International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2617-7226 / 2617-7234
Published by: Comprehensive Publications (10.33545)
Total articles ≅ 423

Latest articles in this journal

Durre Aden, Nishat Afroze, Zaheer Sufian, Asim Israr Khan, Taiba Khan, Meher Aziz
International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 5, pp 72-76;

Background: To diagnose various histological types of papillary lesions of the breast according to the newer WHO classification and to study the expression of myoepithelial cell marker p63 in various papillary lesions. Material and Methods: The study was done on 21 patients with breast lesions between Jan 2015 to June 2016. Breast biopsies (incisional as well as excisional) were retrieved from the histopathology section of the department. Result: P63 showed a nuclear positivity in myoepithelial cells. It was retained in the benign papillary lesions with some exceptions and was almost completely lost in malignant papillary neoplasms Conclusion: P63 can be used to observe the characteristic pattern of nuclear staining and delineate the myoepithelial layer wherever needed.
Shraddha Vardivale, Jignasa Bhalodia
International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 4, pp 04-10;

Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide. The primary cause of this cancer is infection with human papillomavirus. Pap smear is a simple, safe, non-invasive and cost effective method for the detection of pre-cancerous, cancerous and benign lesions of cervix.Aim: To study the cytological patterns of cervical Pap smears in 766 cases and to classify the cytological abnormalities based on the Bethesda system 2014.Materials and methods: A retrospective study of total 766 cases of cervical smears was done at Pathology department, GMERS Medical College and Civil Hospital, Sola, Ahmedabad over a period of 1.5 years starting from 1st January 2020 to 30th June 2021. Women between 20 -75 years of age group were included in the study. Cervical smears were taken by obstetrics and gynaecology department and were received at pathology department, stained by using rapid Papanicolaou staining technique and studied by using light microscopy.Results: we studied total 766 cases out of which 26(3.40%) smears were unsatisfactory for evaluation. Out of these 740 cases, most common were inflammatory lesions-382 cases (49.86%).Cervical epithelial cell abnormalities including ASCUS-5 cases (0.67%), ASC-H -2 cases (0.24%), LSIL- 6 cases (0.78%), HSIL-1 case (0.13%) and AGC-NOS – 1 case (0.13%) were detected in our study. Majority of the cases were belonging to 31-40 years of age group -364 cases(47.50%) followed by 41-50 years-260 cases (33.94%).Conclusion: Pap smear is an easy, simple, safe and noninvasive method of cervical examination. By using Pap smear as a screening test, it is possible to detect malignant lesions at an earlier stage.
Mundhe Bp, Amrutwar Aa, Narwade Sb, Sunil Y Swami
International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 4, pp 90-95;

Background: In the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID 19 patients were found to have immunosuppression resulting in diverse range of bacterial and fungal infections that may be associated with preexisting comorbidities. Fungal rhinosinusitis is an emerging concern in post COVID-19 patients which needs prompt treatment for better outcome of the patients. Design: Out of 180 sinonasal tissues received from post COVID-19 patients, fungal infection was detected in 110 cases. Tissue processing was done after overnight fixing the tissue in 10% formalin. Decalcification was done wherever required. Routine H&E slide staining was done, and histopathological findings were noted. Clinicopathological correlation was done, and results were compared to other studies. Results and Discussion: 110 cases were diagnosed with fungal infections histopathologically of which 4 cases were having non-invasive fungal infection and rest [106] were invasive. Based on morphology of fungal hyphae on microscopy, 99 cases were suggestive of mucormycosis, followed by 8 cases of suspected aspergillosis and remaining 3 cases with combined infection. The most common involvement in our study was maxillary sinus. Orbital extension of fungal infections was found in 20 cases out of 110 cases in the present study. Conclusion: In the post-COVID-19 patients, the symptoms like facial pain, cheek swellings, orbital pain, nasal discharge should be evaluated properly for possibility of fungal infections that may prove fatal if undiagnosed. Early diagnosis is essential for initiation of anti-fungal treatment and limit the invasive course of the disease.
Yasmeen Khatib, Anumeha Chaturvedi, Yogita Sable, Manisha Khare, Prajakta Gupte, Vinaya Shah
International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 4, pp 166-170;

Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis /Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disorder whose diagnosis is based on cytology and raised levels of anti-thyroid antibodies. The aim of the present study was to analyse its varied cytological spectrum along with grading and correlation with lymphoid: epithelial (L:E) ratio and serological parameters. Hundred patients diagnosed as HT on cytology were included in the study. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) and antithyroid antibody levels were estimated. There was a female preponderance comprising 92% cases with majority cases presenting in the third decade. There were 63% cases with grade 2, 24% with grade 1 and 13% with grade 3 thyroiditis. Antithyroperoxidase levels were raised in 87% cases and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 78% cases. A statistically significant correlation was found between grading and L:E ratio but not with serological parameters. The present study highlights the cytological spectrum seen in HT which is useful for its diagnosis for prompt patient management.
Deepti Ks, Narendr Kl
International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 4, pp 163-165;

