Borneo Journal of Pharmacy

Journal Information
EISSN : 2621-4814
Published by: Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya (10.33084)
Total articles ≅ 101
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Sani Ega Priani, Desti Puspa Rahayu, Indra Topik Maulana
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 128-134; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1942

Abstract:
Cod liver oil (CLO) has long been used as medicine or as a functional food. The CLO is a potential source of vitamin D, vitamin A, and omega fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid/EPA and docosahexaenoic acid/DHA). Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) can enhance dissolution, absorption, and bioavailability of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances for oral administration. The objective of this study was to develop a SNEDDS of CLO with good physical characteristics and stability. The optimization formula was carried out using various ratios of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. The physical properties of SNEDDS were determined by transmittance percentage, dispersibility, robustness, thermodynamics stability (heating-cooling cycle, centrifugation, and freeze-thaw cycle), and globule size distribution. The optimum formula of CLO-SNEDDS was obtained at a ratio of surfactant and cosurfactant 2 : 1 and a comparison of oil and surfactant mixtures 1 : 6. The CLO-SNEDDS meets the requirement of percent transmittance (97.90±0.85), dispersibility (grade A), and stability based on robustness and thermodynamic stability tests. Diluted SNEDDS has an average globule size of 125 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.515. CLO-SNEDDS preparation has good physical characteristics and stability.
Chief Editor Of Borneo J Pharm
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.2289

Abstract:
Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb. Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘alamin. The next edition of the Borneo Journal of Pharmacy (Borneo J Pharm), has been published in May 2021. Starting from this volume, Borneo J Pharm increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by Borneo J Pharm. This edition contains ten articles consisting of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Pharmaceutical, Microbiology Pharmacy, and Clinical-Community Pharmacy. This edition includes writings from seven countries including Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Iran, Nepal, Uganda, and Nigeria. The authors come from several institutions, including Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Borneo Lestari, Bandung Institute of Technology, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Universitas Muhammadiyah Banjarmasin, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan ISFI Banjarmasin, Shri Gopichand College of Pharmacy, Government College University Faisalabad, Islamic Azad University, Sardar Patel College of Pharmacy, Universal College of Medical Sciences, NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Universitas Islam Bandung, Oxford College of Pharmacy, ATMS Group of Institutions, Institut Sains dan Teknologi Nasional, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Kampala International University, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, University Institute of Pharma Sciences Chandigarh University, and Laureate Institute of Pharmacy. The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors of the articles, could re-participate for publication in the next edition in August 2021. Wassalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.
Saurabh Nimesh, , Shikhka Dhama, , Muhammad Akram, Neda Esmaeili Nejad Hasaroeih
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 91-98; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1950

Abstract:
The systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), commonly known as Lupus, is a rare and complex multisystem autoimmune disease where one’s immune system is overactive, and the body attacks its organ systems. SLE is a historically old disease described already in antiquity; it is an example of a chronic disease with physical, psychological, financial, and social implications for individuals diagnosed. It has inspired medical and basic biological scientists that focus on molecular biology, basic immunology, immunopathology, clinical science, genetics, and epidemiology. The syndrome is real in its existence-although hidden behind obstacles, cumbersome for patients and clinicians, and rebellious for scientists. There is currently no cure for SLE. The goal of treatment is to ease symptoms. This article will review information on the general approach to SLE therapy, focusing on currently approved therapies and novel approaches that might be used in the future.
, , Sangam Singh, Nitin Kumar
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 117-127; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1915

Abstract:
This study aims to develop a liposomal drug delivery system of isotretinoin, an acne drug-using spray drying, as a cost-effective and time-effective technique. The liposomal formulation was prepared by using spray drying; three different strategies were adopted: suspension spray drying (SSD), thin-film hydration and spray drying (TFHSD), and emulsion spray drying (ESD). Isotretinoin was 99% bound with lipid, so lipids hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), distearoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG), and cholesterol were selected for the formulation development. The HSPC, DSPG, cholesterol, and isotretinoin were taken in the ratio 4 : 1 : 0.16 : 3.1 mmol. In vitro drug release studies, microscopy, drug content, and related substance characterizations were done to formulate each strategy of spray drying prepared dry liposomes of isotretinoin. Results were compared with the USP monograph of isotretinoin. It was revealed that isotretinoin's liposomal formulation using ESD was having drug release according to the USP limits. Drug content was also according to the USP requirement; no free drug crystals were found in microscopy, multivesicular vesicles were found in shape, a particle size of up 60 µ was found. The ESD technique was a successful, time-effective, and cost-effective technique for preparing a liposomal drug delivery system for isotretinoin.
Fitrianti Darusman, , Gina Fuji Nurfarida
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 110-116; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1826

