Economics of Development
ISSN / EISSN : 16831942 / 23046155
Current Publisher: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 25
Latest articles in this journal
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 45-57; doi:10.21511/ed.18(3).2019.05
Abstract:The system of taxation of personal income in Ukraine does not allow fully implementing the principle of social justice, which is regulated by the Tax Code of Ukraine. This is because in many cases, the taxpayers’ solvency is not taken into account when setting tax rates. The Ukrainian legislation does not regulate the list of poor people, and there is no clear compensatory mechanism of assistance to these social groups. As a result, the number of poor people is growing and, therefore, the social tension is increasing in Ukraine. The article focuses on the poor performance of Ukraine in various indices of socio-economic development, which results in the growth of poor people. There was no clear legislation to classify the poor in Ukraine. A list of poor people is offered. The main directions of poverty reduction in European countries are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the poor status of poverty reduction in Ukraine through tax policies, due to the poor implementation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy by the executive authorities. The instruments of tax regulation of low-income population in EU countries are considered, the main ones being tax rebate (tax credit), tax exemption, non-taxable minimum, and reduced tax rate. The list of instruments for tax regulation of low-income population in EU countries and Ukraine is summarized. The progressive scale of taxation of personal income is substantiated. The list of poor people is generalized. A non-taxable minimum income indicator is proposed based on the indicator used to determine the limit for applying the tax social benefit. Given the experience of EU countries, the introduction of separate instruments for tax regulation of low-income groups in Ukraine is justified.
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 34-44; doi:10.21511/ed.18(3).2019.04
Abstract:The article explores theoretical and methodical aspects of managing dual relationships that arise between participants in logistic cooperation in the process of formation and functioning of supply chains. The use of a behavioral approach to defining supply chains has allowed identifying and justifying the priority role of behavioral factors that influence modern logistics entities and determine the effectiveness and long-term satisfaction with logistics cooperation. Given the literature summary, the study has classified types of cooperation in logistic activity and proved that among the behavioral factors influencing the of logistical cooperation efficiency, the trust is of particular importance, which remains a limitation, a bottleneck in the process of formation and development of dual relationships in logistics chains. It is proposed to introduce a generic indicator, namely the level of confidence in the supply chain to assess the social, economic and strategic aspects of logistics interaction. A methodological approach to assessing the level of trust in logistic cooperation was adjusted based on determining the composition of criteria that directly affect this indicator and using the expert survey of supply chain participants. The study proposes to use the confidence indicator to form and improve networks and supply chains, taking into account its value when constructing a generalized outsourcing model.
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 19-33; doi:10.21511/ed.18(3).2019.03
Abstract:In most economies, strategies that promote greater equity and less precariousness have become more than a necessity for reducing the effects of poverty. Thus, the focus is on inclusive growth by policy makers and institutions in charge of development and poverty alleviation. For Tunisia, there was a broad consensus on the need for structural reforms to promote inclusive economic growth that reduce social inequalities and regional disparities. This article aims to determine a synthetic indicator of inclusive growth in Tunisia. The method used is the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The purpose of the latter is to provide weightings that take into account the variability of the data through time. The results found showed that Tunisia’s Inclusive Growth Index (IGI) deteriorated during the period from 1980 to 2017, falling from 5.35 to –3.40. The Tunisian government must embark on deep structural reforms to open up channels for a more egalitarian and inclusive society and put the country on a path to more sustainable development.
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 12-18; doi:10.21511/ed.18(3).2019.02
Abstract:The article is devoted to the generalization and development of the terminology that is used to describe the essence and content of the concept “entrepreneurial university”. The results of the literature review allow us to present the concept “entrepreneurial university” in the form of a system of interrelated economic terms. Based on the analysis of search queries, using the databases of Scopus and Google Scholar, the publications that reveal the content of the concept “entrepreneurial university” were selected; the features and key characteristics of the definition of this concept by various authors were defined; the authors’ interpretation has been provided. The analysis of research in the field of university entrepreneurship, which currently covers 314 articles published in various scientific journals, allows us to inductively describe the dynamic process of university entrepreneurship based on the literature synthesis. The presented definition of “entrepreneurial university” concept is based on an analysis of the evolution of ideas about the subject of the entrepreneurship theory and modern scientific management approaches and allows establishing the semantic network that reflects the inner content of the concept “entrepreneurial university”.
