Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique

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EISSN : 26634023
Current Publisher: Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University (10.28925)
Total articles ≅ 88
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Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique; doi:10.28925/2663-4023

Vladimir Barannik, Yuriy Ryabukha, Pavlo Hurzhii, Vitalii Tverdokhlib, Oleh Kulitsa
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 63-71; doi:10.28925/2663-4023.2020.7.6371

Abstract:
The conceptual basements of constructing an effective encoding method within the bit rate control module of video traffic in the video data processing system at the source level are considered. The essence of using the proposed method in the course of the video stream bit rate controlling disclosed, namely, the principles of constructing the fragment of the frame code representation and approaches for determining the structural units of the individual video frame within which the control is performed. The method focuses on processing the bit representation of the DCT transformants, and at this processing stage transformant was considered as a structural component of the video stream frame at which the encoding is performed. At the same time, to ensure the video traffic bit rate controlling flexibility, decomposition is performed with respect to each of the transformants to the level of the plurality of bit planes. It is argued that the proposed approach is potentially capable to reducing the video stream bit rate in the worst conditions, that is, when component coding is performed. In addition, this principle of video stream fragmen code representation forming allows to control the level of error that can be made in the bit rate control process. However, in conditions where the bit representation of the transformant is encoded, the method is able to provide higher compression rates as a result of the fact that the values of the detection probability of binary series lengths and the values of detected lengths within the bit plane will be greater than in the case of component coding. This is explained by the structural features of the distribution of binary elements within each of the bit planes, which together form the transformer DCT. In particular, high-frequency transformer regions are most often formed by chains of zero elements. The solutions proposed in the development of the encoding method are able to provide sufficient flexibility to control the bit rate of the video stream, as well as the ability to quickly change the bit rate in a wide range of values.
Yаroslav Sovyn, Volodymyr Khoma
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 131-152; doi:10.28925/2663-4023.2020.7.131152

Abstract:
The article is devoted to software bitsliced implementation of the Kalyna cipher using vector instructions SSE, AVX, AVX-512 for x86-64 processors. The advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to efficient and secure block cipher software implementation are shown. It is noted that bitslicing technology combines high speed and resistance to time and cache attacks, but its application to the Kalyna cipher is not available at the moment. The basic approaches to data representation and bitsliced encryption operations are considered, special attention is paid to the effective implementation of SubBytes operation, which largely determines the final performance. Existing methods for minimizing logical functions have been shown to either fail to produce the result in bitsliced format in the case of 8-bit non-algebraic SBoxs, or far from optimal. A heuristic algorithm for minimizing logic functions describing Kalyna SBoxes using the operations of AND, OR, XOR, NOT available in the instruction set of low- and high-end processors is proposed. The results show that a bitsliced description of one SBox requires about 520 gates, which is significantly less than other methods. Possible ways to increase performance by regrouping data into bitsliced variables before and after the SubBytes operation are indicated, which results in more efficient use of vector registers. The bitsliced implementations of Kalyna cipher were measured using C++ compilers from Microsoft and GCC for the Intel Xeon Skylake-SP processor. The results of the bitsliced Kalyna implementation can also be transferred to processors that do not support SIMD instructions, including low-end, to increase resistance to attacks through third-party channels. They also enable switching to ASIC or FPGA-based bitsliced implementation of Kalyna.
Hennadii Hulak
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 153-164; doi:10.28925/2663-4023.2020.7.153164

Abstract:
The components of ensuring the warranty of automated systems, which are subject to increased requirements in connection with their use in many sensitive areas of public activity, including national security and defense, critical industrial technologies, energy and communications, banking, environmental protection , technologies of legitimate distance learning, etc. Certain components can significantly affect the quality and reliability of information services in regulatory conditions. In particular, the special role of the functional security of the cryptographic subsystem in terms of supporting the performance of the automated system for its tasks and functions in general, as well as in terms of ensuring the confidentiality and integrity of information. The components of the cryptographic subsystem have been identified, the poor or incorrect operation of which negatively affects the security of these subsystems. The types of the most dangerous attacks on these subsystems are analyzed, their classification from the point of view of possibility of realization in modern scientific and technical conditions and depending on capacity of available computing means and technologies on the basis of which the most real and dangerous variant of realization of remote attacks on software implementation of cryptographic subsystem is defined. . Based on the analysis, a method for evaluating the quality of cryptographic transformations based on a modified algorithm for solving the problem of finding solutions of systems of linear equations with distorted right-hand parts using the so-called decoding based on "lists" of first-order "shortened" Reed-Muller codes is proved. the correctness of the proposed algorithm.
Valeriy Lakhno, D. Y. Kasatkin, Maksym Misiura, Borys Husiev
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 4, pp 135-148; doi:10.28925/2663-4023.2020.8.135148

