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Taha Nazir
Volume 8, Volume 8, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.21065/19257430.8.1

Abstract:
The corruption is the violence of granted authorities that destroys the basic rights. It has serious consequences on society, system and lives. It also has posed potential threats to the public health care system, complicated the situation and makes extremely difficult to control in rational manner. So, we need the anti-corruption experts to identify key priority areas. They should undertake the corrective measures immediately to defeat the global health corruption. We collected the data from different professional, scientific and academic institution The research article and databases were searched from inception to get more relevant and current knowledge of this topic. The duplications deleted and titles or full texts were screened to obtain the exact professional and scientific information. Finally inferred that the corruption is an emerging global problem and potential threatening the health care system. The hug employment, large financial budget and interactions of multiple business entities provide sufficient opportunities of corruption. So the corruption is metaphorically hurting the quality of life. Therefore, we should perceive its empirical existence to verify theoretical and intuitive significance for public health. Moreover, the recently developed new paradigms may help to determine the severity of corrupt acts to reveal the likelihood of engagement and develop more effective strategy to mitigate all forms of corruption in health care system.
Maarten E.J. Rutten, Andre G. Doree, Johannes I.M. Halman
Abstract:
Previous research indicates that the presence of a champion in an innovation project increases the likelihood that firms will allocate resources to the innovation project. Relatively little is, however, known about how champions’ presence exactly influences resource allocation. A case study of two innovation projects in the construction industry was conducted to further explore this question. The findings suggest that it is not so much champions’ presence as such, but one of champions’ prototypical behaviours that influences firms’ willingness to allocate resources. Here we refer to champions’ expression of enthusiasm and confidence about the success of an innovation. Further, the findings suggests that the effect might be explained by the mediating role of firms’ expectations of the rate of adoption. Overall, the case study provides a step towards a deeper understanding of how champions induce firms to allocate resources to innovation projects.
, Christine Pasquire, Andrew King,
Abstract:
There is a broad consensus among social and economic researchers that ‘institutions’ matter. Institutions influence beliefs, norms and actions; thus they shape performance and outcomes. Interestingly, the concept of institutions is not well established in construction economics or management research, specifically in waste-related literature. This paper presents discussions on the impact of imperfect regulations, norms and cultural/cognitive assumptions that exist within the construction procurement context, and how this has translated into the institutionalisation of wasteful behaviours and practices in construction projects. Based on a critical review of extant literature, the ultimate objectives of this study are to: (1) contribute to the overall understanding of waste in construction by suggesting a novel perspective to the generation and persistence of waste in construction projects; (2) demonstrate how the neo-institutional theory, a branch of organizational sociology, can potentially be applied as an analytical lens to deliver a more explicit theory of waste that relates cause and effect within the wider aspects of construction procurement systems and relationships; (3) highlight a number of widely accepted regulations, norms and meanings that impede efficiency and improvement efforts in construction; and (4) formulate propositions on institutional waste in the process of construction procurement that will be fundamental to the future trajectory of this study.
Bryan Franz, Robert Leicht, Katherine Maslak
Abstract:
Architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) teams experience frequent changes in membership when delivering a project. While some of these changes are planned (e.g. phased involvement, role reassignment), others are unexpected (e.g. career change, sudden downsizing). Poorly planned or unexpected changes in membership can bring communication to a standstill and impair a team’s ability to deliver a successful project. By examining literature from civil engineering, as well as recent studies on network and team science, we propose a conceptual framework that places the formation, disruption and recovery cycle of communication networks in the context of a construction project. The purpose of this framework is to gain a better understanding of resilient communication networks at the project-level. To demonstrate the potential of this framework, email data was collected from the construction manager on an in-progress project that experienced an unexpected departure of their onsite project engineer. A week-byweek content and network analysis was performed for a period of one month to examine the impact of this change in team membership. The results suggest that the disruption in their communication network, measured as between a 40 to 50% loss in density, average degree and centralization following the departure of the Project Engineer, closely resembled the pattern of loss and recovery illustrated by the resilience triangle. Through discussion, the implications of these results at the project- and firm-level impacts are explored. Specifically, the framework demonstrated potential in forecasting vulnerability in a communication network by examining structural properties, such as high betweenness centrality relative to other members. However, we further that additional studies are needed to fully understand the dynamics and long-term benefits of more resilient communication networks, particularly as they relate to demographics and skillset of team members and the role of integrated delivery methods in promoting more robust networks.
