Journal of Baltic Science Education

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1648-3898 / 2538-7138
Published by: Scientia Socialis Ltd. (10.33225)
Total articles ≅ 527
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Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 716-728; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.716

Abstract:
With the unprecedented crisis created by the Coronavirus pandemic, online teaching and learning became a global solution - embraced by the whole world - that tried to cover, at least in part, in part the problems encountered by the educational systems. An exclusively online format of teaching and learning proved to be a challenge for both the didactic and the learning process. Although the extant research during the pandemic is very abundant, there are few approaches addressing the different perceptions reported by university students enrolled in various programs. This research aims to explore the usefulness of online learning as perceived by civil engineering students, from a multidimensional perspective. A multidimensional model has been developed that manifests on four dimensions: social usefulness of online lectures, the usefulness of online learning platform, learning effectiveness, and, usefulness for school performance. The results show a relatively low perception of the online learning usefulness in an exclusively online educational context, which disables active learning through hands-on experience in laboratory and real-life building sites (considering the regular study process). The model has been cross-validated on a sample of students enrolled in various educational programs then the differences between samples have been analyzed and discussed. Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, engineering students, learning platform, online education, perceived usefulness
, , Emine Şahin-Topalcengiz
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 740-758; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.740

Abstract:
Movies are informal teaching tools to make teaching relevant to a diverse group of students. The use of movies may enhance students’ interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). They can be effective tools to build students’ interest in STEM fields and raise their awareness of STEM and STEM careers. This study purpose was to identify STEM-related topics in the movie “Hidden Figures” and determine preservice female teachers’ views of it. The study sample included 19 female students. A qualitative phenomenological design research method was used. Data were collected using “the Movie Hidden Figures” and a “Semi-Structured Interview” forms. Qualitative data were analyzed using semiotics and content analysis. Analysis showed that Hidden Figures focus mostly on the theme of “gender perception in science” as well as “design process” and “advances in technology.” Participants believed that the movie had messages mostly of negative gender perception in science. Despite that, movies emphasized that women can be mathematicians, engineers, and scientists as men. They also stated that gender equality is crucial in education. They also advocated that mathematics and engineering are essential for technological progress and female scientists can play a more active role for achievement. Keywords: gender perception in science, hidden figures, women in movie, preservice teachers, STEM education
Todar Lakhvich
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 696-699; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.696

Abstract:
Why we need Science in our life? Why, when, and how people should learn scientific facts and acquire skills originated from application of specific scientific methods? Whether Science education is limited exclusively with the mission to prepare students to their life in the world of Physical/chemical/biological objects or vice versa it has a special cognitive potential that gives rise to the ability of every person regardless on its professional and social occupation to solve problems more effectively? JBSE publishes articles in which our authors try to answer all these questions exploring the issues of science education in different contexts. At the turn of the millennium, people have met a lot of new realities referring to issues in technologies, psychology, social relations etc. The life has changed drastically during a few last decades and a lot of traditional things seem to be perceived completely differently. How all those changes influenced the attitude to Science, how this is reflected in social and humanitarian issues, and finally, which ways should be proposed for Science Education in new reality?
Tao Jiang, Ji-Gen Chen, Wei Fang
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 759-774; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.759

Abstract:
Gender, learning achievements, parents’ occupational status, social-economic backgrounds, and a few traits of schools affect students’ occupational expectations. However, no research had integrated the above factors to investigate the generative mechanism of students’ occupational expectations. After combining student-level and school-level PISA 2018 datasets, two-level latent covariate modeling was used to find the generative mechanism of students’ occupational expectations in the Baltic countries. The mechanism had its primary concern to understand roles parents’ occupational status and individual science learning achievement played on students’ occupational expectations. The results indicate that the generative mechanism of students’ occupational expectations of Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia are the power model, the maternal model, and the science learning achievement pattern, respectively. It suggests one parent having high occupational status is to mold children’s high-skilled occupational expectations, and it would be better the mother is the higher occupational status parent. It highlights the importance of strengthening adult education, especially that aimed at families with both parents of low occupational status. It disapproves of a mother being a full-time housewife. It may impede her children from having ambitions for high-skilled jobs. Keywords: occupational expectation, PISA 2018 datasets, science learning achievement, two-level latent covariate model
Matěj Novák, Jan Petr,
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 827-839; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.827

Abstract:
For the possibility of using competitive tasks from the Biology Olympiad (BiO), either directly or after certain adaptations for everyday teaching tasks in the teaching process, it was aimed to determine if students could work meaningfully with them. The success of 2nd-year secondary school students (n = 113) in solutions of tasks (n = 5) designated for BiO was compared with the solutions by the regional round BiO´s participants. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey´s multiple comparison test were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. The research shows that secondary school students achieved an average success rate of 47.58 ± 12.51 % and BiO participants 62.69 ± 9.86 %. Within the results of all selected tasks, at least someone of the class of the secondary students achieved similar results in each of the tasks as BiO participants. That indicates that secondary school students were able to work meaningfully with BiO tasks which confirmed students' eligibility for work with these tasks. Keywords: biology education, Biology Olympiad, difficulty of tasks, learning tasks, science education
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 811-826; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.811