Background: High risk pregnancies are a small segment of the obstetric population, that produces the majority of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Upto 40% of high risk mothers experience placental damage. The pathological changes in the Placenta are not by large specific to a particular disorder and therefore a variety of disorders may show similar changes. This study is an attempt has been made to correlate various placental villous changes to the fetal outcome in normal and specific high risk pregnancies. This study was done in Department of Pathology, Srinivas Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore. The study was done from Oct 2017 to March 2019.
Vijay R Bhosale, Pankaj R Pande, Sudhir M Gavali
International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 4, pp 149-153;

Introduction: Renal biopsy is the corner stone of diagnostics modalities in renal parenchymal disease and offers vital prognostic information for nephrologists. The present study was undertaken with a view to become familiar with the histological patterns of different renal lesions and their correlation with clinical manifestations, hematological and biochemical changes. Methods: This study includes 129 renal biopsies received in the Department of Pathology, Prakash institute of medical sciences and research over a period 3 years January 2017 to December 2019. In all the cases, percutaneous renal biopsy was done under local anesthesia. The technique used was that of Kark and Muehrcke via Wilms Silverman needle with Franklin's modification. Results: The commonest lesion observed was minimal change disease (31.87%). This was followed by acute glomerulonephritis (26.36%). Maximum number of cases were observed in second and third decade of life, together comprising about 70% of cases. Overall male preponderance was observed. The commonest cause of nephrotic syndrome was observed to be minimal change disease. Conclusion: Nephrotic syndrome is common in adults also as against the general belief. Minimal change disease and acute glomerulonephritis are the commonly observed lesions causing nephrotic syndrome in most of the cases.
Deepti Ks, Narendr Kl
International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 4, pp 160-162;

Mildly elevated liver enzymes have been reported in dengue infection. Malaria destroys the liver tissue and the enzymes are elevated in blood that is absorbed partially or fully in the blood stream. The liver enzymes in malaria are elevated in early malaria infection and it’s a rule and natural history of the disease. The enzymes can be used as a predictor for assessing the disease severity and higher the levels of liver enzymes poorer is the prognosis of the disease. Most of the studies showed that unlike other viral infections, in dengue the rise of SGOT is usually more than SGPT and is believed to be due to release from the damaged myocytes. In view of this biochemical pattern, it is possible to confuse liver involvement in malaria infection with typical acute viral hepatitis, especially in countries where outbreaks of hepatitis A and E are common. So an attempt has been made to study the hepatic enzyme values and whether it reflects the prognosis is checked in this study.
Ashaq Hussain Bhat, Samiea Hussein
International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 4, pp 113-119;

Fixation is a complete and complex physiochemical process wherein cells and tissues are chemically fixed for further analyses. Fixatives are used for Solidification, Hardening, Optical differentiation, prevention of autolysis and tissue putrefaction. Various Types of fixatives (Simple, Compound, Microanatomical, Histochemical and Cytological) are used in Histology and Histopathology which includes Mercuric Chloride, Osmic Acid, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, osmium tetroxide, glyoxal, picric acid, Zenker’s fluid and so on. Due to limited availability of the material related to the topic a need was felt to write a review article so as to make the Researchers, Students. pathologists and laboratory technicians familiar with the basic Concept of fixation and fixatives.
Pinal M Patel, Viral M Bhanvadia, Hansa M Goswami
International Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 4, pp 30-35;

Background: Superficial Lymphadenopathy (LAP) is a common clinical presentation seen in pediatric patients attending the outpatient department. The etiology of Superficial LAP varies from a benign process to malignancy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a very rapid and easy to perform diagnostic test. Majority of cases can be diagnosed and managed on FNAC without need of histopathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of FNAC in diagnosis of superficial LAP in pediatric population. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out over a period of two year from June 2019 to May 2021 in the department of Pathology, B.J. Medical college, Civil Hospital Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Aspirated material was stained with Giemsa, Papanicolaou and Ziehl- Neelsen stain (whenever required). Distribution of cases in different age groups and sex was analyzed. lesions were categorized into benign and malignant conditions. All cases of superficial LAP seen in pediatric population where FNAC was performed were included in the study. Results: A total of 122 lymph nodes were aspirated in pediatric population during the study period. Majority of cases (94%) were benign. The results were categorized into two broad categories as benign- reactive lymphadenitis (67; 55%), Granulomatous lymphadenitis (47; 39%) and malignancy (08; 06%). The eight cases of malignancies identified in this population comprised of four cases, one of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) and three of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL). In this study, maximum number of patients were in the age group of 10-14 years (46%) followed by
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