Journal of Baltic Science Education

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1648-3898 / 2538-7138
Current Publisher: Scientia Socialis Ltd. (10.33225)
Total articles ≅ 132
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Latest articles in this journal

Lukman Abdul Rauf Laliyo, Julhim S. Tangio, Bambang Sumintono, Mohamad Jahja, Citra Panigooro
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 824-841; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.824

Abstract:
This research aimed to evaluate the students’ conceptual understanding and to diagnose the students’ preconceptions in elaborating the particle characteristics of matter by development of diagnostic instrument as well as Rasch model response pattern analysis approach. Data were acquired by 25 multiple-choice written test items distributed to 987 students in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Analysis on diagnostic test items response pattern was conducted in three steps: 1) conversion of raw score to a homogenous interval unit and effectiveness analysis of measurement instruments; 2) measurement of disparity of students’ conceptual understanding; and 3) diagnosis of students’ preconception by estimation of item response pattern. The result generated information on the diagnostic and summative measurement on students’ conceptual understanding in elaborating the topic; information also acts as empirical evidence on the measurement’s reliability and validity. Moreover, the result discovered a significant disparity between students’ conceptual understanding based on their educational level. It was found that the distractor item response pattern tended to be consistent, indicating a certain tendency of resistant preconception pattern. The findings are expected to be a recommendation for future researchers and educational practitioners that integrate diagnostic and summative measurement with Rasch model in evaluating conceptual understanding and diagnosing misconception. Keywords: conceptual understanding, item response, particle of matter, Rasch model
Sevgi Kingir, Bilge Gok, Ahmet Selman Bozkir
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 804-823; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.804

Abstract:
Educational data mining is a developing research trend for exploring hidden patterns and natural associations among a set of student, teacher or school related variables. Discovering profiles of preservice science teachers using data mining methods would give important information about quality of teacher education programs and future science teachers’ performance. The aim of this research was to describe characteristics of preservice science teachers and to explore the relations among their motivational beliefs, learning strategy use, and constructivist learning environment perceptions. Participants included 480 preservice science teachers in their final semester of the teacher education program. Data were gathered using Demographic Questionnaire, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Constructivist Learning Environment Scale. Findings of clustering analysis revealed gender as a discriminating factor between the obtained two natural groups. Preservice science teachers’ characteristics including background characteristics, motivational beliefs, strategy use and constructivist learning environment perceptions were grouped into two clusters, namely males and females. Moreover, the association rules mining analysis revealed strong relations among preservice science teachers’ motivational beliefs, learning strategy use, and constructivist learning environment perceptions. This research provided many important findings that can be useful for further decision-making strategies. Keywords: constructivist learning environment, data mining, learning strategies, motivational belief, pre-service science teacher
Khaled Saleh Alrawili, Kamisah Osman, Saeed Almuntasheri
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 718-729; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.718

Abstract:
Encouraging students’ higher-order thinking skills (HOTs) has become an ultimate objective for several education programmes. Being a significant domain of scaffolding strategies, HOTs has been considered as a concern that should persistently be at the vanguard of reform agenda of science. The present research aims to examine the effect of scaffolding strategies on HOTs of middle school science students in the context of Saudi Arabia. To carry out the research aim, quasi-experimental design has been applied based on multiple-choice questions comprising 20 questions all distributed on four skills, namely, application, analysis, evaluation and creation. The total population of the research was 84 grade 9 students who all sat for both pre-test and post-test. Convenient sampling was chosen as a sampling method that typically suits both the experimental group (42 students) and the control group (42 students). After collection, data were analysed using both descriptive analysis, mean and standard deviation, and inferential statistics including t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate ANOVA. The effect of scaffolding strategies on the four skills was found to be significant (p
Bulent Aydogdu, Koray Kasapoglu, Nil Duban, Tugba Selanik Ay, Fatih Ozdinc
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 696-717; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.696

