Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2029-8587 / 2538-7197
Current Publisher: Scientia Socialis Ltd. (10.33225)
Total articles ≅ 23
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Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century; doi:10.33225/ppc

Tetiana Kononovych, Petro Myasoid
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 14, pp 54-63; doi:10.33225/ppc/20.14.54

Abstract:
The purpose of the research was to test the prospects theory of Nobel Prize winner in economics D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, which describes the heuristics of economic decision-making, to the adoption of a decision by a concrete person. The method of the study is the Single Case Study, which is the most basic form of case-oriented research. The empirical material was obtained using the Melbourne decision-making questionnaire. The presence of cognitive biases in the decision-making process was determined based on the framing effect. Many methods were used to test the decision-making style of the research participant N and the components of intellectual-personal potential determined. It shows that there are deviations in the process of concrete economic decision making, which are not the result of heuristics, characterized by D. Kahneman and A. Tversky. The decision of the research participant is based on the rational style of this process and the analytical system of reasoning. There is an interaction between cognitive systems 1 and 2 with the evident dominance of the latter. This system blocks cognitive biases and ensures the achievement of results. At the same time, there is an influence from the properties of the intellectual-personal potential of the research participant, such as rationality, intolerance to un-certainty, emotional intelligence. In conclusion, the prospects theory explains the decision-making process in the case study, but the "systematic errors" which D. Kahneman and A. Tversky speak about are not observed. Therefore, there is an opportunity to continue studying the role of individuality in economic behavior. Keywords: behavioral economics, cognitive systems, decision-making style, prospects theory, sin-gle case study.
Mehboob Ul Hassan, Rafaqat Ali Akbar
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 14, pp 39-53; doi:10.33225/ppc/20.14.39

Abstract:
Applications of teachers’ pedagogical approaches for learners’ educational gains have been remained one of the educational debates since ago. Teachers transfer chunk of information among students through implementing techniques to strengthen teaching learning process. Relevance of ground-breaking instructional strategies put concrete effect on students’ entire academic success. Present quantitative research was conducted to explore the effect of teachers’ usage of students’ centered teachers’ pedagogical approaches on students’ educational gains. Researchers adopted ex-post-fact research design on sample of 800 respondents; 400 urban and 400 rural students randomly selected from public sector secondary schools of District Kasur Punjab-Province of Pakistan. Data were collected by administering self-constructed questionnaire mode of 5-point Likert type options. Validity of the instrument was confirmed from experts and Cronbach’s Alpha was applied to ensure instrument’s reliability scores; .864. Learners’ educational gains of science and arts students were obtained from gazette of Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Lahore. Results of independent sample t-test and regression analysis ascertained that teachers’ centered students’ pedagogical approaches effect 58% on learners’ educational gains whereas brainstorming 43%, inquiry 57%, problem solving 54% and cooperative technique effect 50% on learners’ educational gains. Science teachers were making more use of brainstorming, inquiry, problem solving, and cooperative teaching as compared to arts teachers. Study recommends that Govt. may train heads of the institutions on students’ centered teachers’ pedagogical approaches and bound them to implement with true spirit and vigor through teachers to overcome science and specially arts students’ declining level of educational gains; stakeholders’ cause for concern. Keywords: brainstorming, cooperative teaching, inquiry base, learners’ educational gains, problem solving.
Iveta Ādamsone, Nataļja Gudakovska, Guna Svence
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 14, pp 7-17; doi:10.33225/ppc/20.14.07

Abstract:
Growth mindset has become popular in the field of psychology and education all around the world. In the Baltic States this concept is relatively new. This research compiles results of two different studies that, for the first time in the Baltic States, analyse the concept of “implicit theories of intelligence” (ITI) and its factors – growth and fixed mindset, and investigate the relations between ITI and academic achievement of students. Data of two different samples of secondary school adolescents is used. Sample 1 consisted of students (N1=258) aged between 14 and 18, 134 females (M=15.13; SD=1.29) and 124 males (M=15.40; SD=1.20) studying in 7th-12th grade in two Latvian schools. Sample 2 consisted of students (N2=165), 80 females and 85 males, aged between 15 and 19 (M=16.75; SD=.90) studying in 10th-12th grade in five Latvian schools. Measures: The Revised Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale, The Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale for Children, and The College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale. The results of the study in Sample 1 (N1=258) showed significant positive relations between growth mindset and academic achievement, and gender specific difference in views of intelligence. The results of the study in Sample 2 (N2=165) identified positive relations between ITI and students’ achievement in Mathematics. The regression analysis (N2=165) showed that ITI predict academic achievement in Mathematics at a significant level. The findings suggest discrepancies with the previous studies. The construct needs to be explored further. Keywords: academic self-efficacy, academic achievement, gender differences, growth and fixed mindset, intelligence theories, school students.
Maria Annarumma, Luigi Vitale, Francesco Sessa, Ines Tedesco
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 14, pp 18-26; doi:10.33225/ppc/20.14.18

Abstract:
In the life cycle of family systems, transition periods are important stages for the maturation of the individual and his family as it allows the reorganization of relational arrangements. The health emergency of recent months makes it necessary for us to reflect on resilience education, to cultivate more authentic educational relationships and to react to stressful and problematic situations with greater self-effectiveness. If rigid family systems risk of causing communicative and relational diseases, investing in emotional literacy and empathy means providing adults and children with the tools to deal with the painful situations, that are inevitably part of everyday life, to share negative experiences and bring out the inner resources. In this perspective, technologies play a significant role in the media, both because they are a bridge between the family context and the external social network, and because they potentially allow more inclusive and flexible learning-teaching processes. A meticulous analysis of assistive technologies is thus necessary in order to call for a reconfiguration of information flows, spatial-temporal arrangements, methodologies and tools that are to be reconfigured ad habitus of the new individual and social educational needs. Keywords: assistive technologies, educational resilience, emotional literacy, family system, health emergency, psychotherapy.
Ahmed Saeed Yahya, Shakil Khawaja, Jude Chukwuma
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 14, pp 64-74; doi:10.33225/ppc/20.14.64

