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ISSN / EISSN : 2223-7747 / 2223-7747
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 5,371
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Published: 4 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is an important temperate fruit crop worldwide. The availability of wild apricot germplasm and its characterization through genomic studies can guide us towards its conservation, increasing productivity and nutritional composition. Therefore, in this study, we carried out the genomic characterization of 50 phenotypically variable accessions by using SSR markers in the erstwhile States of Jammu and Kashmir to reveal genetic variability among accessions and their genetic associations. The genetic parameter results revealed that the number of alleles per locus (Na) ranged from 1 to 6 with a mean Na value of 3.89 and the mean effective number of alleles (Ne) per locus 1.882 with a range of 1.22 to 2. Similarly, the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.464 to 0.104. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) (0.547) was found to have higher than expected heterozygosity (He) (0.453) with average heterozygosity of 0.4483. The dendrogram clustered genotypes into three main clades based on their pedigree. The population structure revealed IV sub-populations with all admixtures except the III sub-population, which was mainly formed of exotic cultivars. The average expected heterozygosity (He) and population differentiation within four sub-populations was 1.78 and 0.04, respectively, and explained 95.0% of the total genetic variance in the population. The results revealed that the SSR marker studies could easily decrypt the genetic variability present within the germplasm, which may form the base for the establishment of good gene banks by reducing redundancy of germplasm, selection of parents for any breeding program.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Dehydration proteins (dehydrins, DHNs) confer tolerance to water-stress deficit in plants. We performed a comparative genomics and evolutionary study of DHN genes in four model Brachypodium grass species. Due to limited knowledge on dehydrin expression under water deprivation stress in Brachypodium, we also performed a drought-induced gene expression analysis in 32 ecotypes of the genus’ flagship species B. distachyon showing different hydric requirements. Genomic sequence analysis detected 10 types of dehydrin genes (Bdhn) across the Brachypodium species. Domain and conserved motif contents of peptides encoded by Bdhn genes revealed eight protein architectures. Bdhn genes were spread across several chromosomes. Selection analysis indicated that all the Bdhn genes were constrained by purifying selection. Three upstream cis-regulatory motifs (BES1, MYB124, ZAT) were detected in several Bdhn genes. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that only four Bdhn1-Bdhn2, Bdhn3, and Bdhn7 genes, orthologs of wheat, barley, rice, sorghum, and maize genes, were expressed in mature leaves of B. distachyon and that all of them were more highly expressed in plants under drought conditions. Brachypodium dehydrin expression was significantly correlated with drought-response phenotypic traits (plant biomass, leaf carbon and proline contents and water use efficiency increases, and leaf water and nitrogen content decreases) being more pronounced in drought-tolerant ecotypes. Our results indicate that dehydrin type and regulation could be a key factor determining the acquisition of water-stress tolerance in grasses.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Renewed interest in varieties that are more tolerant to diseases has emerged, which is mainly due to increased awareness by producers and consumers regarding the impact of phytochemicals in the environment. This paper describes the first Slovenian grapevine variety ‘Pinore’ crossed between the Vitis vinifera L. ‘Pinot noir’ clone Mf and ‘Regent’ vines. The aim was to create an early ripening grape cultivar that has a good tolerance to biotic stress (e.g., downy and powdery mildew, botrytis) combined with the benefits of established cultivars and their intense wine colors. Some ampelographic characteristics of young shoots, mature leaves, bunches, and berries are presented, and its major agronomic traits, ripening time, grape yield, quality performances, and disease resistance were evaluated over a three-year period (2014–2017). Wine sensory analyses were performed and compared with the international variety ‘Pinot noir’. The examined genotype showed good agronomic performance and a high wine quality as far as the content of polyphenols is concerned, especially in terms of anthocyanins and tolerance to diseases (Ren3/9 and Rpv3.1); it is significantly different compared to the reference variety ‘Pinot noir’. In terms of ampelographic characteristics, the main differences are in the number of leaf lobes, the depth of the lateral sinuses, and the content of anthocyanins in its flesh. The investigated genotype has been proposed to the Committee of new varieties in Slovenia for the variety recognition procedure, and completion of the procedure planned for the end of 2023.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
