ACR Open Rheumatology
ISSN / EISSN : 2578-5745 / 2578-5745
Current Publisher: Wiley (10.1002)Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 264
Latest articles in this journal
ACR Open Rheumatology; doi:10.1002/acr2.11266
Objective The objectives of this study were to assess the 1-year persistence to methotrexate (MTX) initiated as the first ever conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in new-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to investigate the marginal gains and robustness of the results by increasing the number and nature of covariates and by using data-driven, instead of hypothesis-based, methods to predict this persistence. Methods Through the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register, linked to other data sources, we identified a cohort of 5475 patients with new-onset RA in 2006-2016 who were starting MTX monotherapy as their first disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. Data on phenotype at diagnosis and demographics were combined with increasingly detailed data on medical disease history and medication use in four increasingly complex data sets (48-4162 covariates). We performed manual model building using logistic regression. We also performed five different machine learning (ML) methods and combined the ML results into an ensemble model. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and made calibration plots. We trained on 90% of the data, and tested the models on a holdout data set. Results Of the 5475 patients, 3834 (70%) remained on MTX monotherapy 1 year after treatment start. Clinical RA disease activity and baseline characteristics were most strongly associated with the outcome. The best manual model had an AUROC of 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.71). For the ML methods, Lasso regression performed best (AUROC = 0.67; 95% CI 0.62-0.71). Conclusion Approximately two thirds of patients with early RA who start MTX remain on this therapy 1 year later. Predicting this persistence remains a challenge, whether using hypothesis-based or ML models, and may yet require additional types of data.
ACR Open Rheumatology; doi:10.1002/acr2.11273
Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune (AI) conditions are associated with inorganic dust exposure. Many military activities are likely to entail inorganic dust exposures. We wished to identify associations between prior military dust exposure and RA and other AI conditions. Methods We studied persons from a roster of Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps personnel who had served in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operations Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn. We linked military occupational codes to a job exposure matrix assigning dust exposure likelihood. We used the Veterans Affairs Health Care System (VAHCS) electronic health care records to identify cases of RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), vasculitis, and inflammatory myositis. Generalized estimating equations modeled risk of RA and other AI conditions associated with dust exposure, taking into account military service branch, age at first VAHCS encounter, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and years of military service. Results Of 438 086 veterans (68% ever-smokers), 44% were classified with likely or somewhat likely dust exposure. Cases included 1139 cases with RA, 467 cases with SLE, and 180 cases with other AI diseases (SSc, vasculitis, or inflammatory myositis). Military dust exposure was associated with increased odds of RA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.003-1.20) and increased odds of SSc, vasculitis, or inflammatory myositis (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.14-1.34) but was protective for SLE (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.76-0.88). Conclusion Dust exposure during past military service comprises an occupational and environmental risk factor for RA and other AI diseases. This is potentially relevant for prevention activities.
ACR Open Rheumatology; doi:10.1002/acr2.11268
ACR Open Rheumatology; doi:10.1002/acr2.11270
Background There is increasing evidence that environmental air pollution is associated with the development of chronic inflammatory arthritides (CIA). The role of air pollutants on the biological treatment (biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs [bDMARDs]) response of CIA is still unclear. Methods We retrieved longitudinal data on patients affected by CIA on biological therapies and on the daily concentration of air pollutants in the Verona area. We designed a case-crossover study to compare the exposure to pollutants in the 60-day period preceding a drug switch or swap due to disease progression referent to the 60-day period preceding a visit with stable treatment for at least 6 months. Results A total of 1257 patients with CIA (863 with rheumatoid arthritis, 256 with psoriatic arthritis, and 138 with ankylosing spondylitis) with 5454 follow-up visits were included in the study (median follow-up 2.09 years [interquartile range: 0.82-2.58 years]). A total of 282 patients were included in the case-crossover study. We retrieved 13 636 daily air pollution records. We found that air pollutants’ concentrations were higher in the 60-day period before a failure of bDMARD response and prior to a switch or swap compared with the period preceding a visit with stable bDMARD therapy for at least 6 months. Conclusion We found that environmental air pollution was a determinant of poor response to bDMARDs in a cohort of patients with CIA followed over a 5-year period. An intervention aimed at decreasing fossil combustion emissions might have beneficial effects on biologic persistence rates of patients with CIA and economic expenditures related to switches and swaps.
ACR Open Rheumatology; doi:10.1002/acr2.11269
Renal mononuclear phagocytes are a highly pleiotropic group of immune cells of myeloid origin that play multiple protective and pathogenic roles in tissue homeostasis, inflammation, repair, and fibrosis. Infiltration of kidneys with these cells is a hallmark of lupus nephritis and is associated with more severe disease and with increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. This review presents current knowledge of the diversity of these cells and their involvement in kidney inflammation and resolution and describes how they contribute to the chronic inflammation of lupus nephritis. A better understanding of the subset heterogeneity and diverse functions of mononuclear phagocytes in the lupus nephritis kidney should provide fertile ground for the development of new therapeutic approaches that promote the differentiation and survival of protective subsets while targeting pathogenic cell subsets that cause inflammation and fibrosis.
