Problems of Education in the 21st Century

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1822-7864 / 2538-7111
Published by: Scientia Socialis Ltd. (10.33225)
Total articles ≅ 530
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Robert Krause
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 597-610; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.597

Abstract:
This research examined which personality variables potentially moderated the effect of feedback on the Overconfidence effect. Research sample consisted of Slovak teachers (n = 223) from across school levels, who were randomly allocated into one of the three groups, out of which two were experimental and one was control. Each group of participants filled in three personality questionnaires, the Reading Literacy Test, and questions on the Overconfidence effect. The first experimental group was given a real feedback on their achieved performance, the second experimental group was given an inaccurate feedback and the control group did not receive any feedback. It was pointed out that despite high mutual correlation between chosen personality variables, no relation was demonstrated between the Overconfidence effect and optimism, neuroticism, or participant’s self-evaluation. The results show that the impact of real feedback on the Overestimation effect depends on the level of neuroticism. Results suggested that the type of feedback on the Overconfidence effect is not moderated by the level of optimism. At the same time, the impact of real feedback on the Overconfidence effect is partially moderated by the level of self-evaluation and the impact of inaccurate feedback on the Overconfidence effect is not moderated by the level of self-evaluation. Keywords: moderation analysis, overconfidence effect, effect of experience, personality variables
Kamil Arif Kırkıç, Feriha Uludağ
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 585-596; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.585

Abstract:
Achievement in a course mostly depends on the students' characteristics and how teachers make their courses effective for their students' learning. Although different characteristics of teachers and students can affect learning outcomes, new approaches like STEM may cause new characteristics which affect students’ achievement as STEM attitudes. This study examines the correlation between secondary school students' STEM attitudes and their achievement in the Technology and Design Course (T & DC). A correlational survey model was applied in the study. A total of 400 students studying in the seventh and eighth grades constitute the sample of the study. A personal data form and STEM attitude test were utilized to collect data. Pearson Correlation Analysis and Regression Analysis techniques were used in the data analysis process. As a result of the analysis, it was found a positive and significant correlation between students' Technology and Design Course achievement and STEM attitudes. Students' attitudes to STEM predict their achievement in the Technology and Design Course by 5.1%. Students developing positive STEM attitudes can further enhance achievement in the (T&DC), which enables students to acquire the necessary design skills to produce technology in the future. Keywords: academic achievement, correlational survey, secondary school, STEM attitude, technology, and design course
Duygu Turgut, Zeha Yakar
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 640-656; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.640

Abstract:
Considering the recent rapid developments in science and technology, it is quite important for individuals to be able to make decisions about their own future and their children's future for the society in which they live and to know how to establish a balance of risk and decision. For this reason, teacher training programs should be planned to internalize pre-service teachers' awareness of responsibility. Regarding this point, the development of pre-service science teachers' bioethical values was examined on a class level basis using survey research. Research sample consisted total of 286 pre-service teachers of Science Teacher Training Program. Bioethical Values Questionnaire was applied to determine pre-service teachers’ bioethical values. As a result of analyses, it was determined that pre-service teachers’ bioethical values increased according to their class levels they attended. It was stated that pre-service science teachers’ bioethical values related to sub-dimensions of “Benefits of Biotechnology Applications”, “Science and Ethics”, “Reproductive Technologies and Cloning” and “Control of Genetic Interventions” were increased based on participants’ class levels. In addition, the results of the study revealed that pre-service teachers also had some concerns about the benefits of biotechnology applications. Keywords: bioethics level, science teaching, pre-service science teachers, socio-scientific issues
Barbara Zaman, Francka Lovšin Kozina
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 674-685; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.674

