Problems of Education in the 21st Century

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1822-7864 / 2538-7111
Current Publisher: Scientia Socialis Ltd. (10.33225)
Total articles ≅ 108
Current Coverage

Latest articles in this journal

Mehboob Ul Hassan, Rafaqat Ali Akbar
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 734-753; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.734

Technology plants concrete effects on the supremacy of humans' technological success that have been remaining awe-inspiring aspects for stakeholders; teachers and students since last eras. Teachers make students technologically literate, reshape their hidden potential, skill them through modern gadgets, help in understanding and evaluating their functions applying technological and engineering standards for goal achievements. Present research was conducted to explore the effect of teachers’ technological literacy on students’ academic success occurs in vibrant environment on conveniently selected sample of 200 teachers working in public and private universities of district Lahore. Researchers administered a self-developed survey to collect data from teachers. Content validity of questionnaire was ensured from experts and reliability was confirmed by calculating Cronbach’s Alpha Scores .821. Normality of the data was assured by calculating Shapiro-Wilk’s test, ¬ n < 2000, p > .05. Students’ academic success was measured through acquiring achievement scores, obtained from concerned university offices ensuring ethical considerations, as in data collections. Results of independent samples t-test and regression analysis ascertained no significant difference between usage of technological literacy by teachers’ gender and university type; male teachers working in public and private universities have same usage of technological literacy as compared to female teachers. Moreover, teachers’ technological literacy affect 43% on students’ academic success occurs in vibrant learning environment. On the basis of results, research recommends that universities may established digital lab ensuring vibrant environment and hire technologically literate staff providing fringe benefits to meet 21st century technological literacy demands for students’ success. Keywords: digital citizenship, students’ achievement scores, technological literacy, technological concepts, vibrant environment
Samson Onyeluka Chukwuedo, Jane Nwakaego Egbri
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 688-697; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.688

The link between basic psychological needs satisfaction of employees and their engagement in other administrative organizations is relatively established. However, there is a paucity of research findings regarding this link in the educational organizations in general, and vocational education in particular. This research, therefore, determined the relations between work-related basic need satisfaction (WBNS), work engagement, and work motivation in aspects of vocational education. The participants were 299 business and technical education lecturers of the vocational education programme in Nigeria universities. The research utilized three scales, which were embedded in a questionnaire for data collection. The face and construct validity of the scales were established. Data analyses were performed with correlation, and regression of paths by applying 2000 re-samples bias-corrected (BC) bootstrapping method. The result revealed a significant positive WBNS-motivation, WBNS-engagement, and motivation-engagement relations. However, work motivation could not mediate the link in the research model. Keywords: basic need satisfaction, work engagement, work motivation, vocational education lecturers
Ya-Ling Wu, Shan-Ru Chao, Wei-Fang Tsai, Mei-Lun Chen
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 856-872; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.856

Based on the reminiscence therapy, the research aimed to develop the horticultural program with life contexts for the elderly in southern Taiwan, and to explore the effect on overall cognitive function of the elderly. The participants were 17 seniors in one community care center. The research adopted quasi-experimental research of one group pre-test and post-test design of time series, and data were collected by questionnaire surveys and semi-structured interviews. The objective of the program was to maintain cognitive function of the elderly. Twelve activities of the program were implemented once a week and 2 hours for each activity. The program included manual activity, group activity, and outdoor planting activity. The program content was based on farming experience of the elderly and integrated with diverse cognitive function trainings. It was found that the program showed immediate effect and two-week delay effect on promoting overall cognitive function of the elderly. Also, the elderly obtained new planting experience and their learning motivation was enhanced. Additionally, because of integrating with life contexts, the program was meaningful and encouraged the elderly to be engaged in the activities and recall the past. In the process, the elderly enjoyed the exchange of horticulture and life experience. Keywords: horticultural program, the elderly, cognitive function, quasi-experiment
Luciana Castellani, Luiz Fernando Quintanilha, Maria Belen Arriaga, Maria De Lourdes Lima, Bruno Bezerril Andrade
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 674-687; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.674