Abstract:
Professional development programs might affect teachers' perceptions of how STEM disciplines are interconnected. The purpose of this research was to examine the change in perceptions of science teachers particularly in disadvantageous schools, who participated in a practice-based professional development program offered in Turkey, about STEM, entrepreneurship, and E-STEM, and their experiences related to E-STEM. This qualitative research had a phenomenological design. The participants were totally 30 science teachers who were teaching in each of the seven geographical regions of Turkey. The data were collected through semi-structured pre- and post-focus group interview forms finalized after the expert review and pilot study. Furthermore, the science teachers were asked to keep a diary about the implementation process throughout the research. The data collected through focus group interviews were examined using content analysis and the data collected through the diaries were examined using descriptive analysis. The findings of the study indicate that the science teachers defined E-STEM as a process containing the aspects of entrepreneurship (communication, perseverance and determination, self-confidence, motivation, risk-taking, presentation, and marketing) more comprehensively compared to the pre-interviews. Keywords: STEM education, E-STEM education, science teacher, teacher education
Jon-Chao Hong, Jian-Hong Ye, Ya-Jiuan Ho, Ya-Jun Wang
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 764-779; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.764

Abstract:
STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education is recognized as the world’s top education program. However, few STEM programs have been designed based on cultural-historical events. To explore this issue, the present study drew on the cultural-historical activity theory and the content analysis method by adopting the descriptive-interpretative approach to explore the STEM content of the Dujiangyan Irrigation System (DIS) in present-day Sichuan, China. As early as 2,275 years ago during the Warring States period, Li Bing, the governor of Shu Shire in the Qin state, implicitly implemented the STEM concept when building the irrigation system. The results of this study indicate that the DIS incorporates Science (e.g., the hydraulic principle), Technology (e.g., making a large cobblestone Bamboo-Cage for building Fish Mouth), Engineering (e.g., water-level measurement) and Mathematics (e.g., Calculation of sand discharge). Adopting an educational pedagogy proposed by UNESCO which emphasized learning concepts from daily life, the present study draws on a cultural-historical event to inform STEM learning. The method and results of this study can be applied in the design of STEM programs based on other cultural-historical events from around the world. Keywords: cultural-historical activity theory, Dujiangyan, hydraulic engineering, interdisciplinary knowledge, STEM
Olugbenga Adedayo Ige, Loyiso C. Jita
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 780-803; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.780

Abstract:
The outcomes of IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) conducted from 1995 to 2002 confirmed that there was no improvement in the learning outcomes of grade eight learners in Mathematics and Science. Additionally, the failure rate in Mathematics at the National Senior Certificate (NSC) Matriculation examination has increased from 2008 to 2018 in South African schools. It was consequent on this decline in performance that the South African National Roads Agency Limited (SANRAL) Chair in Science and Mathematics Education developed a short learning intervention programme for Mathematics teachers in South Africa in 2013 and 2014. This research reports post-intervention instructional practices of five teachers at Reitz who took part in the intervention programme. The teachers took part in the training workshops that were orgnised for participants at the University of the Free State, implemented the knowledge acquired from the programme in their respective schools, and compiled an evidence portfolios of their post-intervention instructional practices. The portfolios of evidence submitted by the teachers were thus analysed to give voice and meaning to their post-intervention instructional practices and reflections. The analyses provide evidences of which aspects of their instructional delivery worked well while other aspects did not work well. Keywords: evidence portfolios, instructional practices, science education, short learning intervention programme, secondary school teachers
King-Dow Su
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 842-854; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.842

Abstract:
To be familiar with micro and symbolic performances, students could work out more effective approaches of innovated techniques known as five hierarchical designs in chemistry equilibrium. However, the most frequently reported problem in students’ assessment of chemistry study is attributed to their poor skill recognizing basic concepts. The aim of this research was to construct the 6 test items to help undergraduate students assess their high-order and low-order cognitive skills as a deeper framework of particle representations. It takes a dynamic appeal for students to identify their profound understanding of cognitive skills in accordance with their potential performances of particle representations. In this research, students activate the test instrument to sustain their development of content validity and inter-rater reliability. The research results mark a different responsive engagement of both high-order and low-order cognitive skills in students’ total performances with the skill ratio score of 1:6 for conceptual recognition and analyses of micro and symbolic performances. All students’ micro and symbolic performances offer an indication for understanding their advanced cognitive skills in the particulate nature of matter. It is beneficial to improve new perspectives in the discussions and activity hierarchical designs in their chemistry equilibrium classrooms. Keywords: high-order cognitive skills, hierarchical designs, micro, symbolic performances, particulate nature of matter
Nastja Cotič, Janja Plazar, Andreja Istenič Starčič, Darjo Zuljan
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 747-763; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.747