Abstract:
The article presents the results of research performed in the process of designing an expert system (ES) designed to assess the threats to information security (IS) of critical information facilities (CIF). The approach to designing of expert system on the basis of syllogisms and logic of predicates, and also a method of meaningful identification of objects of knowledge base (KB) is offered. The essence of the method is that each object of the database of the projected EU, is matched by a tuple of keywords (ToK), the significance of which is determined by experts. Thus, each database object is placed in accordance with the element of the finite fuzzy topological space of the database objects. Meaningful identification takes place on the distance between the objects of the database. The approach proposed in the work, in comparison with the decisions of other authors, has a number of advantages. Namely, it allows: to model different variants of cyber threat scenarios for CIF and their consequences; determine the contribution of each of the factors or components of the architecture of the IS CIF to the overall picture of the probability of a cyber threat to the CIF; model the interaction of all IS factors and, if necessary, visualize this interaction; calculate and further rank the values of cyber threat probabilities for CIF for specific threat scenarios; automate the processes of threat modeling through the use of developed software and significantly reduce the time for audit of threats. It is shown that the use of the method of meaningful identification allows to increase the adequacy of the models of the selected subject area, as well as to prevent erroneous introduction of the same judgments of experts and goals in the EU database, in particular by combining hierarchies of goals formed by different expert groups. It is shown that the method can also be used to find the goals of the hierarchy, the exact wording of which, according to keywords, is unknown.
Volodymyr Mokhor, Oksana Tsurkan, Rostyslav Herasymov, Olha Kruk, Valeriia Pokrovska
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 4, pp 165-173; doi:10.28925/2663-4023.2020.8.165173

Abstract:
Socio-technical systems as education with technical and social subsystems are considered. The directions for ensuring their safety have been established and among them the use of technical capabilities has been singled out, taking into account user behavior. Attention is paid to their vulnerabilities to the realisability of sociotechnical threats, in particular, the influence of social engineering. The orientation of such an influence on the manipulation of weaknesses, needs, mania (passions), user hobbies is shown. This leads to the insolvency of socio-technical systems to counteract the influence of social engineering. This can be prevented by analyzing the user's vulnerabilities regarding the forms of manipulation of their consciousness. The approaches to counteracting the use of social engineering are compared. For each of them, the application features, advantages, and disadvantages are analyzed. Given this, it is proposed to use fuzzy directed social graphs to set a model for analyzing the vulnerabilities of socio-technical systems. This was preceded by the definition of the concepts of the social network, actor, relationships. This view allows us to take into account the characteristics of the social engineering influence. In particular, the numbers of input and output arcs distinguish varieties of actors from the social engineer, user, manipulative form, vulnerability. While the importance of each of them is determined using the characteristics of centrality and prestige. At the same time, the levels of the actor, dyad, and the triad of vulnerabilities analysis of socio-technical systems to the effects of social engineering are highlighted. This will make it possible to determine the ways of such impacts taking into account the peculiarities of their realizability through user vulnerabilities and, as a result, to counteract them. In further research, it is planned to develop a method for analyzing the vulnerability of socio-technical systems to the impacts of social engineering based on the proposed model.
Volodymyr Barannik, Sergii Shulgin, Natalia Barannik, Yurii Babenko, Roman Puhachov
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 85-94; doi:10.28925/2663-4023.2020.7.8594

Tamara Radivilova, Lyudmyla Kirichenko, Maksym Tawalbeh, Petro Zinchenko, Vitalii Bulakh
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 3, pp 17-30; doi:10.28925/2663-4023.2020.7.1730

