Problems of Education in the 21st Century

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1822-7864 / 2538-7111
Published by: Scientia Socialis Ltd (10.33225)
Total articles ≅ 723
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Latest articles in this journal

Ayşegül Tongal,
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 602-616;

Learning styles, cerebral dominance and chronotypes are among the factors that have been determined to be effective on individuals’ learning. It is stated in the literature that these three variables are interrelated or affect each other. Therefore, the aim of the study is to determine the extent to which students’ cerebral dominance predicts their learning styles and whether chronotypes have an effect on this level of prediction as a moderating variable. In the research, the “Morningness-Eveningness Stability Scale improved” (MESSI), the “Kolb Learning Style Inventory” (KLSI) and the “Hermann Brain Dominance Instrument” (HBDI) were used as data collection tools. The selection of upper-secondary schools included in the sample was made in a district of Antalya province with the convenience sampling method. The sample of 593 students who agreed to respond to the scale was formed from 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th grade students studying at these upper-secondary schools in the 2021-2022 academic year. According to the analysis results of the structural equation model (SEM) obtained in the study, it was concluded that there were significant positive correlations between learning styles and the sub-dimensions of cerebral dominance; however, chronotypes did not significantly mediate the determined correlations. The findings of this study may provide implications for determining learning styles, which have proven effects on student performance in the teaching-learning process, and, by establishing relationships between individuals’ brain structures and chronotypes, the characteristics that direct learning preferences. Keywords: cerebral dominance, chronotypes, learning styles, structural equation model, upper-secondary school
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 494-498;

Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence. Science includes scientific methods such as objective observation, which refers to measurement and data (possibly, although not necessarily, using mathematics as a tool), evidence, experiment, critical analysis, and verification. The four major branches of science are: mathematics and logic, biological science, physical science, and social science. The key words that best define science are thus: objective observation + evidence-based approach + application of scientific methods = general truths The basic problem of such an explanation of science lies in the very definition of what general truths are, what kind of evidence is required to prove them, and how to arrive to this kind of evidence through objective observation. The simplest premise to answer these questions would be: through logic and critical thinking.
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 516-530;

Education continues to be an area that is likely to completely affect the future of humanity. Countries are trying to raise the level of education and increase the quality of the education provided as much as possible. To ensure that the quality of education is improved, many studies look from the perspectives of educators and officials who determine education policies. This study examines teachers' classroom management and approaches to justice in the classroom through the eyes of students. This study aims to shed light on the relationship between educators’ justice in classroom management and students’ school engagement based on the perceptions of university students. The study is based on a correlational design that examines the relationship between variables. It was conducted with 283 students at Şırnak University. The sample was determined randomly. The data were collected via the "Perception of Justice in Classroom Management" scale and the "School Engagement of University Students" scale. As a result, there was a moderately positive and significant relationship between the perception of justice in classroom management and school engagement. Besides, as a result of the regression analysis, it was revealed that the perception of the educators towards justice in classroom management predicted students’ school engagement. It was observed that 19% of students' school engagement was explained by educators’ perceptions of justice in classroom management. Keywords: classroom management, correlation, perception of justice, school engagement, university students
Lela R. Milošević Radulović,
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 565-587;

International conventions state that the right to an education is a basic human right which countries are obliged to guarantee. In Serbia, as in most countries, this right is guaranteed by the Constitution. However, data on a large part of the structure of the Serbian population with a lower level of educational attainment indicated that one part of the citizens did not realize this right since they did not continue their education after primary school. Therefore, the aim was to determine how the citizens of Serbia evaluated the state of education in Serbia as a whole (its quality), the accessibility (whether there are fair opportunities in education for all categories of the population), and the significance of education in Serbia (whether the knowledge acquired, and skills developed are relevant for employment). The results were obtained by analyzing the latest data from the European Social Survey (ESS) from 2018/2019 in Serbia on a sample of 2043 interviewees. The study was carried out by trained interviewers, in face-to-face interviews. The initial hypotheses were confirmed: a) a low prevalence of high grades for the state of education as a whole, the accessibility, and significance of education in Serbia, and b) that there is a difference in the perception of education depending on some of the socio-demographic characteristics of the interviewees. The creation of a favorable social and institutional environment and changes in the education policy are preconditions for the improvement of the quality and accessibility of education in Serbia. Keywords: education availability, education significance, education quality, social inequality, Serbia
Tanja Maltar Okun, ,
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 547-564;

