NaUKMA Research Papers. Law

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ISSN / EISSN : 2617-2607 / 2663-0621
Total articles ≅ 80
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Vladyslav Buryi
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 6, pp 12-17; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.6.12-17

Abstract:
This article presents a comparative analysis of the provisions of the Constitution of Ukraine and the Law of Ukraine “On Court Fees”.The author emphasizes that the Constitution of Ukraine establishes an axiological basis for the legal regulation of the court fees and, at the same time, defines the relevant categories of cases, access to judicial protection in which should not be the subject to significant restrictions or should not be limited at all, namely in the cases of: challenging the decisions, actions or omissions of public authorities, local governments and officials; protection of the right to own property; protection of honour and dignity and business reputation; free access to the information about the state of the environment, the quality of food and household items, and others. The court fee in the constitutional justice is also singled out, which is substantiated by the special procedural and essential nature of the constitutional complaint. The author disputes the possibility of implementation of the court fee for filing a constitutional complaint, the doubtfulness of which is explained by the normative form of the constitutional complaint that does not provide a direct review of the court decision. Emphasis is placed on the provisions of the Constitution, which support the need to reform the existing concept of regulation of court fees, in particular the change in access to appeals and cassation appeals from progressive to the regressive court fee rate. It is emphasized that the Law of Ukraine “On Court Fees” does not fully comply with the Constitution of Ukraine. It is concluded that the Constitution of Ukraine provides the individualization of the amount of court fees that should depend on the stage of the proceedings, the category of the case, and the relevant range of entities that should be exempt from the court fees.
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 6, pp 3-11; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.6.3-11

Abstract:
Presently, different judicial divisions of the Criminal Cassation Court of the Supreme Court offer varying legal conclusions concerning the possibility to classify the actions of a person when sentencing based on the criterion of classification “repeated” varies. This conclusion follows from the analysis of the judicial Decree as of December 11, 2019 (Proceeding No. 51-4204 км 19, Сase No. 274/2956/17) of the Third judicial division of the Criminal Cassation Court, the Decree of the First judicial division of the Cassation Criminal Court as of July 10, 2018 (Proceeding No. 51-2475 км 18, Case No. 545/3663/16-к), and of the Decree as of February 27, 2019 (Proceeding No. 51-5205 км 18, Case No. 695/136/17) of the Second judicial division of the Criminal Cassation Court.Due to such a state of affairs, the already amalgamated division of the Criminal Cassation Court of the Supreme Court was making its own decision in Case No. 591/4366/18 (Proceeding No. 51-1122 кмо 20) on September 14, 2020. Yet, my opinion is that not all arguments and statements of facts provided in this decree can be agreed on without questions.In the process of the research, it was proved that the situation of the judge’s practicing their discretion powers concerning merging criminal proceedings into one proceeding (according to the requirements of Article 334 of the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine) is the only exceptional situation that provides for, in absence of the court’s guilty verdict in “the first criminal proceeding,” which for the legal classification of the repeated offence must take a legal effect, using the criterion of classifying the actions of the accused as “repeated” in the “next criminal proceeding.” Otherwise, we should be discussing violation of the constitutional foundation of presumption of innocence in the criminal proceeding and a securing proof of guilt.
Dmytro Koval
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 6, pp 38-45; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.6.38-45

Abstract:
The article analyzes the approaches of international courts (the UN International Court of Justice, International Criminal Court, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and hybrid Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia) to the criteria for defining genocide groups. The article emphasizes that the definition of belonging to a group is a contextual circumstance (contextual element) of the crime of genocide. In particular, the paper studies how the international courts applied positive/negative and objective/subjective identification strategies to conclude that certain groups constitute those protected by the Genocide Convention or the statutes of the international criminal courts. In addition, the article deals with the problem of the stability and mobility of the groups and the ways these characteristics help the international courts to apply the Convention.The article focuses on a search for algorithms that allow international courts to identify genocide groups. It stresses that the international criminal courts have not demonstrated consistency in their assessment of the definition of the groups. Neither have they showed the synchronized understanding of the approaches (objective/subjective, positive/negative, stable/mobile) to be used for the identification of these groups. Therefore, it is further argued that, due to the variability of approaches and strategies used by international courts to identify genocide groups, belonging to the group is a window of opportunity for a contextual reading of international criminal law.
Artem Nikitin
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 6, pp 46-56; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.6.46-56