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 1-11; doi:10.21511/ed.18(3).2019.01
Abstract:Financial sustainability is one of the most important characteristics of an enterprise's financial position. It determines the level of the company independence from external entities and sources of financing, and, in turn, is conditioned by a set of multifaceted factors. In the case of negative influence of the external environment, engineering enterprises require research and selection of factors of influence on financial sustainability, which are formed in the internal environment of their functioning. The content analysis of definitions of the "financial stability of an enterprise" concept is carried out. Given the analysis results, the key informative characteristics of the enterprises are emphasized, such as state and structure of financial resources, solvency and profitability of the enterprise. In the context of selected areas and based on comparative analysis of literature sources and methods recommended at the state level for assessing the enterprise financial status, the study has formed a list of coefficients, the calculation and analysis of which is appropriate in evaluating assessment of financial enterprises. Using regression analysis, the study has revealed factors that most significantly influence the level of financial sustainability of engineering enterprises. It is established that the level of financial stability of the mechanical engineering industry enterprises in Kharkiv region is mainly influenced by the level of security of current liabilities of enterprises with financial current assets, the ability of enterprise assets to generate net profit and the share of equity in the financing sources structure. Therefore, to ensure the financial sustainability of engineering companies, management should take measures to ensure that they have a sufficient level of financial assets to cover their current liabilities and to optimize financial results in the context of increased net profit.
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 41-48; doi:10.21511/ed.18(2).2019.05
Abstract:Negative trends in the social sphere and the social problems that exist because of this lead to a sharpening of state national security issues. At the same time, domestic and foreign scholars do not pay sufficient attention to the psychological component of social security, which characterizes the subjective assessment of the state of the social sphere development by the population. This very aspect of social security has become a basis for the formulation of the research goal as an analysis of the state of social security of Ukraine in a regional context in accordance with the system of indicators taking into account the psychological component. The main methods of the investigation are analysis, synthesis, comparative analysis, cluster analysis method. The practical result is the definition of the main components of national security, special attention is paid to the analysis of the interpretation of the definition of “social security” by domestic scientists. The expediency of allocating the psychological component of social security has been substantiated. The list of social security indicators has defined in accordance with the methodological recommendations for calculating the level of economic security of Ukraine, namely: the ratio of nominal wages to the subsistence minimum per working age person; the ratio of the size of the labor pension to the subsistence minimum of the disabled persons; the number of HIV-infected persons with the first diagnosis, persons per 100 thousand people); the number of patients with active tuberculosis with the first diagnosis, persons per 100 thousand people; level of crime. The so-called indexes of social tension have been added to this list, which take into account the psychological aspect of the population of the state, namely: arrears of wages; the level of payment by the population of housing and communal services; the level of registered unemployment; the number of employees who were in forced full-time employment. A cluster analysis of the regions of Ukraine has carried out on the basis of the listed social security indicators, which resulted in the definition of regions with high indicators of social security, namely: Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Zaporizhzhia, Kyiv, Luhansk, Odesa and Kharkiv regions.
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 29-40; doi:10.21511/ed.18(2).2019.04
Abstract:Employment of graduates of higher educational institutions (HEIs) is an important task worldwide. The main problems of employment are due to the existing discrepancy between the education re-ceived by graduates and the needs of business environment. The modern world should focus on the formation of graduates’ competencies in accordance with the demands of employers, which will pro-vide greater access to practical skills for students throughout the entire period of university studies. The purpose of the article is the differentiation of employers, analysis of their needs for graduates of economic specialties, readiness for partnership with HEIs. A survey of experts among employers and HEI professors allowed us to reveal the advantages of their social and professional partnerships and possible problems hampering the process of forming partnership relations. Discriminant analysis became the basis for classifying employers by the degree of their readiness to cooperate with HEIs. Three groups were employers are singled out: “business-focused”, “optimists” and “flagships”. Analysis of employers, taking into account their readiness to form partnership relations with HEIs, will contrib-ute to improving the quality of training personnel in business structures and HEIs.