Abstract:
Glimepiride is often combined with metformin HCl as an oral antidiabetic in type II diabetes mellitus, which provides a complementary and synergistic effect with multiple targets for insulin secretion. Glimepiride includes class II of BCS, which solubility practically insoluble in water but high permeability, which will impact the drug's small bioavailability. In contrast, metformin HCl includes class III of BCS, which has a high solubility in water, but low permeability is absorbed approximately 50-60% in the digestive tract given orally. The co-crystallization method can be used to improve the glimepiride solubility properties and the permeability properties of metformin HCl by interrupting glimepiride with metformin HCl physically. This study aims to identify the physical interactions between glimepiride and metformin HCL using a thermal analysis of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and then confirmed by a computational approach. Identifying the physical interactions between glimepiride and metformin HCL was carried out by plotting the melting points generated from the endothermic peaks of the DSC thermogram at various compositions versus the mole ratios of the two were further confirmed by the computational approach using PatchDock. The results of the phase diagram analysis of the binary system between glimepiride and metformin HCl show a congruent pattern, which indicates the formation of co-crystal or molecular compounds at a 1 : 1 mole ratio at 228°C. Computational approach results showed that the interaction between glimepiride and metformin HCl did not form new compounds but heterosinton formation that was stable in molecular dynamics simulations.
Dita Ayulia Dwi Sandi, Eka Fitri Susiani, , Pratiwi Wikaningtyas
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 78-83; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1782

Abstract:
Sunscreen is a cosmetic substance that has the ability to reflect or absorb sunlight actively. It can prevent skin irritation due to UV rays. One of the natural ingredients with a sunscreen effect is the Edible-nest swiftlet's (Aerodramus fuciphagus) nest (ESN). This study aimed to determine the value of the sun protective factor (SPF) of the ESN water extract. The ESN water extract solution with variation concentration, this is 2000, 2500, 5000, 6000, and 7000 ppm, were measured by spectrophotometric UV-Vis at wavelength 290-375 nm with 5 nm intervals to determine the value of SPF, percentage of erythema transmission (%Te), and percentage of pigmentation transmission (%Tp) of ESN water extract. The result showed that the ESN water extract's SPF values at the concentration 2000, 2500, 5000, 6000, and 7000 ppm were 7.80; 9.68; 18.75; 20.58; and 22.24. The value of %Te of each concentration were 15.60±0.19; 10.03±0.42; 1.24±0.04; 0.81±0.01 and 0.56±0.01. While the value of %Tp of each concentration was showed the sunblock category. In conclusion, the ESN water extract from Central Kalimantan at the concentration of 6000 ppm has potential in ultraviolet protection against the skin in the ultra category with sunblock category mechanism. Further, it can be developed into sunscreen cosmetics from natural ingredients.
Vilya Syafriana, Amelia Febriani, Suyatno Suyatno, Nurfitri Nurfitri, Fathin Hamida
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 135-144; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1870

Abstract:
Sempur (Dillenia suffruticosa) leaves are known as a traditional medicine for the people of Bangka-Belitung Island. The local people empirically utilize the boiled water of D. suffruticosa leaves as anti-diarrhea. However, the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of D. suffruticosa leaves has not been reported. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of D. suffruticosa leaves against several microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria, and Candida albicans as fungi. Extraction was carried out by maceration method with 70% ethanol, then screened for phytochemical constituents. The antimicrobial test was carried out by the disc diffusion method using Nutrient Agar (NA) for bacteria, and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) for fungi. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the ethanol extract of D. suffruticosa leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The antimicrobial test showed that the extract of D. suffruticosa leaves could inhibit the growth of S. aureus at concentrations of 10%, 20%, and 40% were 8.35±0.05; 9.34±0.32; and 10.52±0.22, respectively. The ethanol extract of D. suffruticosa leaves could inhibit the growth of S. aureus, whereas E. coli and C. albicans did not show any activity.
Aditya Maulana Perdana Putra, Ratih Pratiwi Sari, Siska Musiam
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 84-90; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1703

