Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2029-8587 / 2538-7197
Published by: Scientia Socialis Ltd. (10.33225)
Total articles ≅ 164
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Latest articles in this journal

Oleksadr Bashynskyi
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 16, pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/22.16.11

Abstract:
Manifestations of self-destructive behavior (SDB) differ in patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychotic disorders and our study aims to identify these differences through the demonstration of clinical cases. The purpose of the study is to explore clinical differences in manifestations of self-destructive behavior in patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychotic disorders. The study involved 95 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group (Gr1 PermSDB) included 40 patients (42% of the total number of subjects) with psychiatric disorders, who expressed a constant presence of manifestations of self-destructive behavior throughout the whole disease period or during more than half of this period (both according to the patients and to the medical records). The second group (Gr2 ImpSDB) included 55 patients (58% of the total number of subjects), where the manifestations of self-destructive behavior appeared only at the height of exacerbation of psychopathological symptoms, and this caused the acts of impulsive self-harm. Looking at the examples, we see a difference in motivational statements in different groups of patients: in Gr2, the main factor that motivated patients to harm themselves was the exacerbation of psychotic symptoms. At the same time, the main factors influencing the self-harm in Gr1 were personal experiences related to psychological problems Keywords: self-destructive behavior, schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum psychotic disorders, clinical cases
Zachary M. Rosenthal, Maria Annarumma, Francesco Sessa, Iris Consalvo, Valerio De Masi, Luana Pagano
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 16, pp 36-48; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/22.16.36

Abstract:
Recent scientific studies have noted that misophonia is a complex neurophysiological and behavioural syndrome characterised by high physiological and emotional reactivity, resulting from an intolerance to specific auditory stimuli. People with this distress have emotional and behavioural responses, excessive in relation to the auditory stimulus that provokes them; in fact, these people may have outbursts of anger, severe anxiety crises, and even panic attacks. One of the questions that the first studies of this syndrome have asked was what link occurred between misophonia and certain psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression, and personality disorders. Another important research objective was to examine the differential diagnosis between misophonia and hearing disorders such as tinnitus. In view of the current literature on misophonia, it has become important to define the comorbidity and differential diagnosis of misophonia with other disorders. The next step is, through further research on clinical cases, to define the most effective psychotherapeutic techniques on misophonic symptoms, and the psychoeducational tools needed to intervene in family systems with misophonic patients. Keywords: comorbidity, differential diagnosis, psychological disorders, hearing disorders, misophonia, behavioural response, emotional response, psychoeducational tools, psychotherapeutic techniques
Anastasia Kitiashvili, Tamar Abashidze, Irine Zhvania
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 16, pp 20-35; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/22.16.20

Abstract:
Education and employment are essential factors for social inclusion of young people in society, so it is important to study young people who are neither in education or in employment (called NEETs) to determine how they deal with their social status and their mechanisms to integrate into society. This study examines how negatively or positively NEET young people perceive their social status, how NEET status affects young people's attitudes, social identity, or well-being, and whether young people try to escape from the status of NEET. The survey was conducted with 380 young people and in-depth interviews with 12 people. Research shows that the social status of NEET is neither desirable nor appreciated. NEETs are associated with diminished well-being mainly because of their lower life satisfaction. NEET youth scores lower than the general population in life satisfaction, although they have similar level of self-esteem. Research has shown that NEET youth use psychological mechanisms, such as identifying with a positively assessed group, to help young people maintain high self-esteem or use strategies to escape from the NEETs group, get a job, or continue their education. The following factors positively contribute to the desire to leave the NEET group: self-esteem is the most important motivator, followed by social identity, attitudes towards education and employment, and family economic status. The high NEET rate in Georgia suggests that NEETs youth should be a particular target group for interventions to enable their ‘activation’ to integrate into society. Keywords: attitudes towards education, attitudes towards employment, NEET youth, social identity, well-being
Dennis Relojo-Howell
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 16, pp 4-10; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/22.16.04

