Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1937-6871 / 1937-688X
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 1,165
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PUBMED
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Merab Beraia, Guram Beraia
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 187-197; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.157017

Abstract:
There is a lot of uncertainty in the theory of hemodynamics. The amount of work need to displace the blood in the systemic circulation, exceeds the work done by the left ventricle. With this, blood recovers increased flow resistance between the heartbeats with the Womersley number alterations in the rhythm of the accompanying electrocardiogram (ECG). Viscoelastic transformation is heavily expressed in coagulation. There must be a relationship between the ECG and blood transient flow resistance. The influence of the electromagnetic field on blood coagulation was studied. Venous blood was affected by the oscillated electromagnetic field (500 - 5000 Hz), with the square wave input signal in 25 healthy individuals (15 males, 10 females in the age 18 - 57 years). Electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) time of the sample 3 - 10 min. Hypocoagulation in normal blood samples was revealed (decreased quantity of Platelets up to 10 - 23 × 109/L, Prothrombin index up to 9% - 10%, Fibrinogen concentration up to 0.20 - 0.21 g/L) and thrombolysis after the blood stasis. Ac electric field from the myocardial depolarization initiates electroacoustic phenomena. An emerging repulsing electromagnetic force acts on the red blood cells (RBC) and in addition to the pulse pressure from the heart, promotes blood motion and viscoelastic changes. The alterations of the blood inertial and elasticity, in addition to hemodynamics, are facilitated by the magnetic features of the hemoglobin. The external electromagnetic signal can manage the blood coagulation process, including thrombolysis.
Malek Kammoun, Lydie Nadal-Desbarats, Sandra Même, Aude Lafoux, Corinne Huchet, Géraldine Meyer-Dilhet, Julien Courchet, Frédéric Montigny, Frédéric Szeremeta, William Même, et al.
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 140-156; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.155014

Abstract:
Recent studies have demonstrated a new role for Klf10, a Krüppel-like transcription factor, in skeletal muscle, specifically relating to mitochondrial function. Thus, it was of interest to analyze additional tissues that are highly reliant on optimal mitochondrial function such as the cerebellum and to decipher the role of Klf10 in the functional and structural properties of this brain region. In vivo (magnetic resonance imaging and localized spectroscopy, behavior analysis) and in vitro (histology, spectroscopy analysis, enzymatic activity) techniques were applied to comprehensively assess the cerebellum of wild type (WT) and Klf10 knockout (KO) mice. Histology analysis and assessment of locomotion revealed no significant difference in Klf10 KO mice. Diffusion and texture results obtained using MRI revealed structural changes in KO mice characterized as defects in the organization of axons. These modifications may be explained by differences in the levels of specific metabolites (myo-inositol, lactate) within the KO cerebellum. Loss of Klf10 expression also led to changes in mitochondrial activity as reflected by a significant increase in the activity of citrate synthase, complexes I and IV. In summary, this study has provided evidence that Klf10 plays an important role in energy production and mitochondrial function in the cerebellum.
Nuno Miguel Moreira Santos, Abel García Abejas, Àngels Salvador Vergès
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 109-128; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.154012

Abstract:
Background: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) are essential tools in clinical practice and research to assess patients’ needs from their unique perspectives. They allow the healthcare team to monitor patient status and concerns outside the clinical setting. However, the real innovation in this field is its digitization: electronic patient-reported outcome measures (ePROMs). Aims: This review aimed to get an overview of whether these new technologies are being used to aid palliative care teams in their daily struggle to provide comfort to their patients. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of articles retrieved from PubMed and Web of Science, up to November 2021. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. The search strategy yielded 242 records, of which 13 met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In addition, relevant information related to ePROMs was extracted from each study. Results: Outcomes were grouped into the quality of life assessment, symptom burden and simple assessments, and the decision to introduce Palliative Cures (PC). In 61.5% of cases, ePROMs positively impacted patients’ quality of life. Furthermore, in 46.15% of cases, ePROMs led Primary Care (PC) teams to make an ethical decision; the same relative value as in the circumstances did not define the direction in ethical terms. Conclusion: Remind professionals and patients that these tools exist and can be applied in many situations. If used correctly, they can provide patients with a better quality of life and more complete information for professionals.
Dávid Sztahó, Attila Zoltán Jenei, István Valálik, Klára Vicsi
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 6-25; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.151002

