Case Reports in Urology
ISSN / EISSN : 2090-696X / 2090-6978
Current Publisher: Hindawi Limited (10.1155)
Latest articles in this journal
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-5; doi:10.1155/2019/8071025
The thoracoabdominal incision was first described in 1946 as an approach to concomitant abdominal, retroperitoneal, and thoracic injuries. In urology, this technique was popularized in 1949 for the resection of large renal tumours. Today, it is reserved for complex cases where optimal exposure of the renal hilum and adrenal and superior pole of the kidney is necessary. We present four consecutive cases in which this approach was taken by a single surgeon at our tertiary surgical centre. The outcomes, postoperative course, and pathology are described. We provide a comprehensive literature review and outline the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of this approach. Objectives. To present a case series outlining the efficacy and safety of the thoracoabdominal incision in complex oncologic procedures in urology. Methods. Four cases utilizing the thoracoabdominal incision, performed by a single surgeon at our tertiary care center, were reviewed. Case history, preoperative imaging, intraoperative experience, postoperative course, final pathology, and complications were examined. A thorough literature review was performed and comparison made with historical cohorts for estimated blood loss, length of stay, and complications encountered versus other common surgical approaches. The indications, advantages, and disadvantages of the thoracoabdominal approach were outlined. Results. All patients had large retroperitoneal masses of varying complexity, requiring maximal surgical exposure. Surgery was straightforward in all cases, without any significant perioperative or postoperative complications. Postoperative pain, length of hospital stay, estimated blood loss, and analgesia requirements were all similar to open and mini-flank approaches in review of historical case series cohorts. Laparoscopic approaches had lower estimated blood loss and length of stay. Conclusions. The thoracoabdominal approach is rarely utilized in urological surgery, due to the perceived morbidity in violating the thoracic cavity. These cases outline the benefit of the thoracoabdominal approach in select cases requiring maximal surgical exposure, and the generally benign postoperative course that appropriately selected patients may hope to endure. Postoperative pain, length of hospital stay, estimated blood loss, and analgesia requirements can be expected to be similar open and mini-flank approaches. As expected, laparoscopic approaches had lower estimated blood loss and length of stay.
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-3; doi:10.1155/2019/8458706
We describe a case of a 71-year-old male with an isolated recurrence of urothelial carcinoma in an ileal neobladder without involvement of the upper urinary tract or urethra. He was diagnosed with high grade urothelial carcinoma involving a bladder diverticulum with associated carcinoma in situ. He underwent a radical cystectomy and orthotopic Studer ileal neobladder. On routine follow-up, 11 years following cystectomy, voided urine cytology was positive for high grade urothelial carcinoma. Further workup revealed normal upper urinary tracts, normal urethra, and a solitary lesion at the left anteroinferior wall of the neobladder. He subsequently underwent resection of the neobladder and conversion to an ileal conduit with pathology confirming the diagnosis of high grade urothelial carcinoma. Isolated recurrence of urothelial carcinoma within a neobladder without involvement of the upper urinary tract or urethra is rare. No guidelines exist regarding its management. Herein we present our management as well as the current literature published on this topic.
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-4; doi:10.1155/2019/1678193
Multinucleate Giant Cell (GC) reaction is a biological response that occurs secondary to infection, an implanted foreign body, tissue injury, or inflammation. In rare instances GC reactions have been reported following tissue ablation. Multinucleate GC reactions and tumefactive fat necrosis both have the ability to mimic cancer recurrence or metastasis and can appear as enhancing masses. We discuss a case of a surgically resected retroperitoneal perinephric mass thought to be recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that was pathologically confirmed as tumefactive fat necrosis with multinucleate GC reaction 2 years following percutaneous cryoablation of a small renal mass.
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-4; doi:10.1155/2019/1537379
Verrucous Carcinoma is a rare but well-differentiated variant of penile squamous cell carcinoma. Its clinical presentation is usually that of an exophytic cauliflower-like lesion with a broad-based growth pattern. We herein report the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with a giant verrucous carcinoma occupying the dorsal surface of the penile shaft. The patient underwent penile-sparing surgery, achieving both disease control and organ preservation. We discuss relevant issues, including clinical features, diagnosis, surgical management, and prognosis and we review the rather sparse literature regarding this rare lesion.
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-4; doi:10.1155/2019/2561289
Renal oncocytomas and retroperitoneal schwannomas are rare and typically benign tumors with characteristic histopathologic features. Ideal management of both renal oncocytoma and retroperitoneal schwannoma is surgical resection. We present a rare case of a 63-year-old man with multifocal renal oncocytoma and retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma which, preoperatively, masqueraded as metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Both tumors were successfully resected surgically. Immunochemistry and histopathology confirmed each diagnosis.
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-5; doi:10.1155/2019/8970172
Primary mature retroperitoneal teratomas are rare tumors most commonly occurring in adult females. These tumors are usually asymptomatic since they have no attachments to specific organs. We present a rare case of a 28-year-old male with 2-month history of lower urinary tract symptoms, who was found to have a primary mature cystic teratoma abutting the prostate.
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-4; doi:10.1155/2019/6769017
Cabozantinib represents an established vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF-) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in the treatment paradigm of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Its activity in mRCC patients with brain metastases (BMs) has been largely underreported in prospective clinical trials. We present the unique case of a heavily pretreated mRCC patient with BMs who achieved a brain complete response to cabozantinib prior to receiving radiation therapy. We end with a literature review and discussion of the biologic rationale and growing evidence supporting the intracranial activity of cabozantinib.
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-4; doi:10.1155/2019/9071327
Urethral haemangiomas are rare benign vascular tumours. They usually cause painless urethral bleeding and haematospermia. Urethroscopy is the preferred diagnostic tool, while complementary radiologic studies could describe the extension of the tumour. Treatment should be tailored to each case, considering size, location, and number of lesions. We present a case of a male patient diagnosed with urethral haemangiomas following painless spontaneous urethral bleeding associated with voiding symptoms.
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-4; doi:10.1155/2019/2186930
High risk pulmonary embolism is a rare and life-threatening complication following percutaneous nephrolithotomy. We report the case of a previously healthy, 44-year-old male, who developed acute pulmonary embolism following right percutaneous nephrolithotomy. On the 1st postoperative day, the patient presented with hemodynamic instability, acute respiratory distress, hypoxia, and loss of consciousness. He was urgently intubated and placed on mechanical ventilation. Clinical findings set the suspicion of pulmonary embolism with shock. Chest computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent urgent thrombolysis in the cardiac care unit. On the 2nd postoperative day, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit due to hemodynamic instability and fever. The postoperative course was complicated by right renal bleeding on the 3rd postoperative day, which was managed through angiography and angioembolization of the lower segmental right renal artery, followed by recurrent respiratory and urinary tract infections. The patient was transferred back to the urology department on the 66th postoperative day and was discharged seven days later.
Case Reports in Urology, Volume 2019, pp 1-4; doi:10.1155/2019/2703871
We describe an 81-year-old woman with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who did not recover from life-threatening interstitial pneumonitis induced by everolimus therapy. She received everolimus due to disease progression after sunitinib, but 2 months after starting everolimus treatment, she visited the emergency department after developing a sudden fever and dyspnea. Chest CT revealed diffuse ground-glass opacities, thickening of the interlobular septa, and consolidation throughout both lung fields. The diagnosis was surmised to be everolimus-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Everolimus administration was stopped and 3 courses of steroid pulse therapy were administered, along with intensive care, but the patient died due to rapid respiratory failure.