Abstract:
It is easier than ever for researchers to disseminate and report their findings once the job of collecting data and formulating a conclusion is complete. The process of research, scholarship, and publication is central to higher education (Mason et al., 2021). However, the existing model of research dissemination is far from adequate, as it does not meet the demands of the more competitive side of academia; journal publications and conference participation are no longer sufficient to build and establish professional reputations (Relojo-Howell, 2021a). Both your academic colleagues and the broader lay audience of those seeking to learn more about your specific area of study now have significantly more tools at their disposal to find the information they are looking for. As a result, researchers need to work harder at establishing themselves as respected professionals in their respective fields through a broader range of networking activities, including creating an online presence where their work can be found quickly and efficiently.
Iveta Smane, Guna Svence
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 15, pp 94-103; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/21.15.94

Abstract:
The issue of parents’ psychological well-being, parents’ ability to recognize their physical and emotional resources, ability to avoid exhaustion of those resources has become increasingly important. In this context parents’ self-compassion could be psychological resource for parents to implement positive parenting approaches and encourage positive contact with the child. The aim of this research was to examine whether there is an association between parents’ self-compassion and their perceptions of child rearing practices. Data were collected from 203 respondents in 2019. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation (rs= .268 p < .01) between self-compassion and the Positive parenting indicators; statistically significant negative correlation (rs= -.214 p < .01) between self-compassion and Psychological control; statistically significant negative correlation (rs= -.192, p < .01) between self-compassion and Physical control. Keywords: psychological well-being, self-compassion, perceptions of child rearing
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 15, pp 82-93; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/21.15.82

Abstract:
Health promotion is defined as the process of enabling people to increase control over and to enhance their health. It focuses on individual behaviors towards a wide range of interventions on social and environmental determinants of health and other health related aspects of life (WHO, 2015; 2017). Thus, health promotion implies the need to promote and empower people with resources and skills towards health and well-being (Saboga-Nunes, et al., 2019). The literature reports a negative variation in the lifestyle of university students, and simultaneously demonstrates a significant percentage of university students with a set of emotional, relational, anxiety and stress management difficulties (WHO, 2021, 2018). The need to curb behavioral tendencies harmful to the health of young university students comes justify the need for health promotion in the context of these institutions. This study aimed at analyzing the impact of university students' training, in the area of health promotion and of personal and socio-emotional skills. Participated 286 students. The results show that in addition to the skills worked during the training, the students’ well-being and health also improved at the end of the training. The variables that evidenced to be the most important for the university students’ health promotion were that they finished the training with more self-esteem, resilience, psychological well-being, self-efficacy, happiness and less instability and alienation. Regarding the pre and post evaluation comparisons about skills, importance and usefulness of HBSC/JUnP training, it was observed that both knowledge about health aspects and personal and socio-emotional skills, namely the resilience, self-regulation and problem-solving strategies had a strong positive impact on promoting the health and well-being of students. Higher education institutions present themselves as enhancers of public health, contributing to the students make healthy choices. Keywords: health promotion, personal and socio-emotional skills, university students’ training, healthy universities, Portugal
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 15, pp 48-52; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/21.15.48

Abstract:
Technological upgrades, progressive scientific and technical developments are a direct reflection of the challenges of the 21st century, the overcoming of which implies a review of the content of education and the results obtained from it, aimed at developing a creative, self-planning, results’ predicting personalities. The acquisition of the mentioned qualities is ensured by the introduction of a chess game in the educational process, the purpose of which is not only to learn chess, but also to develop cognitive, emotional qualities at young age (Karapetyan & Misakyan, 2020), action prediction, thinking quality, decision-making quality, performing analytical actions (Kasparov, 2007).
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 15, pp 73-81; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/21.15.73

Abstract:
Practicing sexual intercourse (SI) under the influence of alcohol or drugs has been identified as an unhealthy sexual behaviour. The sample consisted of 5695 adolescents, of which 46.1% were males, with a mean age of 15 years old. The measures consisted of asking the adolescent if he or she had ever had SI, age of 1st SI, condom use at last SI, SI under the influence of alcohol or drugs and HIV testing. Most adolescents reported having never had SI (77.0%). Among those who responded affirmatively, they referred having had their 1st SI at 15 years old. A significant minority reported not having used condom at last SI (34.1%) and having had SI under the influence of alcohol or drugs (14.5%). It was noticeable that males, adolescents with high SES, those who reported not having used condom at last SI, those not having been HIV tested, those who consider themselves fat, smoke daily, and scored lower in emotional sensitivity and quality of life were those who were more likely to have reported having had SI under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Adolescents who reported having had SI under the influence of alcohol or drugs have multiple risk behaviours. These results may account for important changes in educational and health policies, directed towards the development of personal and social skills, the importance of adolescents’ quality of life and the activation of all the support structures where adolescents are involved and that are somewhat responsible for promoting a healthy lifestyle. Keywords: unhealthy sexual behaviour, sexual intercourse, substance use, Portuguese adolescents
, Olga Okhremenko
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 15, pp 53-60; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/21.15.53