Abstract:
The article researches the term “criminal influence” which was introduced to the Criminal Code of Ukraine (hereinafter – the CC of Ukraine) by the Law of Ukraine “On amendments to the Criminal Code of Ukraine regarding liability for crimes committed by criminal community”, and its correlation with the institute of complicity in a crime, in particular with objective elements of accomplices in a crime, as well as with illegal influence. The author concludes that there may be one narrow and two broad types of understanding of this term. Moreover, criminal influence may be considered not only from the criminal legal but also from the criminological point of view. Criminal influence is a part of the broader term of illegal influence. However, in contrast to other types of illegal influence, criminal influence, due to its social danger, is limited by the state specifically by the means of criminal law.The term of criminal influence introduced to the Ukrainian criminal legislation has serious gaps, so that it is extremely poor and practically inapplicable. Moreover, not only this term defined in the note to Art. 255 of the CC of Ukraine, but also corpus delicti provided for in Art. 255-1 of the CC of Ukraine (intentional establishment or dissemination of the criminal influence in society) should be substantially revised. The usage of general formulations and abstract concepts in the disposition of Art. 255-1 of the CC of Ukraine, as well as non-exhaustive lists of objective and subjective elements in the definition of the term of criminal influence violates the principle of legal certainty as a part of a broader rule of law principle. Bringing individuals to the criminal liability for committing crimes related to the criminal influence (intentional establishment or dissemination of the criminal influence in society and request for its application) or conviction of individuals for these crimes with a high probability will cause substantial violations of fundamental principles of criminal law and human rights.
Ivan Yatskevych
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 6, pp 57-72; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.6.57-72

Abstract:
The paper covers problematic issues of reforming the legislation on collective labour relations with the participating trade union representing the interests and defending the rights of employees, consisting in a workers’ collective, during collective bargaining, concluding a collective agreement, holding a social dialogue on the local level. The article contains an analysis of a draft legislation such as draft laws On Labour, On Amending Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine (Regarding Certain Issues of Trade Unions’ Activity), On Amending the Law of Ukraine On Collective Agreements and Contracts in order to reveal the main trends of the proposed drafts, their scientific analysis, and producing own conclusions regarding impact of these draft laws upon the efficiency of the trade unions movement in Ukraine.The study of the proposed amendments to certain legislative acts as well as corresponding conclusions are made in observance of the current trends in the development of judicial application of legislative provisions on the preferential right of a unit trade union to represent a collective’s interests during collective bargaining regarding concluding or amending a collective agreement at an enterprise or institution. The paper contains a discussion on problematic (from a perspective of legal exercising and research) issues of the current legislative provisions on the safeguarding implementation of trade unions competence conformity to the Constitution of Ukraine, ILO Convention No. 87, and the recent case-law.The accordance of principles of rule of law and legality, representation, and efficient representing of workers’ collective interests during the in-court dispute resolution regarding representing the collective of workers and accession to an effective collective agreement is highlighted.In the conclusion it is stated that there is a negative trend on further deterioration of the trade unions’ position as representatives of labour collectives empowered with representative and defensive functions in relations with employers. Besides that, it is stressed that adoption and implementation of the argued legislative initiatives will eventually cause deepening the crisis of trade unionism and deteriorating of social standards. It will make a negative impact on a person’s social security in the state. There are grounds to assert forming case-law acknowledging works councils as equally authorized representatives of the workers’ collective in collective bargaining. In the meantime, the practice of rejection of new trade union’s units to join an effective collective agreement within the employer’s enterprise persists. It is concluded with the necessity to improve the system of normative safeguards for the trade unions activity and creating an efficient mechanism for countering abuse of rights, including safeguarding provisions, by parties of collective labour relations.
Pavlo Pushkar
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 6, pp 73-76; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.6.73-76

Abstract:
The decision of the Strasbourg Court in the Levchuk case is important from the point of view of Ukraine's European integration prospects: first, from the point of view of the judicial system's response to domestic violence; secondly, from the point of view of the basic legislation concerning the possibilities of the state's response to these manifestations and the available means of protection. Thirdly, this concerns the ratification of the Istanbul Convention (Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence), which entered into force on 1 August 2014, since Ukraine signed the Convention but has not yet done so. party in the absence of ratification of the Convention. It is clear that the future actions proposed by the Ukrainian authorities should be based on the established case law of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as on other international legal instruments, including the Istanbul Convention, which was signed but not ratified by Ukraine. Last but not least is the recognition of the Istanbul Convention as one of the key elements of the EU's foreign, and therefore domestic, policy as a legal mechanism for systematically combating domestic violence.
Mykhaylo Buromenskiy, Vitalii Gutnyk
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 6, pp 18-27; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.6.18-27