Abstract:
Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disease which is incurable according to current clinical knowledge. Therefore, early detection and provision of appropriate treatment are of primary importance. Speech is one of the biomarkers that enable the detection of Parkinson’s disease affection. Numerous researches are based on recordings from controlled environments; nonetheless fewer apply real circumstances. In the present study, three objectives were examined: recording fragmentation (paragraph, sentences, time-based), variable encodings (Pulse-Code Modulation [PCM], GSM-Full Rate [FR], G.723.1) and majority voting on 8 kHz records using multiple classifiers. Support Vector Machine (SVM), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), i-vector and x-vector classifiers were evaluated in contrast with SVM as baseline. The highest results in accuracy and F1-score were achieved using i-vector models. Although variable encodings generally caused decrease in Parkinson-disease recognition, decline was within 2% - 3% at best. Moreover, fragmentation did not yield a clear outcome though some classifiers performed with the very similar efficiency along the differently fragmented sets. Majority voting did produce a slight increase in classification performance compared to as if no aggregation is used.
Grace Umahi-Ottah, Babatunde Ishola Gabriel Adejumo, Elvis Osamede Godwins, Uchechukwu Dimkpa, Simon Uzor, Usman Itakure Abdulkadir, Oladimeji Nasiru Abdulrahman, Noreen Ebelechukwu Agbapuonwu, Onochie Anslem Ajugwo, Musiliu Adewale Oyenike
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.151003

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of cigarette smoking on carboxylhaemoglobin (COHb) and calcium levels in apparently healthy male cigarette smokers in Benin City, Nigeria. Thirty active cigarette smokers and thirty healthy, non-smokers within the same age range participated in this study. Serum COHb level was estimated using ELISA reagent from Calbiotech, USA, while calcium concentration was estimated spectrophotometrically with commercially purchased kit from Randox, UK. Results showed higher concentration of COHb but lower concentration of calcium level among the cigarette smokers when compared with the non-smokers. There were no statistically significant differences observed in COHb levels between smokers with regard to smoking duration (<5 yrs vs. ≥5 yrs; p = 0.893) and number of sticks of cigarette per day (<5 sticks/day vs. ≥5 sticks/day; p = 0.256). In contrast, significantly higher mean COHb level was found in subjects who smoked “always” compared with those who smoked “occasionally” (p = 0.04) and those who smoked “rarely” (p = 0.006). On the other hand, the smokers’ serum calcium level was not affected by smoking duration, frequency and number of sticks consumed. In conclusion, the present study confirms that cigarette smoking contributes to abnormally high COHb levels, which is associated with adverse health consequences from carbon-monoxide poisoning in the body. In addition, cigarette smoking may interfere with the mechanisms responsible for the absorption of calcium in the gastro-intestinal tract, thus leading to poor absorption as well as low levels of calcium in the body.
Jia Yin Lim, Yoong Chuan Tay
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 97-101; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.152010

Abstract:
The Hyperbaric and Diving Medicine Centre of Singapore provides regular treatment for various UHMS indications for hyperbaric treatment in our dual multi-place connected chambers. When any single patient requires evacuation during the treatment, a connected dual chamber facility is advantageous to avoid disruption for the remaining patients. We share our experience and procedures to facilitate repeated unexpected evacuation with minimal disruption to other patients undergoing treatment, in an elderly semiactivity dependent patient who had gastrointestinal symptoms during treatment.
Hiroyuki Tamaki, Futoshi Ogita
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 103-107; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.153011

Abstract:
Enhanced physiological tremor (EPT) associated with fatiguing static muscle contractions is generally thought to limit continuous muscle work. However, the EPT dies away, allowing the continuous muscle contraction to be maintained at low-level workload. Here, we report a case study of a 22-year-old male volunteer who performed static plantar flexion at 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 66 min with repeated EPT events. Comparative analysis of 1 min pre- and post-EPT phases revealed lower electromyographic (EMG) activity, heart rate, and blood pressure levels during the post-EPT phases, while the popliteal artery blood-flow volume and vascular conductance were raised. EPT may therefore be a mechanism for removing factors that inhibit continuous muscle contraction. This unique case report provides new insight into the functional significance of EPT during prolonged static muscle contractions.
Engin Alp Onen, Srinivas Bezawada
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 157-178; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.156015

