APOS Trends in Orthodontics
ISSN / EISSN : 2321-4600 / 2321-1407
Published by: Scientific Scholar (10.25259)
Total articles ≅ 304
Latest articles in this journal
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 218-222; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_15_2021
Objectives: The aim of this qualitative study was to examine orthodontic patients’ thoughts and experiences about the invisible orthodontic treatment options – lingual braces and Invisalign – through the analysis of Twitter posts’ content. Materials and Methods: A software program was written for the data collection. The program consecutively collected the tweets posted over an 8-month period from Twitter’s publicly accessible database. Tweets that were written in the English language and contained any of the four keywords “Invisalign,” “lingualorthodontics,” “lingualbraces,” and “invisiblebraces” were collected. The tweets that included irrelevant or incoherent posts, professional advertisements, unclear/not applicable content, and reposts were excluded from the study. Two authors, with different experiences, independently read, and analyzed the tweets. Each applicable tweet was classified into one of the three categories: Positive, negative, and neutral for two study groups (Invisalign and lingual braces). Pearson Chi-square test was used to analyze the negative and positive tweet rates of the groups. Results: 1176 of 2407 tweets were selected as applicable and analyzed by the authors. There was a statistically significant very good agreement between the two observers (Kappa = 0.933, P < 0.001). The negative comment rate (39%) and neutral comment rate (31.1%) in the lingual group were statistically higher than the Invisalign group (27.2% and 21.7%, respectively; P < 0.001). The positive comment rate in the Invisalign group was significantly higher (51.1%) compared to the lingual group (29.9%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Orthodontic patients use social media to share their experiences and feelings about their treatment process. The applicable Tweet number and the positive Tweet rate in the Invisalign group were higher than the lingual braces group.
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 209-217; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_46_2021
Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the information provided in the videos about the clear aligner on the Youtube video platform, an internet information source. Materials and Methods: A video search was performed on the Youtube video platform using three keywords determined with the Google Trends application. After the videos were ranked based on their view counts, a total of 75 videos were analyzed, 47 being the first for each term. After applying the exclusion criteria (repetitive content, no audio content or title information, irrelevant to the topic, only promotional content, duration over 15 min, and addressing other orthodontic treatments), the remaining 47 videos were evaluated. Regarding the videos, the following parameters were recorded: View count, number of likes, number of dislikes, number of comments, video duration, and days since the uploaded date. A scoring system consisting of seven parameters was used to classify the video content quality as low and high. The video information and quality index were utilized to evaluate the quality of the videos universally. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata/IC computer program using Shapiro–Wilks, Kruskall–Wallis, Mann–Whitney U, and linear regression (Backward method) tests. Statistical significance value was set at P < 0.05. Results: Evaluation of the videos based on their upload source revealed that 27 videos were downloaded from individuals, ten videos from doctors and ten videos from commercial sources, and the number of subscribers to these sources varied significantly (P < 0.05). Evaluation of the videos based on the information provided, revealed that 32 videos had poor quality, ten videos had moderate quality and five videos had good quality information content, and the video durations varied significantly (P < 0.05). It was seen that of the 75 videos viewed, only 10 (13.3%) provided information of moderate-good quality. The number of likes was found to be the parameter that significantly affects the view count (P < 0.05). Conclusion: YouTube videos prove insufficient as a source of information on orthodontic treatment with clear aligner. Health-care professionals should be aware of online platforms to ensure that patients can access accurate information.