Abstract:
The problem of load balancing in intrusion detection systems is considered in this paper. The analysis of existing problems of load balancing and modern methods of their solution are carried out. Types of intrusion detection systems and their description are given. A description of the intrusion detection system, its location, and the functioning of its elements in the computer system are provided. Comparative analysis of load balancing methods based on packet inspection and service time calculation is performed. An analysis of the causes of load imbalance in the intrusion detection system elements and the effects of load imbalance is also presented. A model of a network intrusion detection system based on packet signature analysis is presented. This paper describes the multifractal properties of traffic. Based on the analysis of intrusion detection systems, multifractal traffic properties and load balancing problem, the method of balancing is proposed, which is based on the funcsioning of the intrusion detection system elements and analysis of multifractal properties of incoming traffic. The proposed method takes into account the time of deep packet inspection required to compare a packet with signatures, which is calculated based on the calculation of the information flow multifractality degree. Load balancing rules are generated by the estimated average time of deep packet inspection and traffic multifractal parameters. This paper presents the simulation results of the proposed load balancing method compared to the standard method. It is shown that the load balancing method proposed in this paper provides for a uniform load distribution at the intrusion detection system elements. This allows for high speed and accuracy of intrusion detection with high-quality multifractal load balancing.
Vasyl Tsurkan
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 4, pp 192-201; doi:10.28925/2663-4023.2020.8.192201

Abstract:
The process of functional analysis of information security management systems was considered. The relevance of their presentation with many interrelated functions with internal and external interfaces is shown. Taking this into account, the methods of functional analysis of information security management systems are analyzed. Among them, graphic notation IDEF0 is highlighted. This choice is based on the ability to display both interfaces of functions and the conditions and resources of their execution. The orientation of the graphic notation IDEF0 use is established mainly for the presentation of the international standards ISO/IEC 27k series, the display of the main stages of the information security management systems life cycle, the development of individual elements of information security management systems, in particular, risk management. These limitations have been overcome by the method of information security management systems in functional analysis. This was preceded by the definition of the theoretical foundations of this method. Its use allows to allocate their functions at both levels of the system, and levels of its structural elements (subsystems, complexes, components). To do this, define the purpose, viewpoint and establishes information security management as the main activity. It is represented by a set of hierarchically related functions that are represented by a family tree. Each function of this tree defines incoming, outgoing data, management, and mechanisms. This makes it possible to establish their consistency with the organizational structure at the “activity-system”, “process-subsystem”, “operation-module (complex)” and “action-block (component)” levels. In future studies, it is planned to define a hierarchy of functions and develop a logical structure of information security management systems based on the proposed method of functional analysis.
Danylo Svatiuk, Oksana Svatiuk, Oleksandr Belei
Cybersecurity: Education, Science, Technique, Volume 4, pp 97-112; doi:10.28925/2663-4023.2020.8.97112

Abstract:
The article is devoted to analyzing methods for recognizing images and finding them in the video stream. The evolution of the structure of convolutional neural networks used in the field of computer video flow diagnostics is analyzed. The performance of video flow diagnostics algorithms and car license plate recognition has been evaluated. The technique of recognizing the license plates of cars in the video stream of transport neural networks is described. The study focuses on the creation of a combined system that combines artificial intelligence and computer vision based on fuzzy logic. To solve the problem of license plate image recognition in the video stream of the transport system, a method of image recognition in a continuous video stream with its implementation based on the composition of traditional image processing methods and neural networks with convolutional and periodic layers is proposed. The structure and peculiarities of functioning of the intelligent distributed system of urban transport safety, which feature is the use of mobile devices connected to a single network, are described. A practical implementation of a software application for recognizing car license plates by mobile devices on the Android operating system platform has been proposed and implemented. Various real-time vehicle license plate recognition scenarios have been developed and stored in a database for further analysis and use. The proposed application uses two different specialized neural networks: one for detecting objects in the video stream, the other for recognizing text from the selected image. Testing and analysis of software applications on the Android operating system platform for license plate recognition in real time confirmed the functionality of the proposed mathematical software and can be used to securely analyze the license plates of cars in the scanned video stream by comparing with license plates in the existing database. The authors have implemented the operation of the method of convolutional neural networks detection and recognition of license plates, personnel and critical situations in the video stream from cameras of mobile devices in real time. The possibility of its application in the field of safe identification of car license plates has been demonstrated.
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