It is important to consider the nutritional demand among genotypes of the same species to achieve high yields. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the concentration of nutrients in leaves, flowers, grains, and fruit straw in conilon coffee genotypes. The experiment was carried out under a randomized block design, with three replications and the evaluation of nine genotypes. Leaf collections were carried out every three months, from August 2019 to May 2020. Flowers were collected at flowering in July 2019 and fruits in June 2020, upon complete maturation of the genotypes. The materials were dried in an oven and sent for laboratory analysis to determine the nutritional content. Data were subjected to analysis of variance followed by a comparison of means and estimates of genetic parameters and clustering using the hierarchical method (UPGMA). The nutrients found in the highest concentrations in the evaluated plant organs were N and K for macronutrients and Fe for micronutrients. For the leaves, the concentrations of the main nutrients were high in the first and reduced in the last evaluated periods, possibly due to mobilization to the fruits. Considering all the plant tissues evaluated, the order of concentration of macronutrients and micronutrients was N > K > Ca > P = Mg = S and Fe > B > Mn > Cu > Zn, respectively. For a nutritional diagnosis, it is important to take comparisons of the genetic diversity and evaluation periods into consideration.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
A systematic approach to quantifying the weed–crop balance through the flux of solar radiation was developed and tested on commercial fields in a long-established Atlantic zone cropland. Measuring and modelling solar energy flux in crop stands has become standard practice in analysis and comparison of crop growth and yield across regions, species and years. In a similar manner, the partitioning of incoming radiation between crops and the in-field plant community may provide ‘common currencies’ through which to quantify positive and negative effects of weeds in relation to global change. Here, possibilities were explored for converting simple ground-cover measures in commercial fields of winter and spring oilseed rape in eastern Scotland, UK to metrics of solar flux. Solar radiation intercepted by the crops ranged with season and sowing delay from 129 to 1975 MJ m−2 (15-fold). Radiation transmitted through the crop, together with local weed management, resulted in a 70-fold range of weed intercepted radiation (14.2 to 963 MJ m−2), which in turn explained 93% of the corresponding between-site variation in weed dry mass (6.36 to 459 g m−2). Transmitted radiation explained almost 90% of the variation in number of weed species per field (12 to 40). The conversion of intercepted radiation to weed dry matter was far less variable at a mean of 0.74 g MJ−1 at both winter and spring sites. The primary cause of variation was an interaction between the temperature at sowing and the annual wave of incoming solar radiation. The high degree of explanatory power in solar flux indicates its potential use as an initial predictor and subsequent monitoring tool in the face of future change in climate and cropping intensity.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The genus Utricularia includes around 250 species of carnivorous plants, commonly known as bladderworts. The generic name Utricularia was coined by Carolus Linnaeus in reference to the carnivorous organs (Utriculus in Latin) present in all species of the genus. Since the formal proposition by Linnaeus, many species of Utricularia were described, but only scarce information about the biology for most species is known. All Utricularia species are herbs with vegetative organs that do not follow traditional models of morphological classification. Since the formal description of Utricularia in the 18th century, the trap function has intrigued naturalists. Historically, the traps were regarded as floating organs, a common hypothesis that was maintained by different botanists. However, Charles Darwin was most likely the first naturalist to refute this idea, since even with the removal of all traps, the plants continued to float. More recently, due mainly to methodological advances, detailed studies on the trap function and mechanisms could be investigated. This review shows a historical perspective on Utricularia studies which focuses on the traps and body organization.