The new curriculum of medical schools has brought the need to develop a professional committed to ethics, capable of understanding the role of social factors, the insertion of the individual into the family and their role in promoting health. These skills and the use of new methodologies in teaching-learning process have demonstrated that the traditional performance assessment methods are limited in holistically evaluating the student. This study analyzed the correlation among different methods for evaluating competencies in medical internship students and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was performed among 5th year medical students at Pediatric, Surgery, Medical Clinic, Family and Community Medicine and Gynecology and Obstetrics. Grades of each student obtained through different evaluations (theoretical test, conceptual evaluation and test skills) at the end of each rotation were correlated with the individual results from OSCE. In regard to correlations with the OSCE score values, it was found a weak to moderate positive and statistically significant relationship with the global cognitive score (r= .22, p< .001), global abilities score (r= .26, p< .001) and with the global behavioral score (r= .38, p< .001). The students' performance in the various assessments of performance evaluated here was positively correlated to their performance on OSCE. Furthermore, the organization of an OSCE-type assessment prepared in multiple, committed and competent hands may serve as a unique assessment and, in fact, assess the development of clinical skills for future doctors. Keywords: educational measurements, higher education, medical education, objective structured clinical examination
Klara Skubic Ermenc, Damijan Štefanc, Jasna Mažgon
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 815-831; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.815

One of the main factors contributing to students’ optimal development in school settings is the implementation of appropriate differentiating and individualizing measures. While this topic is well researched and addressed in the context of primary and lower secondary education, the theoretical and empirical research on differentiated and individualized teaching in vocational education and training (VET) programs is relatively scarce. However, well-applied individualization measures seem equally important in the context of VET programs, as they are frequently attended by students with lower educational aspirations, diverse socio-cultural backgrounds, and complex educational and personal needs. Our research explores what kind of individualization practices exist in Slovenian VET programs and what roles teachers and school management play in implementing individualized teaching. A single case study with one class of 16-year-old students (N = 22) attending the confectioner VET program was conducted. The data were collected by means of interviews, observations, and questionnaires, and were analyzed and interpreted by combining qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches. The results indicate that the school strove to address the diversity of the student population and used a number of different activities at institutional (school) as well as individual (teacher) levels. However, the potential of a more individualized approach seems to be largely unexploited. It is necessary to understand individualization as a principle implemented at the level of direct teaching and at the school level. Students should receive guidance that adapts the education process to their individual characteristics and aspirations as much as possible. Keywords: differentiated teaching, individualized teaching, school management, Slovenia, vocational education
Godwin Mumhure, Loyiso C. Jita, Godsend T. Chimbi
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 799-814; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.799

For centuries, teacher professional development has largely been done by external experts who advise teachers on how to improve classroom practice and learner performance. This research explores a relatively unchartered idea of history subject panels/clusters as an innovation meant to break away from orthodox teacher professional development spearheaded by external experts. The research adopts a qualitative case study design. One history subject panel was case studied to examine how teachers initiated and sustained improvements in classroom practice and learner performance. Eight history teachers, who were active participants in the panel, were purposively sampled out of 25 teachers who constituted the history subject panel. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, document analysis and focus group discussion. Symbolic interactionism was used as the theoretical lens to gain deeper insights into how teachers socialised and shared ideas in the subject panel. Results indicated that the history subject panel was involved in the induction of new history teachers into the profession and the creation of learning communities for history students; practices hitherto undocumented in existing literature on subject panels and teacher networks. Results also showed that the activities of the history subject panel improved teachers’ classroom practice. The implications of this research are that teacher-led subject panels need to be nurtured and supported so that teacher-driven continuous professional development can be enacted across all the subjects offered in the school curriculum. Subject panels can reduce schools’ dependency on external experts for teacher professional development, making teachers the proverbial doctors who can heal themselves. Keywords: history subject panels/clusters, qualitative case study, teacher induction, student learning communities, sustainable innovation, teacher professional development
Gabriel Gorghiu, Costin Pribeanu, Vincentas Lamanauskas, Violeta Slekiene
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 719-733; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.719