Abstract:
Experiential learning was introduced to support a child’s concept development towards evolution scientific literacy. This study examined the effect of an experiential learning model (The Mobile Natural Science Learning - MNSL) on the knowledge of 4th grade primary school students in Slovenia, during natural science school lessons at the seashore through the use of tablets. Mobile technology provides authentic learning, assisting outdoor lessons providing material and environmental context in learning, which support the experience of a learner. In the experimental group (N = 95), outdoor learning in the seashore included Kolb’s experiential learning cycle with the integration of tablets. In the control group (N=97), the teachers used concrete experience for exploring the seashore, excluding the Kolb’s cycle. The data were collected by using two science knowledge pre and post – tests. The test items were classified into three TIMSS’ cognitive domains: 1) factual knowledge, 2) conceptual understanding, and 3) reasoning and analysis. Differences between groups were analysed through Mann-Whitney U-test and showed that the experimental group had better learning outcomes than the control group. Findings indicate that the MNSL-model had a positive effect on students’ achievement in science, more precisely in knowledge on marine organisms and life at the seashore. Keywords: Kolb’s experiential learning cycle, natural science, outdoor learning, seashore
Vanessa Álvarez, Tarcilo Torres, Zulma Gangoso, Vicente Sanjosé
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 730-746; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.730

Abstract:
In physics and chemistry, the development of problem-solving skills is necessary to become an expert. A simple cognitive model to analyse such development is proposed and tested. An exploratory research was conducted with expert professors and students in initial and advanced years. A think aloud procedure was used to obtain relevant data while the participants tried to solve undefined, open problems. Solving these problems required a particular skill representative of expertise: modelling reality using science. More than 1350 solving actions were collected and related to the mental representations elaborated, developed and inter-related by solvers. The proposed model was able to account for expert-novice differences in terms of the respective distributions of solving actions among the mental representations. Large differences appeared in the mental representation of Conceptual scientific Model. In addition, advanced and initial students showed similar and significant averages of unproductive actions, while experts took very few. Experts showed high convergence in their distributions of actions among the mental representations. If the outcomes were replicated with higher external validity, the model could help researchers to analyse the cognitive mechanisms in problem-solving, and teachers to better focus their efforts on specific students’ lacks. Keywords: cognitive model, expert-novice differences, mental representations, problem-solving skills, solving actions
Andris Broks
Journal of Baltic Science Education, Volume 19, pp 692-695; doi:10.33225/jbse/20.19.692

Abstract:
Development of Human personal as well as social Life means continuing physical and spiritual (mental) changes all around them and within them. Corresponding changes traditionally reflected by humans as evolution (reformational) or revolution (transformational) processes, that are realizing corresponding quantitative or qualitative steps within the development of people’s Life Activities. First 20 years of 21-st Century presented a real start of serious qualitative changes as a process of implementation up to date achievements of modern Science and Technologies. These are transformational changes not only within physical background of our traditional Life, but fast developing of corresponding changes also within our spiritual (or mental) Life (Broks, 2016). The central phenomenon within the mentioned processes above today is the development of overall computerization of physical as well as mental Life Activities of Humans. Global, regional, local explosion of information as an artefact of revolution within Computer Science and Information Technology marks the above mentioned beginning of the 21-st century. So, our life today is becoming more and more complex by means of increasing diversity and speed of corresponding changes. Virus COVID-19 attack has just only accelerated these changes. Global turnover of Biological as well as Computer viruses is part of modern Life today for tomorrow.
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