Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry
ISSN / EISSN : 2087-7099 / 2407-6090
Current Publisher: Faculty of Pharmacy, Mulawarman University (10.25026)
Total articles ≅ 186
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 21 October 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 111-120; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.251
First nutritional intake supplied to newborn infants is exclusive breast milk because it contains a lot of nutrients and it is supplied for 6-month-old children without adding weaning foods. Global Nutrition Report (GNR) report in 2014 stated that Indonesia was included in 117 countries that had three highest nutritional problems in children, namely stunting (37.2%), wasting (12.1%), and overweight (11.9%). The result of Riskesdas prevalence in 2013 regarding to nutritional status of children in Papua Province was undernutrition (21.9%) while in Jayapura there were malnutrition (3.4%) for toddlers and undernutrition (17.8%). The purpose of the research was to analyze the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding with foods intake and nutritional status of 6-to-12-month-old children in the working area of Hamadi Primary Health Care in the city of Jayapura. Quantitative research methods with cross sectional study design using the spearman rank test were done which exclusive breastfeeding as independent variable, food intake and nutritional status as dependent variables. Statistical test results showed that there was no relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and nutritional status with parameter p = 0.658, there was no relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and food intake (TKE p = 0.335), (TKP p = 0.626), (TKL p = 0.715), (TKK p = 0.980), there was a relationship between food intake and nutritional status (TKE p = 0.050), (TKP p = 0.041), (TKL p = 0.032), (TKK p = 0.049). The conclusion of this research is either exclusive or non-exclusive breastfeeding children have the same nutritional status and food intake, while children's food intake affects nutritional status of children.
Published: 21 October 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 95-98; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.240
Tarap (Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco) is one of the plants in the tropics that are consumed by dayak tribe in East Kalimantan. Toxicity tests on seeds and bark have been done but there is no data regarding the acute toxicity of Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco seeds and flesh of fruit causing the need for acute toxicity tests. This Research to know the acute toxic effects of tarap (Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco) seed and flesh extracts on larvae of Daphnia magna. Tarap seeds and flesh (Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco) was taken from dayak market in Samarinda, is East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The seeds and flesh of the tarap fruit are extracted by maceration with ethanol solvent. An acute toxicity test was performed by exposing Dapnia magna larvae aged ≤ 24 hours with a solution of the experimental group and the control group for 48 hours. Toxicity test results are expressed in percentage of immobilization of larvae of Daphnia magna calculated by probit test to obtain EC50 (Half maximal effective concentration) values. Extracts are toxic if the EC50 value > 1000ppm. EC50 Ethanol extract of tarap seeds obtained values ( 3922,301 ± 324,590 ) for EC50 24h and ( 2964,498 ± 412,498 ) for EC50 48h. The EC50 value of ethanol extract from flesh of tarap fruit is ( 12224.514 ± 2186. 899 ) EC50 24h and ( 6165,235 ± 1940,006 ) EC50 48h.Ethanol extract of tarap fruit and flesh is non toxic to larvae of Daphnia magna.
Published: 21 October 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 138-142; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.260
Two furoquinoline alkaloids, leptanoine C (1) and haplopine-3,3´-dimethylallyl ether (2) were isolated from the leaves of Melicope moluccana. The chemical structure of both compounds was determined based on spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data. The antimalarial activity of compounds 1-2 against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 showing their IC50 values are 0.18 ppm and 2.28 µg/mL, respectively.
Published: 7 August 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 98-110; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.243
In the past with the advent of antibiotics, bacterial diseases have been under control. However rapid spread of antibiotic-resistant this success is reversing and searching for newer antibacterial agents is currently a top priority. This study was, thus, aimed at assessing the anti-microbial activities of two traditional medicinal plants: Vernonia myriantha and Olinia rochetiana. The crude extracts were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activities and phytochemical content. The extracts were tested against selected 3 clinical and 4 standard test bacterial strains by using agar well-diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). The ethanol leaves and stem-bark extracts of O. rochetiana inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains at a concentration of 250mg/mL. The inhibition zones ranged from 20.33±0.57mm for clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa to 25.66±0.57mm for standard Salmonella typhi strains. The values for these same extracts were 20.66±2.51mm and 24.33±1.15mm for standard P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains respectively. The chloroform extract was similarly effective against all of the strains with inhibition zones between 19.00±1.73mm against P. aeruginosa and 22.66±2.51mm for S. aureus. Comparatively, the ethanol extract of O. rochetiana had the highest MIC (7.81mg/mL) and MBC (62.50mg/mL) were noted against P. aeruginosa. On the other hand, chloroform extract of O. rochetiana leaf showed the highest MIC (15mg/mL) and MBC (125mg/mL) were recorded against P. aeruginosa. The ethanol extract of V. myriantha showed growth inhibition only on S. aureus (21.00±1.7mm). Both plants tested for terpenoids and glycosides showed positive result, but none for resin.
Published: 7 August 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 71-79; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.231
Essential oil has complex chemical substances with a lot of benefit, one of them is as mosquitoe or insect repellent. This research aims to find out the best essential oil formula for mosquito repellent. Essential oils that used in this research are citronella, lemongrass, cajeput, and lavender oil. Essential oils are characterized by its color, density, refractive index, and solubility in alcohol. The essential oil colors met the SNI which was pale yellow to clear yellow, the density was 0.8125 - 0.9114 g/ml, the refractive index was 1.4568-1.4665 and soluble in alcohol. The essential oil mixture resulted in 7 series of formula, namely series A1-A5, B1-B5, C1-C5, D1-D5, E1-E5, F1-F5, and G1-G5. The organoleptic test performed on all formula showed that the preferred formula was the formula E3, G3, and F3. All preferred formula were carried out repellent tests against mosquitoes to determine the effectiveness of the oil mixture in Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) carrier. The result showed that E3 was more effective repellent compare to F3 and G3 formulas, because it has protection value more than 90% until fourth-hour.