ACR Open Rheumatology; doi:10.1002/acr2.11271
Objective The objective of this study was to describe differences in the clinical course of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are antinuclear antibody (ANA)–positive compared with those who are ANA-negative. Methods This was a retrospective population-based cohort study of residents in Olmsted County, Minnesota, who first fulfilled 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA in 2009-2014. Data were collected on first documentation of joint swelling. Data on rheumatoid factor or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody testing and the ANA level were also collected. Comparisons between groups were performed by using χ2 and rank sum tests. Results In this cohort, 64% of patients were tested for ANA within ±90 days of RA criteria fulfillment. In the161 patients with ANA testing, 25% were ANA-positive. Patients who were ANA-positive were younger, female, and less likely to be current smokers. ANA positivity did not differ between patients with RA who were seropositive and seronegative. In seropositive patients who were ANA-positive, there was an increased time to fulfillment of RA criteria, increased time to treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and increased likelihood of being treated with hydroxychloroquine as opposed to methotrexate. Other outcomes, including disease activity and mortality, did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusion In patients with RA, important differences exist between those who are ANA-positive and ANA-negative in terms of time to fulfillment of RA criteria and time to DMARD initiation as well as choice of initial pharmacotherapy. These findings could indicate a difference in clinical presentation or perception of patients with RA who are ANA-positive. Further research is needed to study the long-term outcomes of patients with RA who are ANA-positive.
ACR Open Rheumatology; doi:10.1002/acr2.11261
Objective We sought to explore the relationship between changes in repeated mobility measures and spinal structural progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) over time. Methods We studied patients with AS from the PSOAS (Prospective Study of Outcomes in AS) cohort and performed longitudinal multivariable regression modeling to assess the relationship of structural damage measured by their regional (cervical or lumbar) modified Stoke AS Spinal Score(mSASSS) and selected cervical (eg, cervical rotation, lateral bending, and occiput-to-wall distance) and lumbar spinal mobility measures (eg, Schöber’s test and lumbar lateral bending) that were collected at least every 2 years from 2003 to 2019. Results The median length of follow-up for our 518 patients with cervical mSASSS measurements and 573 with lumbar mSASSS measurements was 4.08 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.25-6.67) and 4.17 (IQR 2.25-6.67) years, respectively. Among the mobility measures, based on multivariable regression models adjusting for clinical/demographic variables and C-reactive protein, we did not observe meaningful associations between changes in spinal mobility with their respective regional mSASSS. Baseline mSASSS, male sex, increased C-reactive protein (CRP), and longer disease duration were associated with increased longitudinal mSASSS in all analyses. Conclusion Our study shows that 2-year changes in individual spinal mobility measures are not reliably associated with increased, longitudinal, AS-related spinal structural progression. We also confirmed the relationship of baseline mSASSS, sex, CRP, and disease duration with AS-related structural spinal progression over time.
ACR Open Rheumatology; doi:10.1002/acr2.11263
Objective To describe clinical manifestations and outcomes in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) in North America. Methods Analysis of patients aged 18 years or older who fulfilled the 1990 American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for EGPA enrolled in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium from 2003 to 2019. Main clinical characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and accumulated damage were studied. Results The cohort included 354 patients; 59% female; age at diagnosis of 50.0 (±14) years; 39% were antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) positive. Time from diagnosis to last follow-up was 7.0 (±6.2) years; 49.4% had one or more relapse. Patients positive for ANCA more commonly had neurological and kidney involvement when compared with patients negative for ANCA, who had more cardiac and lung manifestations. At last study visit, only 35 (12.6%) patients had been off all therapy for more than 2 years during their follow-up. The overall mortality rate was 4.0% and did not differ by ANCA status or cyclophosphamide use. Scores on the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) for 134 patients with two or more visits and more than 1 year of follow-up increased from 1.7 (±1.8) at enrollment (3.7 [±5.1] years after diagnosis) to 3.35 (±2.1) at last follow-up (7.5 [±5.8] years after diagnosis), mainly represented by chronic asthma (67.5%), peripheral neuropathy (49.6%), and chronic sinusitis (31.3%). Longer duration of glucocorticoid use and relapse were associated with higher VDI scores. Conclusion This analysis describes the many clinical manifestations and varied outcomes of EGPA and highlights the ongoing need to attain more sustained, long-term remission to limit the accrual of disease-related damage.
ACR Open Rheumatology, Volume 3, pp 285-286; doi:10.1002/acr2.11272
ACR Open Rheumatology; doi:10.1002/acr2.11264