Advances in Aerodynamics

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EISSN : 2524-6992
Total articles ≅ 67
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X. Bai, , P. Grant, N. Phillips, U. Oza, E. J. Avital, J. J. R. Williams
Published: 12 July 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3, pp 1-22; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00068-9

This paper presents numerical studies of the Magnus effect for a kinetic turbine on a horizontal axis. To focus on the Magnus blade, a single self-spinning cylindrical blade is assumed. An iterative direct-forcing immersed boundary method is employed within the Eulerian-Lagrangian framework due to its capability to treat complex and moving geometries. The Eulerian fluid domain is discretized using the finite volume method while the Magnus rotor is represented by a set of discrete points/markers. The aim of the numerical studies is to provide insights for the design process and predict aerodynamic performances under various operating conditions. Results for stationary and self-spinning cylinders in turbulent flows are found to be in good agreement with published data. By increasing the aspect ratio of the cylinder (simulated segment length over its diameter) from 3 to 10, a 30% drop in lift coefficient and a 22% increase in drag coefficient were observed, which is believed to be attributed to an enhancement of the three-dimensionality of the near-wake. For the Magnus rotor, key parameters such as dynamic forcing and frequency, distribution of pressure coefficient and torque have been produced for two cases with different structural designs and working conditions. With increase of the aspect ratio from 3 to 10, stable forces are observed from the root side of the blade and the torque coefficient increases from 0.68 to 2.1, which indicates a superior performance in terms of power extraction.
Fei Fei, Yang Ma, Jie Wu, Jun Zhang
Published: 5 July 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00069-8

The unified stochastic particle method based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model (USP-BGK) has been proposed recently to overcome the low accuracy and efficiency of the traditional stochastic particle methods, such as the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, for the simulation of multi-scale gas flows. However, running with extra virtual particles and space interpolation, the previous USP-BGK method cannot be directly transplanted into the existing DSMC codes. In this work, the implementation of USP-BGK is simplified using new temporal evolution and spatial reconstruction schemes. As a result, the present algorithm of the USP-BGK method is similar to the DSMC method and can be implemented efficiently based on any existing DSMC codes just by modifying the collision module.
Zi-Fei Meng, Fu-Ren Ming, Ping-Ping Wang, A-Man Zhang
Published: 28 June 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3, pp 1-1; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00072-z

, E. Jourdan
Published: 22 June 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3, pp 1-18; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00071-0

Flow between rotating concentric cylinders, or the Taylor Couette flow, has been studied extensively because of its rich physics, ranging from axisymmetric steady laminar flow, to fully developed turbulent flow. In the present study, we advocate the use of this problem as a benchmark case for scale-resolving simulation, such as large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS). The problem is attractive because of its simple geometry, simple boundary conditions, and complex physics involving wall-shear induced and centrifugal instability. Unlike the well-known fully developed channel flow, this problem has a curved wall boundary, and it is unnecessary to add a source term to the governing equations to sustain the fully developed turbulent flow. A p-refinement study for Re = 4000 is performed first to establish DNS data, including the time history of enstrophy, which can be used as an accuracy and resolution indicator to evaluate numerical methods, and is orders of magnitude faster than using the mean flow quantities and Reynolds stresses to evaluate solution quality. Finally, an hp-refinement study is performed to establish the relative accuracy and efficiency of high-order schemes of various accuracy.
Xin He, Cheng Gao, Tao Jiang
Published: 22 June 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00070-1

A simplified method for calculating the spectral emission of nonequilibrium air plasmas is developed. In order to obtain the nonequilibrium energy level populations, the nonequilibrium coefficients are introduced into the Saha-Boltzmann equation. These nonequilibrium coefficients are calculated by using several significant radiative processes. An approach to the determination of nonequilibrium electronic energy level populations of diatomic molecules is also presented. Based on the method, spectral emission of atoms and molecules in a typical air plasma cell is investigated. The results reveal that there is a significant difference between the nonequilibrium and equilibrium emission. We apply the method to the nonequilibrium AVCO R-156 experiment. Good agreement with the NEQAIR code and the measured data is shown, indicating that the method is reasonable and has good accuracy.
Wanqiu Jiang, , Yanguang Yang, Yilei Shi, Jie Wang, Jie Li, Zhengyi Long, Chunman Mao
Published: 17 June 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00067-w