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 223-228; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_14_2021
Objectives: The objective of this study was to find the cephalometric measurements that correlate with the visual perception. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 lateral cephalograms of patients from the year 2016 to 2018 were hand traced and analyzed. Thirty-six hard- and soft-tissue measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric analysis. Silhouettes obtained from cephalometric films were rated by 10 orthodontists based on their level of convexity. For each sample, the rating of visual perception was correlated with all the cephalometric (hard and soft) measurements. Results: ANB, AF-BF, L1-NB (mm), overjet, anterior maxillary alveolar height, posterior maxillary alveolar height, lower lip to E plane, and H angle were positively correlated with the visual perception. On the contrary, Pg. to N perpendicular and Pg. to NB (mm) were negatively correlated with the visual perception. However, the measurements in the vertical dimensions did not have any significant correlations with visual perception. H angle showed a higher correlation with visual perception than the nasolabial angle, facial contour angle, and lower lip to E plane. Conclusion: The agreement between objective cephalometric measurements and subjective visual perception was less than expected. In general, only 27% of the cephalometric measurements had a significant correlation with visual perception. Therefore, orthodontic treatment planning based solely on cephalometric analysis can result in unsatisfactory treatment outcomes. An inclusion of subjective measures such as visual perception in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is necessary.
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 198-208; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_5_2021
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of various removable orthodontic retainer materials on clinical and microbiological parameters, specifically on saliva characteristics, oral hygiene, and salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Materials and Methods: This study consists of two parts: An in vitro study and in vivo prospective clinical pilot study. The in vitro study measures surface roughness and S. mutans adhesion of three orthodontic retainer materials: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) used in traditional Hawley removable retainers, polypropylene (PP), and polyurethane (PU) used in vacuum-formed retainers. In the clinical pilot study, 20 subjects, on completion of orthodontic treatment were randomized into three groups to receive PMMA, PP, or PU removable orthodontic retainers. They were compared with control subjects with no orthodontic treatment and retainers. Quantitative analysis of salivary S. mutans using real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to screen for differences during retainer issue (T0) and 8–15 weeks later (T1). Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and plaque scores were also recorded at these two periods for comparison. Results: PMMA had significantly greater surface roughness and S. mutans adhesion than PP and PU (P = 0.027). The PMMA group displayed significantly greater amounts of salivary S. mutans count when compared to the PP (0.001) and PU (P = 0.011) groups. Conclusion: PMMA retainers showed increased S. mutans adhesion and intra-oral colonization of S. mutans compared to PP and PU retainers. The results validate further clinical testing for a relationship between caries risk and type of retainer prescribed.
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 247-253; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_23_2021
Background: The objective of this article was to illustrate the process in the fabrication of a custom cast splint Microimplant-Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion (MARPE) appliance for treatment of maxillary deficiency in young adults. Findings: The fabrication of a custom-made MARPE appliance allows the casting base to design according to the shape of the patient’s palate close to the palatal mucosa. In this new design, one end consists of a casting body, inserting hole, and teeth retention device (circumferential rings) connected to the other end by a jackscrew. Connection of all parts in the integral casting unit increases the strength of the expansion appliance and avoids distortion, deformation, or damage to the palatal mucosa due to increased resistance from the oromaxillofacial area. Conclusion: This custom design can improve the clinical outcome of maxillary expansion, especially in patients with narrow and high-arched palates.
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 169-173; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_82_2021
In this brief commentary paper, we elaborate the differences between people-centered orthodontics and appliance-centered orthodontics with the clinical and extra clinical key factors that may help orthodontists in achieving prosperity in the future.
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 229-234; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_22_2021
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the long-term stability of the curve of Spee leveled with continuous archwire in subjects with two different retention protocols. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 20 patients (mean age 18 ± 2 years) presenting with curve of Spee depth of =/> 3 mm. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and dental casts were available before treatment (T1), at the end of orthodontic therapy (T2), and 1 year after the end of treatment (T3). All subjects were divided into two groups according to their retention protocol – fixed retainer group (Group-1) and Essix retainer group (Group-2). Cephalometric parameters were used to evaluate the dental movements after treatment. Curve of Spee depth was measured on standardized digital images of casts. Results: In multicomparison table, it shows that there was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.032) between Spee-T2 and Spee-T3 and there was no statistical difference (P = 0.159) between L1MP-T2 and L1MP-T3 in fixed retainer group. In Essix retainer group, no changes were observed from L1MP-T2 to L1MP-T3 and there was a non-significant difference found between Spee-T2 and Spee-T3. Conclusion: In Group-1 (fixed retainer), there is some amount of relapse or extrusion of lower incisor. In Group-2 (Essix retainer), there was not any change in the position of the lower incisor, which suggests that occlusal coverage of the Essix retainer does not allow any extrusion and retains the curve of Spee.