Abstract:
Science educators have highlighted the need to develop students to integrate knowledge across science disciplines to address real-world issues. However, there has been little research about the development of interdisciplinary assessment instruments. In this research, the instrument that measures the level of upper-secondary school students’ interdisciplinary understanding of environmental issues was developed and validated based upon Wilson’s Construct Modeling framework. After a pilot testing, the revised assessment instrument of interdisciplinary understanding covering five typical environmental problems comprised 14 multiple-choice questions and four constructed-response questions. Five hundred twenty-three eleventh graders, including 279 boys and 244 girls from mainland China, made up the research sample. The partial credit Rasch analysis has verified the reliability and validity of the interdisciplinary understanding instrument. In addition, the results of cluster analysis revealed that over half of the students could use some partially accurate scientific concepts and principles from two or more disciplinary perspectives to deal with a specific environmental issue. The validated instrument can provide insights for assessing and developing upper-secondary school students’ interdisciplinary understanding in science education. Keywords: Environmental Issues, Interdisciplinary Assessment, Interdisciplinary Understanding, Rasch Measurement Model, Science Education
Hiroyoshi Kinoshita, Ryosuke Utani
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 775-789; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.775

Abstract:
This research examined whether incorporating learning progress (LPs) in teaching can help Japanese lower-secondary school students systemically understand science concepts. A teaching plan incorporating the learning progressions (LPs) concept was developed. Next, a lesson was conducted for 36 third-year students of a public lower-secondary school in Japan (Hiroshima Prefecture) from the unit of “Ions and Atoms.” Then, the portfolios used in the class and the assessment questions after the class were analyzed. The results show that some students understood the concepts systemically at the grade level indicated by the LPs; however, some students did not. The results of this study suggest the following: (1) teachers should examine the appropriate teaching methods in the target unit and incorporate teaching to allow students to engage with what they are learning; (2) students should understand the lower-level concepts related to the target unit based on LPs, and if the level of understanding is insufficient, teachers should incorporate time to review and reconstruct the concepts. Keywords: lower-secondary school science, scientific concepts, learning progressions (LPs), systemic learning
, Fidelis O. Nnadi, Rose C. Anamezie
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 729-739; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.729

Abstract:
There is the need to liberate the school science teaching process to suit the culturally bound day-to-day experiences of learners. The clarion call becomes expedient in the light of pedagogical failure in science education, which precipitates poor science achievement, especially in non-Western cultures. Non-Western knowledge systems, specifically African indigenous knowledge systems (AIKs), have been excluded from science teaching, which accounts for the poor achievement of learners. This research therefore measured the effect of the type of teaching materials, gender and the interaction between gender and type of teaching materials on the measurement of gravitational acceleration. The analysis of covariance (p≤ .05) was used to analyse data which were collected from 264 sampled learners. The results from the research indicated that amalgamating Western science and culturally bound AIKs teaching materials in a non-Western culture enhanced the determination of gravitational acceleration and bridged the gender divide in Physics achievement. The amalgam of Western science and non-Western culturally bound science can transform science teaching, make science more relevant to everyday experiences of learners and enhance their understanding of science and ultimately their achievement. Keywords: African Indigenous Knowledge Systems, amalgamating, gravitational acceleration and experimental
Jongwon Park, Hye-Gyoung Yoon, Mijung Kim,
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 840-856; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.840

Abstract:
Scientific evidence-based reasoning has been recognized as a form of reasoning that characterizes scientific thinking. This study questioned what scientific evidence means in the various types of scientific activities; that is, this study explored the nature of scientific evidence (NOSE). To do this, previous studies were examined to understand how scientific evidence was analyzed, evaluated, and utilized during the scientific activities of scientists or students in scientific or everyday situations. Through this process, seven statements were identified to describe the NOSE. This study explains these seven NOSE statements, constructs a process of scientific evidence-based reasoning as a structured form by reflecting these seven statements comprehensively, and discusses the practical implications for teaching science in schools. Finally, the limitations of this study are discussed, and possible directions for future studies are suggested. It is believed that the list of NOSE characteristics can provide a starting point for further elucidation and discussion of scientific evidence and helping students’ science learning in more authentic ways. Keywords: evidence evaluation, evidence-based reasoning, evidence-based response, idea-based response, scientific evidence
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 20, pp 700-715; https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/21.20.700

Abstract:
As the impact of climate change is increasingly intense, environmental educators of higher education would like to know the influencing factors for college students to proceed financial strategies, such as flood insurance or energy taxes, to adapt climate change; however, the sustainable environmental education provided by most colleagues still lags far behind the pace of business and government. The research is aimed at eight colleagues in Taiwan and is an undergraduate student taking courses in general environmental education. As diverse courses integrate climate change issues, distributed 1,000 questionnaires were proportionally allocated to each university according to the number of students who had taken the course; a total of 866 questionnaires were recovered. The pro-environmental behavior model be validated, and assess the correlations among risk perception, economic incentives, intrinsic motivation, sacrifice for the environment, place attachment, cheerful emotion, and social norm with partial least squares regression. For college students with high or medium knowledge on climate change, this research demonstrated that if pro-environmental behaviors bring cheerful feeling, they will induce their intrinsic motivation; meanwhile, because of environmental sacrifice and social norms, pro-environmental behaviors will trigger cheerful feeling. Keywords: climate change, knowledge levels, partial least square, place attachment, pro-environmental behavior.
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