Published: 23 July 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 86-94; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.236
BenzilideneBenzylamine the derivative of Schiff bases contain azomethine group already used widely for industrial purposes and have wide range of biological activities. Benzilidene Benzylamine were synthesized by microwave irradiation reacting different aromatic and aniline purified pure crystal, 85% yield obtained reaction monitor by TLC. The Anticholinesterase activity utilized spectrophotometric Ellman assay for determination of butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase. The synthesis compound 1 – 6 showed a wide range of inhibitory activity the compound 3((E)-N-(4-fluorobenzylidene)aniline) at 1000µg/mL, 71.62±0.74 percent inhibitory acetylcholinesterase potential while compound 6 ((E)-4 ((phenylimino)methyl) benzaldehyde) at 500 and 1000 µg/mL at IC50 show 71.68±0.22, 77.84±0.32 percent inhibitory potential comparatively greater than standard Galanthamine at 62.5µg/mL, 74.10±0.90 at IC50. The butyrylcholinesterase activity of compound 6 ((E)-4 ((phenylimino)methyl)benzaldehyde) at 1000 µg/mL, show 75.83±1.07 percent inhibitory potential which is similar to standard compound at 62.5µg/mL concentration of 75.45±0.90 percent butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
Published: 29 June 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 121-124; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.252
Pediatric patients are among the recipients of most antibiotic treatment in hospitals so as to induce irrational use of antibiotics. This study aims to monitor the use of antibiotics in pediatric using ATC/DDD methods and DU 90%. This study is a descriptive study with a retrospective study by taking data from medical records to assess the use of antibiotics in pediatric patients with various diseases in the hospital. Quantitative data analysis using ATC/DDD methods showed that the widely used antibiotic was ceftriaxone 16,93% DDD. Antibiotics that include into the DU segment 90% use in the order of the largest to the smallest, respectively are ceftriaxone, metronidazole, cefotaxime, gentamycin, polymyxin B, colistin, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, and meropenem. The prescribing effect of short-term antibiotic use in basic medical services may increase the incidence of resistance.
Published: 29 June 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 57-62; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.223
Every plant available in the universe is not produced to be the part of biodiversity, but is also produced to obtain medicinal purposes. The medicinal value of the plant is due to the availability of various chemical compounds . Since prehistoric time, the crude extract of plant is used to cure various diseases, although the biologically active components of the plant were unidentified . In the present study the antibacterial activity is performed for various extracts of cerastium glomeratum. The plant cerastium glomeratum was collected from near kalpani river Mardan, Pakistan and was identified by lecturer Israr department of botany GPGC Mardan, Pakistan. The plant was dried under shade and grinded into powder form. The extraction process was done by using soxhlet apparatus, reflux condenser and maceration process using ethanol as a solvent. The extract was divided into different fractions of n-hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and water. These four extracts were tested against gram positive (staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (E.coli) bacteria using well diffusion technique. The water extract show a wide range inhibition zone against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria while n-hexane, DCM and ethyl acetate fractions show no zone of inhibition against bacteria. In effort to find new antibacterial compounds cerastium glomeratum seems to be a good plant for additional phytochemical studies.
Published: 26 June 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 51-56; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.221
Antirrhinum Orontium is belonging to the family Plantaginacea commonly known as lesser snapdragon which is a flowering plant belong to genus Antirrhinum. It was traditionally used in treatment of Tumor, Eye inflammation and Ulcer. Antirrhinum Orontium is contain mostly tertiary alkaloids bases one of them is identified as 4-methyl-2, 6-naphthyridine and Choline is identified as quaternary base. The recent study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of Ethyl acetate, Dichloromethane, Hexane and Water extracts of Antirrhinum Orontium, against the pathogen like Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Both the Soxhlet and Maceration water extract were found most active from the other extract against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by using agar well diffusion method. The measured zone of inhibition for Soxhlet water extract is 21±0.05mm and Maceration water extract is 20±0.05mm against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, while for gram negative Escherichia coli 23±0.05mm is measured for Soxlet and 21±0.05mm measured for Maceration water extracts
Published: 22 June 2020
Journal Of Tropical Pharmacy And Chemistry, Volume 5, pp 80-85; doi:10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.232
Eleutherine palmifolia (E. palmifolia) is a common plant used as an anticancer drug in Kalimantan, Indonesia. The active compound present in it is naphthoquinone, which has low water solubility and needs to be formulated into SNEDDS preparations to improve its dissolution and bioavailability in the body. The dispersion method is used in the preparation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) and PEG 400 cosurfactants. Furthermore, this study aims to ascertain the effects of oil on the SNEDDS preparations. The results showed that the effect of the preparations on olive oil, VCO, and oleic acid in the organoleptic test produced dark red, clear, and non functional emulsion. The average particle sizes obtained in the AGF media were 61,10, 774,33, and 211,70 nm; in AIF media it amounted to 211,70, 123,65, and 830,22 nm. The pH value for each formula was 6,8, while the average emulsification time for the AGF media was 24,10, 22,53, and 25,75 seconds, and, lastly, for the AIF media, they were 20,96, 19,62, and 23,74 second.