Abstract:
The victimhood of indirect witnesses of terrorist acts, which includes both the audience of the media and the population as a whole, is a complex socio-psychological phenomenon. The reasons victimizations are changes in the system of internal regulation of behavior, namely contradictions between the basic beliefs of people and the real consequences of terrorist acts, which are subjectively perceived as an unexpected, uncertain threat to existence (both objective and subjective), the irreparability of what can happen. Among the indirect witnesses were singled three response styles: slightly negative assessment, partial justification of the perpetrators of a terrorist act, negative emotional assessment with expressed anxiety. The most significant consequences of the psychological impact of terrorist acts on the media audience and the general population should be considered: the contradiction between the basic ideas of people and the reality demonstrated by the media: the subjective and objective unexpectedness of a terrorist act; incorrigibility of the offense. Shown, that psychological countermeasures should be based on the information component aimed at preventing inappropriate reactions, especially in the first days after the terrorist act, development and demonstration of optimal algorithms of behavior, prevent recourse to unconscious or subconscious impulses that violate basic illusions existence. With the presence of drivers that trigger patterns of victim-induced behavior, the media can provoke in the general population a massive loss of social and personal identity, meaning of life, prospects, to form a complex of inferiority, to induce certain adverse behaviors. The most significant consequences of the psychological impact of terrorist acts on the audience of the media and the general population should be considered the contradiction between the basic ideas of people (activate the images of death, destruction, horror of nothingness, which subconsciously everyone has. These "forms of the unspoken" violate three basic illusions of existence: the illusion of one's own immortality, the illusion of justice, the illusion of the hidden meaning of life) and the reality published by the media, which is subjectively perceived as a threat to existence; subjective and objective unexpectedness of a terrorist act; incorrigibility of the committed. Psychological measures to combat victimization should be based on the dominance of the information component of counteraction aimed at preventing dangerous reactions, especially in the first hours after the commission of a terrorist act, the development and demonstration of optimal behavioral algorithms. Keywords: indirect witnesses, terrorist attack, psychological measures, induced behavior, optimal algorithms
Anastasia Kitiashvili, Tamar Makharadze
Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, Volume 15, pp 61-72; https://doi.org/10.33225/ppc/21.15.61

Abstract:
Restrictions, physical distancing and lockdown imposed during Covid-19 are associated with many challenges such as financial shortages and lack of social relationships, which have been particularly damaging for vulnerable groups dependent on others. This research aims to study financial and social challenges faced by one of the vulnerable social groups-pensioners living alone below the poverty line during the covid-19 period in four Georgia municipalities (Bolnisi, Dmanisi, Tianeti and Kaspi) in July-August 2020. The survey was conducted with 475 respondents (confidence level 95, interval 4), but 11 questionnaires were discarded due to technical deficiencies. The analysis was performed on 464 data. The study used available sampling where gender (strata) representation was maintained. 78.6% were female and 21.14% male. Overall, the elderly is a fairly vulnerable group in municipalities and across the country. The biggest problem during the pandemic period was a lack of financial resources. The study participants' primary income source is social assistance and various pensions; Thus, the elderly people are financially dependent on state aid. The elderly have limited social relationships; They rarely interact with neighbors, much less with relatives, and even less with friends. The elderly rarely go to the city or village center either. Limited social networking and activities affect the mental health of the elderly. Such a situation is especially noteworthy in a pandemic. There is a positive correlation between limited access to technologies and lack of financial resources that plays a vital role in social relationships among the elderly; Those elderly who cannot afford access to computer/internet and telephone reported higher isolation levels. Keywords: social isolation, Covid-19, pensioners living alone, under poverty line
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