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 19-28; doi:10.21511/ed.18(2).2019.03
Abstract:Modern competition in the tourism sector is characterized by extreme aggravation, a departure from price levers and, at the same time, a shift to quality and differentiation of services provided. Ensuring the competitive advantages becomes possible only by applying a strategic approach to managing the quality of a tourism enterprise activity. The main aspects of the strategic approach to the management of the quality of tourism enterprise services are investigated. Definition of quality of tourism services is specified. The main strategies that are most often used in the management of the quality of the tourism enterprise are identified, aimed at ensuring the compliance of tourism services with the requirements of normative documentation and aimed at ensuring the quality of the tourism product (service) in accordance with the requirements of consumers, their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. Areas of improvement of quality management of tourism enterprises activity are proposed, the essence of which is the clear formulation of the mission of the enterprise, as well as strategic, tactical and operational plans; constant monitoring of the market, identification of changes in consumer requirements to the quality of the tourism product and the process of service provision; improvement of methods and forms of work with personnel of the organization; creation of an effective control system at the enterprise; application of the latest technologies and modern equipment; constant targeted search and use of quality reserves.
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 10-18; doi:10.21511/ed.18(2).2019.02
Abstract:An assessment of a relationship between aggregated and partial indicators of the tourist sector development on one hand and other sectors of economy and society on other hand are investigated in the paper. Indicators are expressed in both direct monetary terms and rating scales. The study covers 149 countries in 2016. The results of the study indicate a positive relationship between the development of the tourist sector and the level of economic welfare of the country. This is explained by fact that tourist goods and services are subject of a second necessity and demand for they increases significantly with growth of income level. Found that there is a positive correlation between indicators of tourism sector development and indicators of quality of socio-economic environment. This may be due to fact that, on one hand, high quality socioeconomic environment stimulates visits to country; on other hand, travels stimulate growth of economy and welfare of citizens who live in territory that visited. Further analysis of aggregate of countries, divided into 4 groups by income, showed mixed results. Thus, a stronger correlation between all analyzed indicators is observed in low and high-income countries, weakening in transition to averages by a sample of values. However, such a weak relationship for some countries may be a consequence of a small share of the tourism sector in the economy. This paper differs from previous researches by focusing on a large sample of countries and reveals the relationship between tourism sector development indicators and socioeconomic environment indicators. One can speak of objectivity of results obtained, since they are confirmed both using Spearman’s correlation coefficient and Kendall’s Tau correlation.
Economics of Development, Volume 18, pp 1-9; doi:10.21511/ed.18(2).2019.01
Abstract:The main theoretical approaches to the definition of the “personnel effectiveness” content are considered. To this end, a comparative analysis of the essential features of the concept by different scientists was carried out, the main common and distinctive features in the given definitions are described. In order to determine the role of the effective use of personnel in the enterprise management system, a statistical and correlation-regression analysis was performed based on the State Statistics Service of Ukraine data. The main components of the system for managing the staff performance are revealed, in particular, its purpose, object and both objective and subjective composition are substantiated. Based on the use of the system approach, the main directions of the formation of a system for managing the efficiency of personnel use are formulated. The scientific novelty of this research is in systematizing approaches to determining the meaning of the effectiveness of the use of enterprise personnel. The main elements and stages of the formation of a system for managing the efficiency of personnel use are specified. The practical significance of the article stems from the possibility of using the results of empirical research in further scientific developments from the outlined issues. The peculiarities of the dynamics of indicators of labor productivity, profitability of labor costs for enterprises in the Ukrainian economy are analyzed. The construction of a regression model, which expresses the dependence of added value on the indicators of the efficiency of personnel use, made it possible to reveal the importance of the formation of a personnel management system in the process of development of both individual enterprises and economic growth of the Ukrainian economy as a whole.