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 191-197; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_68_2021
Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of the forces provided by different branded elastics and to compare the force diminution that occurs after 24-h of use in wet environment. Materials and Methods: Elastics from four different manufacturer (American Orthodontics [AO], USA; Dentaurum [DENT], Germany; Ormco, USA; RMO, USA) with 3/16-inch (4.8 mm) lumen diameter, and two different force degrees (medium/heavy) were included in the study with a total of eight groups of elastics. First force measurements were performed with 50 elastics of each group at various stretching distances; lumen diameter ×2 (9.52 mm), ×3 (14.28 mm), the average canine-first molar length (22.3 mm), and the canine-second molar length (38.7 mm) under room temperature and dry air conditions. In addition, ten the elastics from each group were stretched at 22.3 mm distance in a custom-made plate and kept in 37°C distilled water. Twenty-four hours later, the force measurements were repeated. Results: Regardless of the brand and type (medium-heavy), all the tested elastics showed variations in matter of generated forces at different stretching distances. The variation amount increased as the length of elongation increased. The lowest standard deviation values were observed for both medium and heavy DENT elastic groups. When stretched to 3 times of their lumen size, the medium and heavy elastics both produced either lower or higher forces compared to the levels of force indicated by the manufacturers. The closest mean force to the force level stated by the manufacturer was provided with medium AO (3.6 g difference) elastics and heavy RMO counterparts (7.9 g difference). A significant 20–23% reduction of force was observed in all brands, both in medium and heavy elastics after passing 24-h in aqueous environment. No significant difference was observed in matter of force degradation between groups for both medium and heavy elastics (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The forces exerted by intermaxillary elastics were not found to be standard and the force stated on the package is not always provided precisely. A significant force loss around 20% was observed with all the elastics after 24-h of use in wet environment at 37°C.
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 183-190; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_26_2021
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the frictional resistance produced by active and passive self-ligating brackets on stainless steel archwires in the absence or presence of elastomeric chains under or over the wire. Materials and Methods: Four types of self-ligating brackets were used: Two active and two passive. For each commercial brand, five brackets were bonded to an acrylic plate and the frictional resistance was evaluated with 0.018” and 0.019” × 0.025” stainless steel wires in three situations: Without elastomeric chain, with elastomeric chain placed under and over the wire. Results: The bracket type, cross-section of the wire, and type of ligation had significant interactions with each other; the frictional resistance was significantly lower with the use of passive self-ligated brackets, while no difference was found when a 0.018” wire was tested. Moreover, the frictional resistance in the absence of an elastomeric chain, or when the chain was under the wire, was significantly lower in comparison with the values obtained when the chain was placed on the wire. Conclusion: Frictional resistance of passive and active self-ligated brackets is influenced by the ligation methods and the cross-sectioning of archwires.
APOS Trends in Orthodontics, Volume 11, pp 235-246; https://doi.org/10.25259/apos_42_2021
Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the available literature for the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in orthodontics. Material and Methods: This review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The following databases were searched up to May 2020: Medline (through PubMed), Cochrane, and Google Scholar, and reference lists of the included studies were screened. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials using PRP an adjunct with the standard orthodontic procedures including animal and human subjects as participants were included in the study. The quality of the included human RCTs was assessed per the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2.0), whereas the risk of bias of the included animal studies was assessed using SYRCLES’s RoB tool. Results: Eight studies, six animal and two human studies, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Three animal studies and one human RCT reported that PRP increased the rate of tooth movement when used as an adjunct along with orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: According to the currently available literature, PRP is an efficient non-invasive method of tooth acceleration, but as most of the studies carried are on animals and cannot be applied to humans indistinctly.