Abstract:
Today’s world is facing a problem with the growth of textile products and in particular, textile waste, which already represents a serious environmental problem. From the point of view of ensuring sustainable handling of textile products, it is thus very important that individuals have the appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills for sustainable handling of textile products or that they are properly ‘textile literate’. After all, appropriate textile literacy enables individuals to act according to the concept of sustainable development. The purpose of this research, which included 80 students from three Slovenian schools, who had completed their lower secondary education in the 2018/2019 school year, was to find out what their basic textile knowledge was and how they transferred it into their daily lives. Ninth graders were found to be deficient in basic textile skills, with girls having statistically significant better knowledge than boys. The girls were also statistically significantly better at recognising the connection between the acquired knowledge and everyday life and achieved a better result in terms of sustainable handling of textile products. The research findings can help teachers to be aware of the critical points in textile teaching in the context of sustainable development. The results also suggest that the current placement of textile content in the fifth grade, without further upgrading of the content in higher grades is not optimal. Most of the surveyed students had high grades in the fifth grade, but knowledge that is vital from the point of view of the sustainable behaviour of an individual is low in the ninth grade. These results can provide useful information for school policy makers who want to follow modern concepts of sustainable development. Keywords: active learning strategies, cross-curricular integration, ninth-graders, sustainable development and textile literacy
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 626-639; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.626

Abstract:
This research explored the participants’ use of Google Classroom and evaluated its acceptability using the Technology Acceptability Model (TAM). The respondents were limited to 56 teachers enrolled in the research methodology class in a graduate school of a certain university in Bulacan during the first semester of the school year 2019-2020. The study utilized a mixed-method design. Triangulated were the result of the TAM survey, the analysis of the open-ended survey, and the record of the submission frequency of the respondents through Google Classroom. The descriptive approach was also utilized to describe the respondents' technology acceptance when using Google Classroom through the administration of the TAM survey questionnaire. The study also determined which TAM factor affected the consistency of the use of Google Classroom the most. Among the factors, actual system use appeared to have significantly affected the respondents' consistency of using Google Classroom. A separate open-ended survey was conducted to verify the data derived from the TAM survey questionnaire. The open-ended survey revealed that despite the difficulty of having a good internet connection, all of the respondents agreed that Google Classroom is very useful, easy to use and would recommend its use to others. The consistency of actual use, through online submission, was recorded and served as the dependent variable. In terms of consistency, it was observed that 62.5% of the respondents were able to submit 11 to 12 out of 12 total number of activities through Google Classroom. It was concluded that the use of Google Classroom, though a new experience, made them realize how their life as a teacher can be more comfortable with the use of this technology. Keywords: active system use, behavioral intention, Google Classroom, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, technology acceptance
Anatolii Ivanchuk, Tetiana Zuziak, Oksana Marushchak, Anatolii Matviichuk, Viktor Solovei
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 554-567; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.554

Abstract:
Technical literacy is a component of professional competence of the pre-service technology teacher. However, the course content of technical disciplines in the pedagogical universities of Ukraine is not consistent with the content knowledge subsequently used in teaching practice of a technology teacher. Also, there is a need in general technical literacy of the students, yet it is developed only in its engineering design aspect. In the paper, it was proved that for the general technical literacy of pre-service technology teachers the basic concepts are the following technical phenomena: motion transmission, changes in kinematic parameters of motion, changes in force parameters of motion. Natural and scientific foundations of the machine drives were used as the basic topic-specific knowledge. It was hypothesized that effectiveness of teaching technical literacy to children would raise if the narrative about the technical phenomena is included in the content of the “Utility machinery” course for the pre-service technology teachers. The pedagogical experiment was performed in the Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University (Ukraine). It included ascertaining, formative, and control stages. At the ascertaining stage of the pedagogical experiment, the students’ readiness level to study technical phenomena was determined. At the formative stage, the students’ readiness to develop children’s technical literacy was measured. At the control stage, students’ readiness level to develop technical literacy was estimated in experimental and control groups. Theoretical value of the results is in substantiating technical topic-specific content knowledge as necessary for the pre-service technology teachers. Practical significance of the results is in implementation of the narratives about technical phenomena in the learning practice of the students of pedagogical university. Keywords: multidisciplinary approach, narrative approach, technical phenomena, technology teachers
Ly Thi Bac La, Nga Thi Thu Nguyen, Anh Thi Thuy Truong, Thu-Giang Tran, The-Thang Nguyen
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 611-625; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.611