Abstract:
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease with signs of increased blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is common diabetes in adults. Bawang dayak is one of the plants believed to have the efficacy of curing various types of diseases. The purpose of this study was to find out the comparison of hypoglycemic effects between combinations of bawang dayak extract and acarbose with single acarbose. This study was an experimental study using 32 white mice divided into two groups. Group one was given a combination of bawang dayak at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW and acarbose at a dose of 40 mg/100 g BW, while group two was given acarbose at a dose of 40 mg/100 g BW. Treatment is administered after the test animal is induced with dexamethasone at a 1 mg/kg BW dose dissolved in NaCl 0.9% subcutaneously for 12 days. Measurement of glucose levels was carried out using a glucometer. Data retrieval was carried out every three days for 15 days after previously fulfilled for +10 hours. Blood glucose level data were analyzed with the General Linear Model test. The combination of bawang dayak-acarbose onion extract had a greater decrease in blood glucose levels than single acarbose. Average reduction in blood glucose levels for D+3; D+6; D+9; D+12; and D+15 was 187.31; 168.56; 140.81; 119.81; and 102.56 mg/dl, respectively. The General Linear Model test results showed a p <0.05 value that significantly impacted blood glucose levels between groups.
Priyanka Singh, Amit Kumar Shrivastava, , Manish Dhar Dwivedi
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 99-109; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1854

Abstract:
This study aimed to improve the dissolution rate of aceclofenac and release the drug in a controlled manner over a period of 24 hours. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method, using hydrophilic polymers (HPMC/guar gum). Matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using different hydrophilic polymers (HPMC/guar gum). Tablets were evaluated for in vitro drug release profile in phosphate buffer with pH 6.8 (without enzymes). The thickness and hardness of prepared tablets were 3.23 ± 0.035 to 3.28 ± 0.008 mm and 3.26 ± 0.115 to 3.60 ± 0.200 kg/cm2, respectively. The friability was within the acceptable limits of pharmacopoeial specifications (0.31 to 0.71%), which indicates the good mechanical strength of the tablets. Drug release was retarded with an increase in polymer concentration due to the gelling property of polymers. The in vitro drug release from the proposed system was best explained by Higuchi’s model, indicating that drug release from tablets displayed a diffusion-controlled mechanism. The results clearly indicate that guar gum could be a potential hydrophilic carrier in developing oral controlled drug delivery systems. Based on the study results, formulations F8 was selected as the best formulation.
Abraham Bwalhuma Muhindo, , , , Emmanuel Eilu, Joe Mutebi, , Richard Onyuthi Apecu
Borneo Journal of Pharmacy, Volume 4, pp 145-156; doi:10.33084/bjop.v4i2.1948

Abstract:
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are challenging to treat and often associated with much higher extended stays, morbidity, and mortality, higher treatment costs, especially when the causative agent is multidrug resistance (MDR). This study was designed to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections and susceptibility profiles of bacteria isolated from Cesarean section (C-section) and surgical patients from Kasese District Hospitals in Western Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from January to September 2016 involving 303 patients with SSIs in obstetrics & gynecology; and general surgery wards in three health facilities. Clinical-demographic characteristics of patients were obtained using structured questionnaires before surgery. Bacterial analysis of the air and floor of the theatre room was done using the standard culture method. Of the 303 patients enrolled with SSIs (median age 34 years), 71.6% were female, and 28.4% were males. Only 14.5% developed SSIs, with predominant isolates being Staphylococcus aureus 33.33% and Escherichia coli 24%. The majority of recruited participants underwent a C-section of 58% and the least amputations of 0.3%. Duration of operation or surgery, p-value 0.002 (95% CI 1.599-7.667) was significantly associated with SSIs. Gram-negative bacteria were found resistant (50-100%) to ampicillin, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin, the commonly used post-operative drugs of choice. Hospital-acquired infections were common with emerging antibiotic-resistant strains isolated in most SSIs at Kasese hospitals. The development of resistance to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin than previously reported calls for laboratory-guided SSIs therapy and strengthening infection control policies.
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