In order to visualize the rarefied flow field in a Φ1m hypersonic low-density wind tunnel, an electric glow discharge technique based on high frequency excited power has been developed. Firstly, finite element simulation analysis has been carried out, and it is concluded that the breakdown voltage can be reduced by using high frequency power supply; then an electric glow discharge apparatus has been fabricated, and the discharge images were compared with simulations; besides, a clear flow field around HB-1 standard model has been observed using this technology; finally, the influence of glow discharge on the flow field, as well as the differences between direct current and high frequency electric glow discharges is discussed at the end of this paper.
Zi-Fei Meng, Fu-Ren Ming, Ping-Ping Wang, A-Man Zhang
Published: 29 May 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3, pp 1-16; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00066-x

The water entry is a classic fluid-structure interaction problem in ocean engineering. The prediction of impact loads on structure during the water entry is critical to some engineering applications. In this paper, a multiphase Riemann-SPH model is developed to investigate water entry problems. In this model, a special treatment, a cut-off value for the particle density, is arranged to avoid the occurrence of negative pressure. A remarkable advantage of the present multiphase SPH model is that the real speed of sound in air can be allowed when simulating water-air flows. In the present work, considering the air effect, several typical water entry problems are studied, and the evolution of multiphase interface, the motion characteristic of structure and complex fluid-structure interactions during the water entry are analyzed. Compared with the experimental data, the present multiphase SPH model can obtain satisfactory results, and it can be considered as a reliable tool in reproducing some fluid-structure interaction problems.
Yiming Zhu, Shengfa Wang, Xiaopeng Zheng, Na Lei, Zhongxuan Luo, Bo Chen
Published: 10 May 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3, pp 1-16; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00065-y

In this paper, we present an effective prismatic mesh generation method for viscous flow simulations. To address the prismatic mesh collisions in recessed cavities or slit areas, we exploit 3D tensors controlled anisotropic volume harmonic field to generate prismatic meshes. Specially, a well-fitting tetrahedral mesh is first constructed to serve as the discrete computation domain of volume harmonic fields. Then, 3D tensors are exploited to control the volume harmonic field that better fits the shape geometry. From the topological perspective, the generation of the prismatic mesh can be treated as a topology-preserved morphing of the viscous wall. Therefore, iso-surfaces in the volume harmonic field should be homeomorphic to the viscous wall while fitting its shapes. Finally, a full prismatic mesh can be induced by estimating the forward directions and visible regions in the volume harmonic field. Moreover, to be compatible with different simulation situations, the thickness of prismatic meshes should be variable. Our approach provides local adjustable thickness of prismatic meshes, which can be achieved by controlling local 3D tensors. The proposed anisotropic volume harmonic field based prismatic meshes are efficient and robust, and a full prismatic mesh can be guaranteed without low quality collisions. Various experiments have shown that our proposed prismatic meshes have obvious advantages in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.
Pushpa Shrestha, Charles Nottage, Yifei Yu, Oscar Alvarez, Chaoqun Liu
Published: 8 May 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3, pp 1-1; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00064-z

, Dingwu Jiang, Xiangren Geng, Jianqiang Chen
Published: 7 May 2021
Advances in Aerodynamics, Volume 3, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s42774-021-00063-0

A scaled model of the X38-like configuration was simulated under hypersonic conditions for the direct simulation Monte Carlo method and the unified gas kinetic scheme. The inflow conditions considered several flow regimes, from the near-continuum through the slip-transitional to the free molecular regime. Flow fields and surface properties were compared in detail between these two methods. Not only the density and temperature contours distribution but also the surface pressure, heat flux, friction distribution, both kinetic methods give fairly consistent results. Aerodynamics of the model were also achieved and compared. The results provided by both methods agreed with each other very well. The effects of the Knudsen number and angle of attack were assessed. It is meaningful to carry out comparative studies and accelerate both methods to further progress.
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