Abstract:
Both philosophy and cognitive science have made valuable contributions towards accounting for the aetiology of Schizophrenia, an illness that possesses a disparate assortment of symptoms. However, there is no firm agreement on what causes such experiences to arise. A theory is proposed which simplifies the signs and symptoms of Schizophrenia and is something which does not appear to exist in the field to date. The model proposed is a hybrid theory, combining the phenomenological approach of Sass and Parnas with elements from Frith and Hemsley’s cognitive science perspective. An argument is that if a hybrid theory was used it would assist in the early intervention of Schizophrenia by providing a focus for treatment during developmental stages. Keywords: psychiatric practice, cognitive science, early intervention in Schizophrenia, prodromal symptoms in Schizophrenia, unification of symptom clusters in Schizophrenia.
Maria Annarumma
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 14, pp 4-6; doi:10.33225/ppc/20.14.04

Abstract:
The great catastrophes of humanity – be it the plague of 1347 or that of 1629, the Spanish flu of 1918, the tsunami of 2004, the Coronavirus of 2020 – are all showing that, despite scientific progress or the arrogance of the "Promethean syndrome", the human being is constantly in danger. Violently and unexpectedly dropped in an atypical situation, which has subverted values and annihilated ancient certainties, we keep convincing ourselves that nothing will be the same. We try to hypothesize scenarios, outline reference frames, look ahead to the future. Probably, after the first months of austerity, of virtuous assertions about moral commitments to restore the frugality of customs as well as considerations about the sense of death and destiny, we will be carried away by the joy of having survived and we just would like to forget what happened. We will be rejecting the memory of suffering, bereavement, hospitals and intensive care. We will try to forget painful traces and go back to saying yes to life.
Sergii Boltivets, Oleksandr Bashynskyi, Olha Zahariichuk
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 14, pp 27-38; doi:10.33225/ppc/20.14.27

Abstract:
The aim of the research was to explore the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with schizophrenia with delusional ideas of influence, manifestations of self-destructive behavior, and social dysfunction, who are hospitalized both forcibly and voluntarily. The study involved 155 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. The patients were divided into two groups: the main group of 80 patients and the comparison group of 75 persons. The socio-demographic data obtained for the groups were processed using clinical-psychopathological, psychodiagnostic, and statistical methods. From the analysis it was noted that compulsorily hospitalized patients with schizophrenia showed fairly high levels of violence and victimization. Patients in the compulsorily hospitalized group had a higher severity of manifestations of self-destructive behavior and of delusional ideas of influence with fantastic content. Also, there was a difference in the level of social dysfunction between the two groups. The results will be used in the development of the program of medical and social rehabilitation of the studied contingent of patients. Keywords: delusional ideas, compulsorily hospitalized patients, life quality, medical and social rehabilitation, self-destructive behavior, schizophrenia, social maladaptation.
Nadja Walter, Thomas Heinen
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 13, pp 113-126; doi:10.33225/ppc/19.13.113

Abstract:
Despite typical physiological risks of regular physical activity such as injuries or overtraining, particularly excessive exercise can have psychological side effects and become obsessive. This obsessiveness is often associated with symptoms of addiction (i.e., reduction of other activities, lack of control, withdrawal symptoms). However, the underlying process of developing an exercise addiction is not yet fully understood. Besides the physiological approach, there are several psychological and socio-theoretical models focusing on personal and situational factors. The aim of this research was to explore the role of psycho-social aspects and their influence on symptoms of exercise addiction. 501 participants were asked to record their current sport regarding type, intensity, frequency, and competitive activity. Furthermore, the participants were asked about the motives to exercise as well as their inspiration to start with their current sport. Addictive symptoms were assessed using the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS). It was expected, that inspiration, competitive activity, as well as the motives achievement striving and catharsis have an influence on the EDS score. The results showed that athletes rating the motives achievement striving, catharsis and enjoyment of movement as important or very important showed significantly higher scores in the EDS. No significant differences were found for inspiration, but competitive activity. The findings suggest an important role of intrinsic motivation on the development of exercise addition, particularly the motive enjoyment of movement. However, the interaction of personal and situational factors needs to be explored further. Keywords: achievement striving, catharsis, competitive athletes, exercise dependence scale, inspiration, physical activity.
Mariam Kvitsiani, Maia Mestvirishvili, Khatuna Martskvishvili, Tamar Kamushadze, Mariam Odilavadze, Mariam Panjikidze
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 13, pp 84-100; doi:10.33225/ppc/19.13.84

Abstract:
When talking about human well-being, Unconditional Self-acceptance represents one of the cores. Although researchers have focused on various predictors of Acceptance, there is not a clear understanding of personal values impacting the process of accepting oneself. The aim of the research was to explore the association between basic values and unconditional self-acceptance, and to find out the role of psychological flexibility in this relationship. 370 participants filled the questionnaires to explore basic values, unconditional self-acceptance and psychological flexibility. As data showed, self-transcendence and openness to change predict higher level of psychological flexibility, however, only openness to change possesses positive predictive power for unconditional self-acceptance. Mediation model indicates that basic value system of openness to changes is the one, which reflected on individual’s higher psychological flexibility, and through this flexibility she/he achieves higher level of unconditional self-acceptance. The research confirmed a unique role of openness to change in association with self-acceptance which might be an important insight for clinical psychologists as well as for mental health professionals. Keywords: basic value systems, psychological flexibility, quantitative research, unconditional self-acceptance.
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