NaUKMA Research Papers. History

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ISSN / EISSN : 2617-3417 / 2663-0249
Total articles ≅ 58
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Orysya Vira
NaUKMA Research Papers. History, Volume 4, pp 80-90; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-3417.2021.4.80-90

Abstract:
Street names were not often the subject of thorough research. The authors mostly record the first mention of a street in the sources but never notice the process (in some cases quite long) of the name formation. This research focuses on the names that were used for a short time or disappeared together with the object around which they signified the space. The sources of this work were the four oldest city books of Lviv: the book of the council and the bench court, two books of income and expenditure, and the book of a bench, covering the period 1382–1448, although with certain intervals. Such sources are heterogeneous, but they record the names in different areas of use, which statistically only emphasizes the constant use of such names. The goals of this study are to collect all the oldest odonyms of Lviv from preserved sources and publish their translation into Ukrainian; to present the chains of their formation; and to analyze the names of streets that no longer exist. The methodological framework of the research is based on the ontological approach to space, which means the study of relations, connections, and interactions between the actual names and denotatum-objects, i.e. the terrain that describes the name. Also we used the genetic method, which consists in the sequential disclosure of the origin and development of a historical phenomenon and aims to study the dynamics of the object’s evolution through time. After compiling the database, the sufficient availability of factual material allowed to use a typological method through which, based on common features, it was possible to distinguish two types of street names: proper names and descriptive names. The first type includes established names that have the denotatum “street”. The second includes the names without denotatum; they often have a preposition (however, they invariably perform an informative function). In the list where the found odonyms are sorted according to the chronology of use, we can trace their stages of formation. Some of the names are conditionally localized. The summary asserts that almost all found odonyms in the city centre were formed by the middle of the 15th century and were almost invariably used in the following years. In the suburbs, there are only a few names. Since the suburbs were developed rather slowly until the 16th century, there was practically no need for new odonyms.
Nani Hohokhiia
NaUKMA Research Papers. History, Volume 4, pp 29-38; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-3417.2021.4.29-38

Abstract:
The article analyzes the peculiarities of the process of politicization and militarization of children’s leisure in Soviet Ukraine in 1929–1939. The content of the transformation of traditional and creation of new forms of children’s leisure is revealed. The key concepts of ideological substantiation of the need to maximally fill the child’s free time with political and educational practices are identified. The evolution of the new tradition of club leisure and its filling with political content is analyzed. Forms of political and educational work with children in their free time have been reconstructed. The methods of involving children in the political campaigns of the Soviet government by filling the discourse of children’s leisure with the political and militaristic rhetoric are described. The mechanisms of introduction of the state control over such kinds of children’s leisure as reading, thanks to the formation of new children’s literature and creation of the system of propaganda of new work are investigated. It shows how a network of libraries was built into this system, which was tasked with organizing the work of forming a new mass reader. The process of involving children in the culture of the new Bolshevik holidays and its connection with the main tasks of the government in the field of education of conscious and loyal citizens is demonstrated. During the second half of the 1930s, at the initiative of the Ukrainian Soviet leadership, the Christmas tree was restored and transformed, which was filled with new ideological content and used to promote Bolshevik’s achievements and demon- strate the Communist Party’s concern for young citizens. The influence of the political situation on the development of the game sphere of children’s leisure is highlighted, and the power of the process of its militarization on the eve of the Second World War is emphasized. This applied to both mobile children’s games and board games, which were made according to the party’s tasks with an ideological load and included political games and military-themed games. Children’s toys were also modernized, including Christmas tree decorations and toys related to military equipment, military and political events, collective farm construction, and Soviet symbols were added to the traditional toy theme.
Kateryna Dysa
NaUKMA Research Papers. History, Volume 4, pp 5-13; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-3417.2021.4.5-13