With the explosion of mobile technologies, mobile teaching and learning became an important educational challenge. Since both teachers and students are increasingly using mobile devices in their everyday life, the question is why so little progress has been made in this direction. Clearly, the initiative of introducing mobile technology in class should come from teachers. Existing research shows a large diversity of factors that are influencing their perception as regards the usefulness and opportunity of mobile teaching and learning. This research aims to understand the extent to which the expectancy of increased students’ motivation and better understanding are influencing the perception of mobile teaching usefulness. A structural model has been developed and tested on two samples of science education teachers, one from Romania and the other from Lithuania. The results show that the expectancy of a better understanding of lessons by students has an important effect on the teachers’ perception of mobile teaching and learning. Keywords: educational usefulness, learning motivation, mobile teaching, mobile learning, pilot research
Shiat Lu Wong, Nyet Moi Siew, Chiow Thai Soon
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 832-855; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.832

There are limited reports about development of questionnaire to measure learning satisfaction among young children. In this research, guidelines were listed for developing a questionnaire that gauges Chinese Character Literacy Learning Satisfaction (CCLLS) among 8-year-old children. The research was undertaken based on the responses of 232 children from 11 Chinese national type primary schools (SJKC) of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. The CCLLS questionnaire consists of 12 items developed through three dimensions of satisfaction, which are (1) Satisfaction towards Chinese characters writing, (2) Satisfaction towards Chinese characters recognizing, (3) Satisfaction towards the learning in classroom. Rasch analysis was used to examine the item polarity. The result showed point measure correlation was within 0.47 – 0.60. The items were also detected with the outfit mean square in the range of 0.76 – 1.24, indicating CCLLS was fit to measure the children’s learning satisfaction. The raw variance explained by measures (33.3%), the unexplained variance in first contrast (9.1%), with the eigenvalue (1.6%) from the principal component analysis, suggested that CCLLS could be unidimensional. The internal consistency was considered very high with 0.81 in Cronbach’s alpha (KR-20). The result also showed CCLLS has very good item reliability (0.91) with good item separation index (3.23). The person reliability (0.77) was in satisfactory range with moderately good person separation index (1.81). The findings indicated that CCLLS questionnaire could be a valid and reliable tool in measuring Chinese character literacy learning satisfaction among 8-year-old primary school children of SJKC. Keywords: children questionnaire, Chinese Characters Literacy Learning Satisfaction, Rasch analysis, validity and reliability
Yurii Pelekh
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 671-673; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.671

Modern society, which is experiencing dynamic changes due to the new global challenges, is definitely looking for solutions in science and education. The life of many generations has proved that no matter what problems humanity faces, their solution requires intellectual effort, a scientific approach and a quality education system as one of the most effective means of disseminating ideas, knowledge and values. At the same time, such a situation always leads to the thorough attention to the phenomenon of education, in particular higher education. Great expectations and hopes cause significant demands and fundamental tasks that the society puts forward to the academic community. Satisfaction of these requirements and the solution of such tasks is probably not possible without self-analysis and self-reflection, without identifying those problems that inhibit the development of education itself, decrease its functionality, and discredit its status as the spiritual basis of social life. Therefore, we will further try to formulate our vision of current issues and current challenges in higher education.
Nermin Karabacak
Problems of Education in the 21st Century, Volume 78, pp 754-776; doi:10.33225/pec/20.78.754

Education is the most effective tool for enabling immigrants’ integration into the country they live in. The aim of this research is to determine teachers’ views related to the education of Syrian students attending state schools. By presenting them through the experiences of their teachers, this paper deals with how the educational experiences at school of Syrian children of school age are shaped in state schools. The research is planned with a qualitative approach as a case study design. The participants of the research were 34 teachers working in state schools and having Syrian students in their classes. The research data were collected via focus group interviews and semi-structured interviews in Rize, Turkey between the years 2017-2019. The data in the focus group and semi-structured interviews were supported by means of observations. The research findings reveal that the biggest problem in teachers’ opinions was the language problem and the communication and academic barriers resulting from this, that Syrian students suffered from depression and trauma because of war and migration, that they had a feeling of loneliness, and that nevertheless, they were happy at school. Therefore, this research reveals that teachers working with Syrian students are in need of vocational training and development consolidation in order to provide academic and psychological support for these students. Successfully addressing the educational needs of Syrian students in school will be especially beneficial for enabling Syrian children’s integration into society. Keywords: education experience, qualitative research, Syrian students, teacher reflection, Turkey
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