environment highly influences a complex trait such as grain yield and indirect selection through component traits would be an advisable strategy to increase the selection efficiency. The 45 F1s and their 18 parents and 2 checks were evaluated in three environments viz., E1, E2 and E3 in RBD design with three replications to assess the correlation among the yield components and direct and indirect effects of yield components on grain yield. The association analysis among the eleven traits revealed that the traits days to 50 per cent silking, plant height, ear height, ear length, ear girth, grain rows per ear, 100-grain weight and harvest index had showed positive and significant correlation with grain yield per plant. The perusal of the path coefficient analysis revealed that the maximum direct positive effect was depicted by the harvest index followed by the traits ear height, grain rows per ear, days to 50 per cent silking, 100-grain weight, days to 75 per cent brown husk, ear girth and plant height.
, B. Savitha, M. Sreenivasulu, G. E. Ch. Vidyasagar
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 405-412; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030812

Abstract:
Agriculture wastes are the residuals from the growing agriculture crops horticulture and livestock. This paper focused on study on level of awareness of the respondents about agri waste management practices and its relationship with the profile of the farmers.. The Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. Thus a total of 120 respondents were selected by following simple random sampling method covering Medak district of Telangana state. From the analysis,it was found that majority of the farmers (55.00%) had high level of awareness, followed by medium (27.50%), and low (17.50%) level of awareness about agri waste management practices. From the analysis, it was found that infrastructure facilities and achievement motivation had positive and significant relationship with awareness at one percent level of significance. The variables age, education, farm size, farming experience, cropping pattern, innovativeness, information seeking behavior and training undergone had positive and significant relationship with awareness at five per cent level of significance. However cropping intensity and level of aspiration had positive and non-significant relationship with level of awareness about agri waste management practices. Government should provide subsidy on the purchase of machinery, special programmes need be to taken to improve awareness about agri waste management and encourage custom hiring centers to reach high cost technologies to the farners. Agri waste based communities need to be developed at ground level for the adoption and dissemination of agri waste management practices.
, V. Geethalakshmi, S. P. Ramanathan, A. Senthil, Balajikannan
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 419-424; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030814

Abstract:
In the world of rapid change in climate, irregular rainfall pattern tends to pose serious impact on water availability for agriculture. Rice is one of the important food crops to get affected by the low water availability because of its high water requirement. Various techniques were used in the past to mitigate low water availability and increase productivity but most techniques will improve one aspect at the expense of the other. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being tried by many countries with several modifications based on their priorities, with the aim of enhancing productivity besides reducing the water demand for rice cultivation. It is essential to have more insight into the individual and compounding effect of multiple components of SRI on yield, and water productivity of rice for identifying the potential and suitable SRI practices. Investigating the influence of different practices of SRI viz., planting of young and single seedlings per hill in wider spacing, water saving irrigation like Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD), and weed control using cono-weeders on rice using the data obtained from the field experiment carried out during 2021 in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. Water productivity of rice plants under SRI were compared with conventional practices. The results revealed that plants grown with complete SRI practices had increased water productivity by 0.25 kg grain/m3 of water which is almost twice that of conventional cultivation system. The yield obtained in SRI treatments was higher about 39% than conventional treatments. The total water savings were 20 % higher in AWD treatments than continuous flooding treatments.
, C. Umesha, Shahazad Ahmed Khan
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 425-431; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030815

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2021, at crop research farm of Department of Agronomy at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj in North Eastern plains of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. The objective of the research study was to determine the effect of Bio fertilizer and Organic manure on growth and yield of Pearl millet under Randomized block design comprising of 9 treatments of which treatments with different combination of Rhizobium and VAM along with Organic manure like FYM and Vermicompost which were replicated thrice. The experimental results revealed that plant height (201.20 cm) and plant dry weight (50.05 g) were recorded significantly (P<0.05) highest in treatment Rhizobium @ 5 g/kg + VAM @ 5g/kg + FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Vermicompost @ 2.5 t/ha. The highest number of ears/hill (2.43), number of grains/ear head (2157.33), grain yield (1973.00 Kg/ha), straw yield (3920 kg/ha) and harvest index (41.32%) were recorded with treatment Rhizobium @ 5 g/kg + VAM @ 5g/kg + FYM @ 2.5 t/ha + Vermicompost @ 2.5 t/ha.
, Shikha Singh, Manjula, Mode Girish Kumar, Peruru Sasidhar
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 364-370; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030809

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2021 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.1), low in organic carbon (0.36 %), available N (171.48 kg/ha), available P (15.2 kg/ha) and available K (232.5 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments each replicated thrice on the basis of one year experimentation. The treatments which are T1: FYM @ 10 t/ha + 20 x 10 cm, T2: FYM @ 10 t/ha + 30 x 10 cm, T3: FYM @ 10 t/ha + 40 x 10 cm, T4: Poultry Manure @ 4 t/ha + 20 x 10 cm, T5: Poultry Manure @ 4 t/ha + 30 x 10 cm, T6: Poultry Manure @ 4 t/ha + 40 x 10 cm, T7: Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + 20 x 10 cm, T8Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + 30 x 10 cm, T9: Vermicompost @ 5 t/ha + 40 x 10 cm. The results showed that application of Poultry Manure @ 4 t/ha + 30 x 10 cm recorded significantly higher plant height (134.04 cm), No. of Branches/plant (9.77), Plant dry weight (21.16 g/plant), Crop growth rate (5.16 g/m2/day), Siliqae/plant (174.74), Seeds/siliquae (33.19), Test weight (3.22 g), Seed yield (1749.38 kg/ha), Stover yield (3209.05 kg/ha), gross returns (Rs.96215.90/ha), net return (Rs.65210.90/ha) and benefit cost ratio (2.10) as compared to other treatments.
, C. Umesha, Kaifee, Piyush Pushkar
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 359-363; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030807