Abstract:
The recommendations of the Bohemian philanthropist of the late eighteenth century Leopold von Berchtold to travelers were not unique: there were others before and after. In the previous centuries other authors also tended to recommend their readers to pay attention to the economic state of foreign countries and provided them with a long list of questions they had to ask the people in the country of their destination. However, Berchtold’s recommendations were the product of his time, the age of Enlightenment, and they mentioned numerous topics and problems characteristic for that period. For instance, the author believed that self-improvement of a traveler had to begin long before the start of the trip. In Berchtold’s opinion, a traveler prepared for the journey was a kind of ideal, universal superhuman who was physically proficient, expert in all spheres of science, mechanics, economics, and medicine, who knew many languages, and was a talented artist and musician. Among the topics related to the Enlightenment, to which the author paid attention, were, for instance, patriotism of the traveler, which he understood as civil virtue, destined to improve not only his own country but also the whole of humankind. Moreover, patriotism in Berchtold’s interpretation did not contradict cosmopolitanism but rather it based itself on it. Philanthropy – which in the eighteenth century was a kind of secular religion – also featured a lot in Berchtold’s recommendations. Finally, the theme of doubt, as a basis for a critical assessment of reality and verification of authorities, pierced through the whole text of Leopold Berchtold. So did the topic of the public sphere, especially sociability and creation of social networks. The recommendations of Berchtold are thus valuable as a source that can tell a lot about the age of Enlightenment – not only about the practical side of traveling but also about the intellectual history of that period.
Tetiana Banakh
NaUKMA Research Papers. History, Volume 4, pp 65-72; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-3417.2021.4.65-72

Abstract:
The article analyzes the first public discussions of the last decade of the 20th century about mass murders of Polish population in Volhynia in 1943. The author explores the emergence of the topic of “Volhynia” in the public space and Polish-Ukrainian historical debates about these mass murders in the 1990s. The research is based on the published sources and interviews with the participants in the Polish-Ukrainian dialog. The article focuses on the first mentions of the Volhynian events in the post-communist period, on the way this issue was discussed at seminars of Polish and Ukrainian historians, and in the leading Polish newspapers “Gazeta Wyborcza” and “Rzeczpospolita”. Particular attention is paid to the discussion about the mass murders in the “Gazeta Wyborcza” in 1995. The Volhynian issue appeared in the public space after almost fifty years of silence initiated from the Polish “kres” and veteran circles which represented the victims of the mass murders. This topic was arousing interest gradually. It did not immediately take a lead- ing place in Polish-Ukrainian historical debates. In the 1990s, the discussion about “Volhynia” took place primarily between historians and within the groups to which this topic was important. There was only one discussion about the Volhynian events in the press, namely in the “Gazeta Wyborcza”. This newspaper, which appeared as an organ of Solidarity, pays attention especially to the relationship between Poland and its neighbours, particularly Ukraine. In the Ukrainian central media, the Volhynian issue remained completely without attention. Although the debates about “Volhynia” were not actively conducted in the 1990s, certain tendencies were established during this period, which remained characteristic in the following years. In Poland, these events were perceived as one of the most traumatic episodes of the national history, so it was the Polish side who initiated the discussions about this topic. The Ukrainian side was forced to respond to these initiatives.
Vita Lisova
NaUKMA Research Papers. History, Volume 4, pp 56-64; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-3417.2021.4.56-64

Abstract:
The article analyzes the main directions and forms of external open communications of the Soviet secret services at the second stage of their reorganization in the Gorbachev Era. It shows the general tendencies of the state security bodies’ implementation of the principle of openness. It highlights the peculiarities of “publicity and democratization” expansion in the operational and service activities of the USSR KGB in the Perestroika period. It is substantiated that in the second half of the 1980s in the USSR there was a transformation of the “repressive-communicative” system with a gradual transition from monologic communication to dialogic communication. At the same time, it is shown that the publicity of the Soviet secret services in this transitional period was influenced by both the specifics of their work and the prevailing propaganda model of communication in the USSR. It is emphasized that at that time the public contacts of the state security bodies with the population had a pronounced propaganda character.It is proven that the KGB of the Ukrainian SSR considered open communications as an important tool for influencing and manipulating public opinion. At the same time, they were provided through public (work with the media, creative unions, public organizations, meetings with employees of enterprises, institutions, organizations, etc.) and personal channels (consideration of applications and reception of citizens).Among the main areas of the communicative interaction of the Soviet secret services in Ukraine, the article deals with the following: public discrediting of national liberation movement members; popularization of state security bodies through mass media and creative unions, in particular the role of press groups in information and propaganda support of state security bodies; participation in rehabilitation processes; work with citizens’ appeals.The leading forms of such activities were as follow: meetings with labor collectives, roundtable discussions, thematic evenings, public meetings, organization of excursions to departmental rooms-museums; participation of representatives of state security bodies in public events; publications in the press, release of TV and radio programs, feature and documentary films dedicated to the Soviet secret services, organization of press conferences; conducting a personal reception of citizens, and correspondence based on the results of consideration of appeals.
Oleg Druzdiev
NaUKMA Research Papers. History, Volume 4, pp 91-95; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-3417.2021.4.91-95