The students’ attitudes towards school subjects may influence their behaviour and various educational outcomes. The research aimed to test students’ attitudes towards the subjects of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, and to examine the associations between those attitudes and students’ learning strategies and grades achieved. The study included 245 eighth-grade students from five schools in Koprivnica-Križevci County in the Republic of Croatia. Attitude scale towards science subjects and Learning strategies scale were employed. The results of the analysis of variance showed a significantly higher assessment of interest for Biology and Physics than for Chemistry, while the assessment of importance for Biology was significantly higher than for Chemistry and Physics. Attitudes toward Biology, Chemistry, and Physics were positively correlated with the grades achieved in those subjects. Results of the mediation analysis indicated that the learning strategies were mediators between the attitude towards the science subject and the grades achieved in those subjects. Students with a more positive attitude towards a subject employ a deeper approach to learning, which ultimately results in a higher grade. Keywords: lower secondary education; mediation analysis; school achievement, scientific subjects; student attitudes
Princess Gerbie C. Durante
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 531-546;

This mixed-method research sought to identify the factors, challenges and strategies that enable and strengthen collaborative research practice in academia. Participants of the study are purposively chosen, self-selected faculty and students from an external campus and a unit in the main campus of a state university in Bulacan, Philippines, who have successfully completed collaborative research writing projects, presented collaborative research projects in conferences and symposia, or published said collaborative research projects. Data were gathered using a researcher developed instrument, validated, and checked for reliability. Analysis of results using principal components analysis led to the development of the DRREAM (Diversity, Role assignment, Relationship-building and peer interdependence, Ergonomic, flexible and adaptable processes, Acquisition of knowledge, skills and expertise, Motivation consideration) model, a conceptual framework on factors that strengthen effectual collaborative research writing; while the use of thematic analysis enabled the formulation of IPP (Individual, Professional and Personal) model, a conceptual framework on strategies to overcome challenges faced by collaborators in a collaboration research project. Finally, an Action Plan Framework for Effectual Collaborative Research Writing is proposed to promote the culture of collaborative research practices among the members of the academia. Keywords: collaborative research writing, research collaboration factors, research collaboration challenges and strategies, research culture in academia
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 499-515;

Teaching science concepts for conceptual understanding has its challenges. Bringing about conceptual change in the science classroom can be difficult because most concepts are complicated and often counter-intuitive in the teaching and learning of science concepts. A review of the literature indicates that the conceptual change model, CCM can be an effective teaching technique in addressing misconceptions and improving conceptual understanding when it comes to science instruction. The aim of this research was to find out the effect of the conceptual change model on pre-service teachers’ conceptual understanding regarding the topic of forces and motion. Using data from tests and questionnaires, the research questions were answered by quantitatively analyzing the collected data. The analysis revealed that there is a statistically significant correlation between the conceptual change model and the conceptual understanding of the pre-service teacher participants. Overall, the results provide evidence in support of the effectiveness of the conceptual change model, CCM in addressing misconceptions and promoting conceptual understanding of forces and motion among the pre-service teacher participants that volunteered for this research. The results also indicate that the CCM is a teaching model which must be considered by science educators and teachers as they seek to address issues related to misconceptions and conceptual understanding in the teaching of science topics. Keywords: conceptual change, conceptual change model, conceptual understanding, misconceptions, pre-service teachers, science education
Najwa Bakr Mursi,
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 588-601;