Abstract:
Cohesive speech has commonly become regarded as one of the essential aspects of language development, especially for pre-schoolers. This study aimed to shed light on the cohesive speech of pre-schoolers (CSP) knowledge base. Three hundred ninety-five publications close related cohesive speech research of 5-6-year-old children were collected from the Scopus database. By using the bibliometric approach, the results showed the growth rate of publications over time from 1970 to 2020. In this period, the top five countries, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Brazil and France, have published over 60% of total documents. Besides, four main interests of authors in this field were discovered: “language development”, “speech pathology outcomes”, “speech therapy”, “language intervention”. Among these themes, “speech pathology outcomes” was the most relevant one. Another finding, in recent years, scholars focused on aspects of autism spectrum disorder of pre-schoolers. More importantly, the achievements of this discipline have considerably made positive contributions to various fields both in terms of theory and practice, especially in language and linguistics, speech and hearing, psychology, and medicine. Overall, these studies highlight the need for many other studies, particularly relevant to pre-schooling when new generations should be better prepared to be happy in school by their future cognitive developments. Keywords: language development, language intervention, speech pathology outcomes, speech therapy
Michal Černý
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 516-543; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.516

Abstract:
Information literacy is a critical topic in contemporary pedagogy and information science, it is ranked among the essential competencies for the 21st century, and in recent years, it has received increasing research interest. The problem, however, is that the research is focused mainly on primary and university (college) contexts and only rarely analyses secondary school settings. This paper, therefore, focuses on a group of high school students and on whether the literature's idea of their needs corresponds to their actual needs. Based on the analysis of 32 documents indexed in the Scopus and Web of Science databases, the paper identifies seven significant discursive areas addressed in the literature, both theoretically and empirically. These are the relationship of libraries and librarians to the development of information literacy, information evaluation, the relationship of information literacy and learning competencies, connection with other competencies, emphasis on constructivist approach, the social dimension of information literacy and its possible use for self-actualization. These topics form a specific research discourse, which they set out. In the second phase of the research, focus groups (8 groups in 4 schools, 41 students) on information literacy are studied through the seven essential discourses mentioned. Although our sample lacked reflections on the relationship between the library and high school students, the remaining six fundamental discourses appeared in the testimonies of high school students (Libraries and librarians, evaluation of information, learning competencies, connection with other literacy, constructivist approach, the social dimension of information literacy, information literacy as a means of self-actualization). The findings show that the main difference between literary discourse and student responses is in the perception of libraries as centres of information literacy development and that students prefer the school or their teachers in their place. Keywords: focus groups, information evaluation, information literacy, media literacy, overview study
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 513-515; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.513

Abstract:
We are living in an era, in which people are constantly asking themselves: how can anyone believe this news that is clearly false? Reflecting on this, a brief reflection on some factors that can influence people to take this kind of news into account is brought here, as well as presenting an example of Fake Science that circulated on social networks in 2020 in Brazil, during the pandemic context. First, it can be considered that a significant objective in Science Education is making students scientifically literate, prepared for appropriate decision-making. Chassot (2003, p. 19) considers scientific literacy as “the set of knowledge that would make it easier for men and women to read the world in which they live”. Leung (2020) adds that, nowadays, it is very important to recognize the veracity of information, differentiating it from fake news, which also encompasses the concept of scientific literacy, which brings us to the statement by Gomes et al. (2020) on media literacy, so that citizens can connect more to facts and less to emotions in understanding the news.
Mehmet Ali Yarim
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 79, pp 544-553; https://doi.org/10.33225/pec/21.79.544

Abstract:
Professional burnout is one of the most important problems of working life today. In this research it is aimed to follow the relation between job satisfaction and professional burnout of education workers by using meta-analysis method. In this context, examining the relation between occupational burnout and job satisfaction in educational organizations in Turkey master's theses, articles in Google Scholar by National Thesis Center with his doctoral thesis, EBSCO, ULAKBİM and Dergipark databases scanned, and the number of samples required for the meta-analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient A meta-analysis of 41 (N = 11050) studies containing (r) value was conducted. Effect size values, publication bias, heterogeneity and significance tests results were obtained using the CMA program in the study. In the research study conducted in the random effects model, it was concluded that the p value was less than .05, it took a value between -0.496 - 0.385 lower and upper limits in the 95% confidence interval, and the effect size was at the level of -0.443. Keywords: aimlessness, job satisfaction, burnout, professional burnout, meta-analysis
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