Borneo Journal of Pharmacy
EISSN : 2621-4814
Current Publisher: Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya (10.33084)
Total articles ≅ 90
Latest articles in this journal
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.2144
Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘Alamin. The next edition of the Borneo Journal of Pharmacy (Borneo J Pharm), has been published in February 2021. Starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by Borneo J Pharm. Also, starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm applying the publish-as-you-go issue to present the title of the article that has been received as early as possible in order to increase the chances of readability and quotation of articles in Borneo J Pharm. This edition includes writings from four countries including Indonesia, India, Malaysia, and Nigeria. The authors come from several institutions, including Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Sarawak, Politeknik Bina Husada Kendari, Universitas Halu Oleo, Akademi Farmasi Surabaya, Universitas Hang Tuah, Universitas Mandala Waluya, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Universitas Abdurrab, Federal University of Technology Minna, Humera Khan College of Pharmacy, University of Abuja, and Universitas Ahmad Dahlan. Editorial boards are fully aware that there is still room for improvement in this edition, hence with all humility willing to accept constructive suggestions and feedback for improvements to the publication for the next editions. The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors of the articles, could re-participate for publication in the next edition in May 2021.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 22-28; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1675
Melanin is a pigment contains in human skin which role as a UV-absorbing agent. One of the exogenous melanins can be obtained from squid (Loligo sp.) ink. Squid ink melanin has potent free radical protection activities. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical, stability, antioxidant, and UV protection activities of squid ink powder lotions. Squid ink powders were obtained from the drying process using HCl 0.5M and stored in the climatic chamber. Antioxidant activity was conducted quantitatively using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil) scavenging method. The best result of the DPPH scavenging activity was 29.12±0.023%, shown from formula III. UV protection activity was conducted by observing erythema scores in animal skin, which exposure to UV. This preparation inhibits the effect of UV exposure. Squid ink powder lotions are potential as a sunscreen product.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 29-35; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1665
The grapefruit (Citrus maxima L.) is a plant known by the public as a fruit consumed with various properties. This plant's use is well known, such as antioxidants, enhancing immunity, anti-aging, and antibacterial properties. This study aimed to identify and analyze the chemical compounds contained in C. maxima rind. The extract was obtained by the maceration method using ethanol and ethyl acetate as solvents. The fractionation process was carried out by Column Chromatography. Observation of thin-layer chromatography profiles with UV lamps 254 and 366 nm. Analysis of chemical compound components using GC-MS and data interpretation based on the Wiley 7.0 data library. The interpretation results of the EF1 fraction are β-copaen-4-α-ol; pentadecanoic acid; hexadecanoic acid; tetradecanoic acid; dotriacontane; osthol; 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, 7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyl); furfural; 6-(2,3-Dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxycoumarin; and 6-(iodomethyl)-5-methyl-4-oxahexanolide. The chemical compounds identified in EAF2 are 1-octadecanol; decane; tetracosane; hexacosane; and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (2-ethylhexyl) ester. It can be concluded that these compounds have biological and pharmacological activities.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 43-50; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1589
Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L.) is traditionally used by the community to treat infections of the skin caused by bacteria or fungi. In this study, T. catappa leaves extract was added to the liquid soap formula as an antibacterial. The purpose of this study was to determine the secondary metabolite compounds contained in T. catappa leaves extract, physical evaluation of the preparation, and antibacterial activity of liquid soap. Liquid soap formula is made with various concentrations of T. catappa leaves extract F0 (0%), F1 (1%), F2 (2%), and F3 (3%). The resulting soap was evaluated for organoleptic, pH, high foam, homogeneity, irritation, and its activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli using the disc diffusion method. The results showed that the T. catappa leaves extract contained flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and triterpenoids. The liquid soap formula F0 is clear, while F1, F2, and F3 have the characteristics of brown-dark brown, homogeneous, pH between 4.6-5.2, foam stability between 67-72%, which is not significantly different and stable after five minutes of testing, and it does not irritate the skin. Terminalia catappa leaves extracts liquid soap has antibacterial activity at a concentration of 1%, 2%, and 3%, with the largest inhibition zone diameter produced by S. aureus.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 57-67; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1575
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has developed as a major public health problem in the world. It is estimated that around 50% of diabetics have not been diagnosed in Indonesia, and only two-thirds of those diagnosed are undergoing treatment. This condition must be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of FINDRISC as an instrument for predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design on 60 research subjects who are indigenous people of Yogyakarta who live in Yogyakarta, which can be proven by Identity Cards by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Validity is tested by the validity of criteria by type while using the area under the receiver-operating curve (ROC-AUC), while reliability is tested by internal consistency using Cronbach's Alpha (α). The results showed that as many as 14 people, or 23.33% experienced uncontrolled fasting blood sugar and 15 people had a risk score of FINDRISC more than 10. Based on the ROC AUC analysis, the value of 0.935 (95% CI 0.865 1.00) with a cut-off point of 10 with the value of Sn = 85%, Sp = 95%, PPV = 85%, NPV = 95%, +LR = 5.66, and -LR = 0.15. Based on the reliability test, the Cronbach's value of 0.727 is obtained. The FINDRISC questionnaire is categorized as valid and reliable so that it can be a screening tool for understanding.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 68-77; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1579