Abstract:
The upstream process was carried out in an animal component-free medium on Cytodex 1 microcarriers. Recombinant trypsin is a non-animal derived protease used as an alternative to animal-derived trypsin. To inactivate recombinant trypsin, a soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) should be added to the medium. A protocol was first tested in T-flasks and then passaged to 500 mL and 3 L spinner flasks. Cell detachment was completed in 10 - 12 min, and 0.4 g/L STI was added to a 3L spinner, and cells were transferred into a 30 L stirred tank bioreactor. On day 5, the cell density had reached its maximum (around 1.8 × 106 cells/mL). At an MOI of 0.3 with serum-free medium conditions, cell infection yielded a maximal rabies virus titer of 1.82 × 107 FFU/mL at 5 days. All cell culture conditions and virus growth kinetics in serum-free media were investigated. In conclusion, Vero cells were grown on Cytodex 1 with serum-free media and a high amount of rabies virus was obtained. A mouse challenge was used to determine the immune response to an inactivated rabies virus vaccine candidate. Also, we evaluated inactive rabies vaccine candidate safety, and immunogenicity in mice, sheep, horses, and cattle. We found that no horses, sheep, or cattle who were given vaccine IM at 3.2 IU/dose exhibited any clinical sign of disease and all developed high VNA titers (up to 10.03 IU/mL) by 3 - 4 WPI. After the accelerated stability studies, the lyophilized inactivated rabies vaccine candidate showed enough antigenic potency (2.6 IU/mL) in the mouse challenge test. Also, 18-month long-term stability studies showed enough immune response (1.93 IU/mL) on day 14. The activity of the vaccine candidate showed a good immune response and safety criteria that meet WHO requirements. This is the first pilot-scale mammalian cell-based viral rabies vaccine production study in Türkiye that used microcarriers.
Tadashi Miura, Yukari Oda, Koji Tanabe, Yasuhiko Shizawa, Taichi Ito, Longqiang Yang
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 89-96; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.152009

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to identify the potential antibacterial effects of gatifloxacin on one of canine periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gulae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of gatifloxacin and its bactericidal effects were investigated. Gatifloxacin inhibited the growth of the canine periodontopathic bacteria tested in broth. An MIC of 50 nM was found to be effective in inhibiting P. gulae. On performing adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay, gatifloxacin was found to exhibit bactericidal effects on the tested bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner. The safety of gatifloxacin in mammalian cells was evaluated by assessing the viability of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem (BMMS) cells treated with gatifloxacin. Almost over 80% of BMMS cells survived after a 3-day culture when treated with 100 nM of gatifloxacin. These results indicate that locally administered gatifloxacin has the potential for being used to prevent canine periodontal infection.
Weihua Xue, Shunling Li
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Volume 15, pp 44-50; https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2022.151005

Abstract:
Objective: To explore the consistency and relevance of the results of the bedside rapid blood gas analyzer GEM premier 3000, the Vitros5.1+5600 biochemical immunoassay analyzer and the SYSMEX XN-9000 automatic blood cell analyzer in the central laboratory detecting serum potassium (K+), serumsodium (Na+), blood glucose (Glu), hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell volume (Hct). And to provide a reference for the accurate interpretation of the bedside blood gas analysis report. Method: Usually, ICU patients will be taken arterial blood gas, biochemical and blood samples through the arterial indwelling needle; at the same time patients’ potassium, serum sodium, blood glucose, hemoglobin and red blood cell volume will be detected. This study implemented paired t-test and correlation regression analysis on each group of data, and used the analysis quality requirements (allowable total error) of CLIA’88 proficiency testing program as the criteria for clinical acceptance. Results: The paired t-test showed that the serum potassium, serum sodium and blood glucose detected by GEM premier 3000 and Vitros5.1+5600 were significantly different; and the hemoglobin and red blood cell volume detected by GEM premier 3000 and SYSMEX XN-9000 were significantly different (P +, Na+, Glu, Hb and Hct detected by the two sets of instruments is less than the allowable error of CLIA’88, and the SE of blood Na+ and Hb is less than half of the allowable error of CLIA’88. Conclusion: The test results of GEM premier 3000, the central laboratory Vitros5.1+5600 and SYSMEX XN-9000 have good correlation, but the consistency is not good. The test results of GEM premier 3000 cannot replace the central laboratory.
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