Abstract:
The article analyzes the sources on the history of Saints Peter and Paul Garrison Church (the former Jesuit Church) discovered in the funds of Vasyl Stefanyk National Scientific Library of Ukraine in Lviv. In particular, the documents that are of practical importance for the process of church revitalization as the building remained closed from 1946 until 2011 are distinguished. The significant corpus of sources concerning the church history is the archive of Vasyl Stefanyk National Scientific Library of Ukraine in Lviv, the depository of which was located in the church until the end of 2011. With these documents, it is possible to trace the history of the church building during the Soviet time and the changes that happened during this period. Moreover, the collection of photographic materials with the depiction of different parts of the church constitutes a significant corpus of sources. This information is valuable for the conservation professionals working on the renewal of church exteriors and interiors. Particularly, the photographs that show the process of the roof restoration in 1959 offer an opportunity to assess the degree of the ceiling destruction during the Second World War. Photographs of the frescoes in the main nave demonstrate the state of the ceiling and frescos as of the beginning of the 20th century and therefore give an insight into the progress of conservation works during the interwar period. The analysis of the photograph of the altar of Saint Stanislaw Kostka makes it possible to understand what one of the three chapels in the church looked like. The other two chapels (of the Virgin Mary and Saint Stanislaw Kostka) will be restored in course of time. As for the third chapel of Saint Benedict the Martyr, important documents concerning the restoration of this chapel at the beginning of the 20th century are stored in the funds of the library. With these documents, it is possible to specify the appearance of the chapel and the peculiarities of its decorations, as the chapel does not belong to the church nowadays. To sum up, it can be stated that the funds of Vasyl Stefanyk National Scientific Library of Ukraine in Lviv contain a relatively small amount of materials on the history of Saints Peter and Paul Garrison Church (the Jesuit Church). At the same time, some of them are important for the studies of the history of the church, so they deserve attention from the researchers.
NaUKMA Research Papers. History, Volume 4, pp 73-79; https://doi.org/10.18523/2617-3417.2021.4.73-79

Abstract:
History as a Magistra Vitae encompasses a lot of mutually complementing research and teaching subjects. It should be taught step by step from local and simple items up to global generalizations taking into account the age, educational level, and professional interests of audience. The pupils at the primary and secondary schools learn at first about their native towns or districts, later in more detail about their motherland as a whole, and common patterns of Europe with just basic names and data of the World. The higher schools are to combine minimal information of history necessary for any civilized human being with emphasized attention at the respective fields’ past separately for future lawyers, physicians, engineers, etc. In Ukraine as an extremely exhausted nation it is crucially important to break deeply rooted complex of inferiority, to prove indivisibility of domestic history with East-Central and the rest of Europe. We should overcome as soon as possible a situation when large territories had been devastated by Holodomor and colonized by alien settlers from other parts of the Soviet Union after this genocide. The newcomers’ offspring gradually will get accommodated to their new homeland yet during Transition they are an easy target for destructive impacts from abroad. To counteract subversive propaganda, we need highly educated teachers and lecturers. The pro-European liberals in Ukraine had been exterminated by notorious totalitarian purges or forced to exile and replaced by mercenaries of Russian revanchist forces. The huge traditional Universities hardly can be reformed and modernized, as they inherited stereotypes and prejudices from the past. Newly created, seemingly more flexible and certainly less corrupted higher schools attract capable and ambitious people yet their alumni feel temptation of more easy opportunities. Ukraine needs patriots now more than ever desperately fighting for survival against aggressor in current Hybrid war. The prospects look optimistic, yet for the time being it requires a lot of efforts. History teaching becomes still more important to promote unity of interdependent philological, historical, political, and state making generations of national rebirth aimed at the repatriation to modernity.
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