Abstract:
The article gives a legal assessment of “provocation of bribe” as a kind of “provocation of crime”. The authors examine the relevant case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) and find that the Court does not consider “provocation of bribe” as a provocation of a unique type of crime, but summarizes the situation of “provocation of crime”, including corruption crimes (including, giving a bribe, offering a bribe, receiving a bribe).The article pays special attention to the fact that the ECHR considers complaints of provocation of bribery in the context of the rights provided for in of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The Court’s position is that the existence of a proven provocation of a crime deprives a person of a fair trial from the very beginning of the proceedings. The article analyzes the signs of incitement to crime, which are an integral part of provocation of crime.The article emphasizes that the ECHR, when considering relevant cases, refers exclusively to the procedural aspect of bribery provocation, assessing the extent to which the bribery provocation affected the quality of the evidence obtained as a result. In case of considering relevant cases in the national court, the ECHR places the positive obligation to prove the absence of incitement (as a key sign of provocation of a crime) primarily on the prosecution.Based on the analysis of the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, the authors draw attention to the fact that covert investigative and operational actions must be carried out in a passive way so as not to create any pressure on a person to commit a crime.The case-law of the ECHR also provides an opportunity to determine the limits of national courts’ examination of situations in which a defendant claims to be a victim of a “provocation of crime”. The national court must find out the following: 1) motives of decision-making on a covert action; 2) the degree of participation of the law enforcement agency in the commission of the crime; 3) the nature of any incitement or pressure experienced by the applicant; 4) reliable information about the defendant’s participation in such criminal activity.
Volodymyr Galagan, Mykola Yakovenko
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 6, pp 28-37; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.6.28-37

Abstract:
The article deals with the preconditions of differentiation of forms of pre-trial investigation in Ukraine in the 18th–19th centuries. The concept of investigation of misdemeanours as a form of pre-trial investigation at different stages of social development are considered. The base source of the Russian Empire is examined, with the aspects of using of the term “investigation of misdemeanours” in law enforcement practice thoroughly covered. It is established that this term at the legislative level and in the literary sources held for a long time is subject to transformation in terms of its functional direction. The paper offers a description of the study of the early stage of development and a comparison with the modern form of pre-trial investigation. It is established that at all stages of its development there is a common feature: the provision of a simplified order.The article presents the key differences between the knowledge at the early stage of its creation and the modern form of pre-trial investigation. However, the investigation of misdemeanours starts from the moment of the illegal act until the end of the pre-trial investigation. At first, this investigation of misdemeanours had few signs of research verification. The collected materials were examined by the proceedings and could not be determined by full evidence without appropriate “legalization” procedures. The investigation of misdemeanours had not clearly defined a procedural form and was not limited to specific deadlines, and depended almost entirely on the inner convictions of the individual who conducted this knowledge. In the legislation of the pre-revolutionary period, the investigation of misdemeanours should be carried out by a wide range of authorized persons (police ranks, military and civilian authorities, clergy, government officials, village elders, and others). The investigation of misdemeanours was carried out in everything without exception of crime, regardless of its severity at those times.It is proved that the modern model of pre-trial investigation represents the positive historical experience and the right opinion. Today we can observe a consistent procedure of the implementation of the exercise, a special circle of authorized persons, and the introduction of a balance of appropriate differentiation of forms of pre-trial investigation.
Iryna Basysta
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 5, pp 10-18; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.5.10-18

Abstract:
У процесі дослідження доведено, що слідчий суддя з огляду на положення пунктів 18 та 19 частини 1 статті 3, частини 3 статті 26, частин 1, 2, 6 статті 28, частини 2 статті 36, частин 1, 2 статті 114 КПК України має повноваження за результатами розгляду клопотання підозрюваного, потерпілого, інших осіб, права чи інтереси яких обмежуються під час досудового розслідування, поданого в порядку частини 6 статті 28, частини 1 статті 114 КПК України, визначати строк, протягом якого слідчий, прокурор зобов’язані закінчити досудове розслідування. Констатовано, що під час реалізації слідчим суддею функції встановлення процесуальних строків (у нашому випадку при поданні підозрюваним, потерпілим, іншими особами, права чи інтереси яких обмежуються під час досудового розслідування, клопотання в порядку частини 6 статті 28, частини 1 статті 114 КПК України та його розгляду слідчим суддею) його ухвала, якою визначено строк, протягом якого слідчий, прокурор зобов’язані закінчити досудове розслідування, оскарженню в апеляційному порядку не підлягає.Матеріал надійшов 02.02.2020
Serhii Babich
NaUKMA Research Papers. Law, Volume 5, pp 3-9; doi:10.18523/2617-2607.2020.5.3-9

Abstract:
У статті звернено увагу на особливості функціонування інституту конституційної скарги та його вплив на формування української правосвідомості. Досліджено особливості української конституційної скарги та ймовірність її модернізації до повної конституційної скарги. Автор визначив основні цілі, досягнення яких стане можливим лише за належного функціонування досліджуваного інституту: 1) сприяння укоріненню принципу верховенства права в Україні; 2) надання особам можливості взяти участь у законотворчості, оскільки особи оскаржують конституційність закону України; 3) громадський контроль за діяльністю органів державної влади; 4) формування більшої довіри до Конституційного Суду України. Виділено принципові відмінності між зарубіжними варіантами конституційної скарги та вітчизняним. Окрім цього, звернено особливу увагу на декілька основних видів конституційних скарг, які також мають вагоме значення для вітчизняного варіанта письмового конституційного звернення. Проаналізовано основні питання, які виникають у суб’єктів звернення зі скаргою до Конституційного Суду України.Матеріал надійшов 02.02.2020
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