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The anti-inflammatory and antihyperglycemic effects of polysaccharides extracted from Alhagimaurorum Medik. seeds, spontaneous shrub collected in Southern of Algerian Sahara were investigated. Their water extraction followed by alcoholic precipitation was conducted to obtain two water-soluble polysaccharides extracts (WSPAM1 and WSPAM2). They were characterized using Fourier transform infrared, 1H/13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Size Exclusion Chromatography coupled with Multi-Angle Light Scattering. The capacity of those fractions to inhibit α-amylase activity and thermally induced Bovine Serum Albumin denaturation were also investigated. WSPAM1 and WSPAM2 were galactomannans with a mannose/galactose ratio of 2.2 and 2.4, respectively. The SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that WSPAM1 had a molecular weight of 1.4 × 106 Da. The investigations highlighted antinflammatory and antihyperglycemic effects in a dose-dependant manner of WSPAM1 and WSPAM2.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The genus Serratia is widely distributed in soil, water, plants, animals, invertebrates, and humans. Some species of this genus have antifungal, antibacterial, and nematicidal activity. In this work, the nematicidal activity of the endophytic strain of Serratia sp. in chili, Capsicum annuum L., is reported, where at a bacterial concentration of 4 × 109 cel/mL, the penetration of nematodes into the roots significantly decreased by 91 and 55% at 7 and 21 days after inoculation. This bacterial concentration also significantly decreased the number of galls, eggs, egg masses and reproduction factor produced by Nacobbus aberrans in Chili plants, with respect to the control where this bacterial strain was not applied. In the analysis of the genome of the strain, based on average nucleotide identity (ANI), the isolate could be affiliated to the species Serratia ureilytica. The size of the genome is 5.4 Mb, with a 59.3% content of GC. Genes related to the synthesis of chitinases, siderophores, proteases C, serralisins, hemolysin, and serrawettin W2 that have been reported for biocontrol of nematodes were identified in the genome. It is the first report of Serratia ureilytica with nematicidal activity. Based on these results of nematicidal activity, this strain can be evaluated in the field as an alternative in the biocontrol of Nacobbus aberrans in chili cultivation.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Winter dormancy is an adaptative mechanism that temperate and boreal trees have developed to protect their meristems against low temperatures. In apple trees (Malus domestica), cold temperatures induce bud dormancy at the end of summer/beginning of the fall. Apple buds stay dormant during winter until they are exposed to a period of cold, after which they can resume growth (budbreak) and initiate flowering in response to warmer temperatures in spring. It is well-known that small RNAs modulate temperature responses in many plant species, but however, how small RNAs are involved in genetic networks of temperature-mediated dormancy control in fruit tree species remains unclear. Here, we have made use of a recently developed ARGONAUTE (AGO)-purification technique to isolate small RNAs from apple buds. A small RNA-seq experiment resulted in the identification of 17 micro RNAs (miRNAs) that change their pattern of expression in apple buds during dormancy. Furthermore, the functional analysis of their predicted target genes suggests a main role of the 17 miRNAs in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, gene regulation, plant development and growth, and response to stimulus. Finally, we studied the conservation of the Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory miR159-MYB module in apple in the context of the plant hormone abscisic acid homeostasis.
Published: 3 December 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Sewage sludge improves agricultural soil and plant growth, but there are risks associated with its use, including high heavy metal content. In this study, experiments were carried out to investigate the role of endophytic Talaromyces pinophilus MW695526 on the growth of Triticum aestivum cultivated in soil amended with sewage sludge and its phytoremediation ability. T. pinophilus could produce gibberellic acid (GA) and stimulate T. aestivum to accumulate GA. The results showed that inoculation with T. pinophilus boosted plant growth criteria, photosynthetic pigments, osmolytes (soluble proteins, soluble sugars and total amino acids), enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase), K, Ca and Mg. On the other hand, it reduced Na, Na/K ratio, Cd, Ni, Cu and Zn in the growth media as well as in the shoot and root of T. aestivum. The results suggest that endophytic T. pinophilus can work as a barrier to reduce the absorption of heavy metals in T. aestivum cultivated in soil amended with sewage sludge.
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