Abstract:
A field experiment took place on Crop Research Farm at Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P) India during the Kharif season of 2021. The Soil of the experimental plot was sandy loam, having a nearly neutral soil reaction (pH 6.9), electrical conductivity 0.29 ds/m, available nitrogen (278.93 kg/ha), available phosphorous (10.8 kg/ha), and available potassium (206.4 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) which consisted of nine treatment and replicated thrice viz., T1: Neem Coated Urea 80 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 0.5 g/l, T2: Neem Coated Urea 80 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.0 g/l, T3: Neem Coated Urea 80 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.5 g/l, T4: Neem Coated Urea 100 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 0.5 g/l, T5: Neem Coated Urea 100 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.0 g/l, T6: Neem Coated Urea 100 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.5 g/l, T7: Neem Coated Urea 120 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 0.5 g/l, T8: Neem Coated Urea 120 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.0 g/l and T9: Neem Coated Urea 120 kg/ha + Nano Zinc 1.5 g/l. The result of the experiment showed that growth parameters viz., plant height (88.41 cm), number of tillers/hill (14.78) and plant dry weight (85.81 g) were significantly increased when the increase in the levels of Neem coated urea + Nano zinc and maximum was obtained with the application of Neem coated urea 120 kg/ha + Nano zinc 1.5 g/l (T9) and yield attributes viz., number of effective tillers/m2 (311.29), number of grains/panicle (97.35), grain yield (5.48 t/ha) and straw yield (11.45 t/ha) were also recorded maximum in treatment Neem coated urea 120kg/ha + Nano zinc 1.5 g/l (T9).
Nayanmoni Borah, Ramendra Nath Sarma, Vedant Vikrom Borah,
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 338-347; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030805

Abstract:
Many natively adapted, aromatic, and high-quality rice landraces can be found in NE India. Among the different classes of cultivated rice varieties, Assam has a distinctive scented rice variety known locally as 'joha,' which is particularly popular among the region's farmers. The aroma of joha rice is also thought to differ markedly from that of basmati rice. Genotype stability can be established through genetic variation. Thus, new disease resistant joha rice varieties are necessary to meet both domestic and worldwide demand. There is a need for conservation of this traditional aromatic joha rice germplasm which could be used in the future breeding programme for multiple disease resistance and grain and aroma quality traits improvement. The recent advancements in marker and genomics assisted breeding coupled with high-throughput genotyping and phenotyping enable the discovery of novel alleles and gene targets for the implementation of sustainable rice cultivars with improved grain aroma quality.
, Ram Kumar Chaudhary, Mahesh Kumar
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 348-358; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030806

Abstract:
Mango is one of India's most important commercially grown fruit crops with the greatest collection of varieties. Genotypes do not show the same response in all locations due to their interactions with the surrounding environment. Such interactions limit the breeding progress during the selection of superior genotypes. Multi-location trials are being carried out to study the behavior of genotypes in different environments. Genotype environment interaction is a major problem in selecting and recommending superior genotypes to cultivate crops. When we are dealing with perennial crops like Mango, this problem gets intensified because choosing unstable cultivars to plant in an orchard puts the farmers in a risky income situation for many years. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to identify the high-yielding and stable genotypes of Mango by using AMMI stability measures. Data on sixteen genotypes of Mango tested across four locations viz., Rewa, Sabour, Sangareddy, and Vengurla in India over nine years is considered for the study. The present study concludes that the AMMI stability measures SIPC, AVAMGE, ASTAB, DA, MASV, MASI, ZA, ASV, and ASI are based on the biological concept of stability, and the stability measures DZ and EV are based on the agronomic concept of stability. Selection of mango genotypes based on the agronomic concept of stability will be recommended in favorable environments, while selection based on biological stability will be advised in unfavorable environments.
, Ali Baba, R. Vijaya Kumari
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change pp 332-337; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i1030804

Abstract:
Aim: The present study aims to analyse the marketing pattern of okra in Siddipet district of Telangana state. Study Design: Only primary data was used for carrying out the study and it pertained to the kharif season of the agricultural year 2019-20. 3 mandals were purposively selected from Siddipet district and from each mandal 2 villages were selected, thus making a total of 6 villages. From each village, 9 okra growers were randomly chosen to collect the primary data through personal interview. In addition, a sample of 7 wholesalers, 7 commission agents, 13 retailers were also chosen randomly for obtaining the data required for carrying out the present study. Methodology: Marketing costs, margins, producer’s net price, producer’s share in consumer’s rupee, price spread and marketing efficiency were computed to analyze the data. Results: Three channels were found for the marketing of the produce viz., Channel 1 (Producer – Consumer), Channel 2 (Producer – Retailer – Consumer) and Channel 3 (Producer – Commission agent – Wholesaler – Retailer – Consumer). Among the various identified channels, Channel 1 was found to be the efficient one with the highest marketing efficiency index of 21.22 followed by channel 2 and channel 3 with indices of 3.18 and 1.08 respectively. Conclusion: Reduction in the number of market intermediaries between producer and consumer could improve the efficiency of marketing of okra.
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