The number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indonesia increases every year. Control of the development of T2DM can be done by screening using Finnish Diabetic Risk Score (FINDRISC)-Indonesian. FINDRISC is a valid tool for estimating the risk of T2DM within the next 10 years. This condition can have a major impact on the estimated life span and quality of life in the future. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between FINDRISC-Indonesian and respondent characteristics with HRQoL from EuroQol-5 Dimension-5 Level (EQ-5D-5L) in Yogyakarta. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 125 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The risk of developing T2DM was assessed using a validated and widely used FINDRISC (range 0-26 points), and quality of life was measured by the EQ-5D-5L instrument. Overall data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test and Independent t-test. The results showed the domain of pain was the domain that reported most respondents' most problems (28.8%). The respondent's utility value was 0.958 ± 0.69, and the VAS value was 79.4 ± 0.7. There was a significant difference in utility value based on age characteristics (p = 0.013). There is a relationship between age and utility value (p = 0.006) and FINDRISC score with utility value (p = 0.003). This study's conclusion was high FINDRISC affects the quality of life, and older age has a low quality of life.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 36-42; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1578
Turmeric (Curcuma domestica) has nutritious compounds called curcuminoids, which can be used as antioxidants. As an antioxidant, C. domestica extract can be used to ward off free radicals that damage collagen and elastin, a protein that keeps skin moist. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of serum combined with the addition of collagen using the DPPH method. The DPPH was made at a concentration of 80 μg/mL, and the absorption was read at a wavelength of 520 nm using a microplate rider. The study was conducted by making six formulations, namely F0, F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5 obtained the results of serum made from C. domestica extract that can inhibit free radicals and meet the physical evaluation test requirements of serum. Furthermore, the formula is made using only one active ingredient and only collagen to determine the antioxidant activity influenced by the extract or collagen. The results obtained indicate that collagen has a supporting role in adding antioxidant activity apart from the extract used. The highest % inhibition value at F5 with 90.526% can be said to ward off free radicals.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 6-15; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1686
Meistera chinensis is one of the new generations of the Zingiberaceae family. Zingiberaceae have a large number of species and still need research to reveal their chemical content. Meistera chinensis, a local plant that is widespread in Konawe Regency, Southeast Sulawesi. Empirically, M. chinensis is used as a flavor enhancer in food, aches, and increases body immunity. There are no reports of chemical content or its biological activity. In this study, the fruit was tested for phytochemicals, antioxidants using the ABTS test, total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and toxicity test with BSLT. Meistera chinensis was extracted with ethanol and fractionated by ethyl acetate solvent use vacuum liquid chromatography. Phytochemical screening was carried out qualitatively by using the calorimetric method. The fraction toxicity was monitored by a lethal test for brine shrimp (BSLT). These fractions for the ABTS method obtained fractions 1-8 (F1-F8) and ascorbic acid were used as controls. The results showed radical scavenging activities fraction of M. chinensis fruit was a very strong activity with IC50 of 42.7±3.53 mg/L (F8). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 30.72±1.07 mgGAE/g and 8.02±0.48 mgQE/g, respectively. The phytochemical evaluation contains terpenoids, saponins, phenolics, steroids, alkaloids, and flavonoids. The BSLT toxicity test was found to be very toxic with IC50 of 5.20±0.72 mg/L. These findings indicate that the fruit of M. chinensis acts as an antioxidant and toxicity agent.
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 51-56; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1817
Herbal teas are nutrient, antioxidant, and hydration rich brews made from herbs and spices and taken for various purposes. The objective of this study was to formulate tea from clove (Syzygium aromaticum), leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), guava (Psidium guajava), and moringa (Moringa oleifera), as well as compared with Chinese and yellow Lipton Tea. The samples were analyzed for comparative sensory analysis using the 7 points hedonic scale. The sensory evaluation result demonstrated that the color of the clove tea sample (5.87) was most acceptable by participants, while the lemongrass tea (4.46) sample was least acceptable amongst all the tea samples. The clove remained the most accepted tea for aroma (6.07), taste (5.92), texture (5.76), general appearance (5.74), and general acceptability (5.93), in 7 points hedonic scale. However, all tea samples were had significant acceptable scores above average (p
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 16-21; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i1.1557
Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) on the market are processed or sold only to take part in the meat. The head, shell, and tail are thrown away without any prior processing. Underutilized waste causes environmental problems. An alternative to overcome this environmental disturbance phenomenon is to utilize shrimp shells containing chitin and subsequently transformed into chitosan that can be applied in various fields. Chitosan has poor solubility in water but high permeability, so to improve bioavailability is by making solid dispersions. Chitosan solid dispersion made by the solvent evaporation technique used PVP K-30 as the carriers. The result of chitosan solid dispersion was then molded into tablets by the direct compression method. Hence the tablets were evaluated by weight and size uniformity, hardness, friability, and disintegration time. The formulation divided into three groups, that is F1 (chitosan : PVP K-30 = 1 : 1 solid dispersion), F2 (chitosan : PVP K-30 = 1 : 3 solid dispersion), and F3 (pure chitosan). All the formulas by weight and size uniformity and disintegration time fulfill the requirements. F3 hardness is 4,275 kg is the best from F1 and F2. By statistic analytical from weight uniformity, hardness and disintegration time give significant difference with sig.