The complexity of special education and the variability among students Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) require special education teachers to make a concerted effort to provide validated supports that contribute to their students’ learning outcomes. Among the most important considerations for teachers is the use of teaching practices supported as effective by evidence. There is a broad consensus that the use of Evidence Based Practices (EBPs) can lead to significant improvements for students with ASD and their families. The research to practice gap is widely recognised in special education in relation to the selection and implementation of EBPs, with several studies finding that teachers used unsupported teaching practices as frequently as those supported by empirical evidence. Thus, in order to utilise EBPs, teachers must first understand what EBPs mean and how a particular practice comes to be evidence-based. Aligning with this emphasis and the increasing introduction of EBPs in special education globally, this study explored special education teachers’ understanding of evidence, evidence-based, and EBPs in one centre of autism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). In this study, a qualitative approach was used. Within this approach, a single case study design was adopted. The data were collected from six special education teachers of students with ASD using interviews. The findings revealed that teachers referred to their own individual experiences or the experiences of other teachers as evidence. In addition, they referred to their superiors’ advice as being evidence-based and the perceived EBPs as technical tools handed to them by the Centre. This indicated that teachers’ understanding of evidence-based, and EBPs was constructed based on the culture of the Centre. The findings of this study suggest several courses of action for future research, and policymakers and teacher education. Keywords: autism, Evidence Based Practices (EBPs), special education teachers, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
, Oleh Rudiuk, Viktor Demianiuk
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 456-473;

The main purpose of this research is to examine the employment crisis among the unemployed youth with higher education. In particular, the research investigates the subjective experience of the youth representatives (n = 188) in the situation of job loss or inability to find it. For this purpose, the research uses the method of ranking social and psychological spheres of the youth by the criterion of frustration in the situation of job loss or inability to find it, as well as the method of multidimensional scaling to determine cognitive constructs used by the youth in interpreting individual situations of professional exclusion or unclaimed labor. According to the results of ranking social and psychological spheres of life of the unemployed youth with higher education, such social spheres of life as “inability to use the profession” and “difficult financial situation” are most frustrated in the situation of job loss or inability to find it. The research also found that such psychological spheres of the youth as “uncertainty in the future” and “feelings of dependence on external circumstances” are most frustrated in the situation of professional exclusion or unclaimed labor. The scaling of social and psychological spheres of life of the unemployed youth with higher education allowed empirical explanation of cognitive constructs as a system of latent categories of the subjective experience, which determines the character of experiencing a personal employment crisis. These categories include “social assessment”, “professional identification”, “self-doubt – dependence on others “lack of perspective – feeling of inferiority ". The results of the research allowed reconstructing the latent categories of the subjective experience of the unemployed youth with higher education who are experiencing a personal employment crisis in a situation of professional exclusion or unclaimed labor, which provides more favorable conditions for optimizing the process of psychological support and assistance to the unemployed youth taking into account the specifics of the subjective and psychological profile of their personality. Keywords: youth, professional exclusion, unclaimed labor, personality employment crisis, cognitive constructs
Badr Alharbi
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 80, pp 395-407;

Saudi teachers are unsure how to include critical thinking into their classrooms.This study aimed at identifying the knowledge of Saudi teachers regarding critical thinking skills and exploring their attitudes towards improving Saudi students’ critical thinking skills. To identify if there are statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05) between the response averages of the study sample members about the degree of assessment of Saudi teachers about their knowledge of self-critical thinking skills due to the variables (specialization, experience, and gender), the quantitative approach was used employing a three-part questionnaire as the study’s instrument to achieve objectives. The first part gathered the demographic information of the participants focusing on three variables: “specialization,” “years of experience,” and “gender. The second part was designed to assess the participants' critical thinking abilities. The third part was to determine the participants’ attitudes about improving students’ critical thinking skills. The sample of the study consisted of (408) teachers (male and female) who were teaching at secondary school level in Hail City, Saudi Arabia during the academic year 2020-2021. The results revealed that the level of Saudi Teachers’ knowledge of critical thinking skills was high and that their attitudes towards improving students’ critical thinking skills were positive. Statistically, there were significant differences in favor of the “sciences specialization” versus the “humanities specialization” in the questionnaire’s two objectives. On the other hand, there were no statistically significant differences in the “gender” and “years of experience” variables. For future research, there is still a need to further examine Saudi teachers’ critical thinking skills and their attitudes towards improving Saudi students’ critical thinking skills. Its relevance to e-learning and adaptable settings is also discussed. Future research could look into the many interactions between different learning methods and strategies utilized in the development of camel thinking. Keywords: attitudes towards critical thinking, Critical Thinking (CT), Critical Thinking Skills (CTS), Saudi Teachers (ST)
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