Martin Morgan Tuuli
Abstract:
Organizations performance assessment is one of the critical aspects in today’s project management research. The performance of organizations can be affected by various factors beyond financial measures. Construction organizations faces difficulty in performance assessment stemming from the uncertain fragmented unique nature of the construction industry. Only few research focused on the non-financial factors that impact the organizations performance. Although many research works have been done to study organization success factors, most of the conducted research was only focusing on the construction project level rather than the organizational level. In addition, most of the research neglected the different perspectives of construction organizations functional units when assessing the performance. The goal of this research is to study the effect of different functional units on the company performance through identifying, ranking a set of critical success factors (CSFs) and build comprehensive performance construction organizations assessment models. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique has been used for the data analysis and the models’ development. The research findings indicated that the CSFs factors in construction organizations have different priorities and weights according to the different functional units. Four assessment models are eventually developed to reflect the unique perspective of four functional units in construction organizations. The developed models have been validated with satisfactory results ranging 80% to 90%. This research will benefit organizations managers to accurately assess their performance according to the different functional units.
Anastasia Tsvetkova, Kent Eriksson, Raymond E. Levitt, Kim Wikstrom
Abstract:
This article contributes to engineering project research by studying how projects relate to their surrounding context. The article presents a framework for the analysis of workflow interdependencies in a project that is situated in a business ecosystem. The analysis is used to reduce costly conflicts in the business ecosystem, and the framework shows how the project is positively impacted by the resolution of those conflicts. The framework elaborates James Thompson’s notion of pooled, sequential and reciprocal interdependence and distinguishes between compatible-reciprocal and contentious-reciprocal interdependencies. The relationship between interdependence types and their corresponding coordination and governance mechanisms, originally posited for interdependence between tasks and groups within a single organization, applies equally well to interdependence types and governance mechanisms across firm boundaries within a business ecosystem. We analyze a cargo vessel development project within the short sea logistics business ecosystem to illustrate how the proposed framework can remove unproductive workflow conflicts and enhance value creation.
Bingham Evan, G. Edward Gibson Jr., Mounir El Asmar
Abstract:
Preconstruction refers to project planning and services performed before construction takes place. It is a critical phase in the development of civil infrastructure projects. Civil infrastructure projects such as highways, freeways and other transportation related projects rely heavily on the preconstruction phase to improve partnerships, increase inter/intra-firm coordination and collaboration, and ensure a higher probability of successful project outcomes. Preconstruction services vary by project delivery method in terms of cost, timing, and level of benefit received. When a practice reaches a level of great value to the industry, it is often referred to as a ‘best practice’’. This paper discusses the delivery method and industry best practices that are most beneficial for successfully implement preconstruction services Results of a recent study using data gathered from 81 U.S. project owners, referencing projects from 17 states, and totaling over 6 billion U.S. dollars are given. The study identifies and ranks the best practices for performance of preconstruction services within each delivery method. Moreover, the paper presents an analysis of variance identifying the preconstruction services that add the most value to a given project, as well as the best practices to implement in order to effectively deliver a specific preconstruction service. Additionally, a cost analysis of project data is presented to identify average costs for preconstruction services. Guidance from industry leaders is presented to improve team alignment, partnering, firm coordination, and overall project success.
Paul Chinowsky, Barbara Robinson, Sherman Robinson
Abstract:
An effective social network is built on “social relationships,” fostered by increasing “reliance” on another person to complete tasks (within required parameters) because he or she has delivered reliably in the past; and “trust”— an emotional, interpersonal connection that grows out of reliance, based on testing/consulting with another individual over time. “Reliance” and “trust” foster high levels of “collaboration,” an essential ingredient for creating high performing teams. Developing teams that have trust among the participants is important as the teams engage in information transfer, knowledge exchange, and finally knowledge sharing, leading to full “social network engagement.” In this paper, we combine the Social Network Analysis which describes the “mechanics” of a social network in an engineering/architecture firm with data, gathered using a psychometric instrument, The Birkman Method, to quantify the behavioral and personality characteristics of individuals in that firm—the dynamics” that drive the mechanics. Our focus is on identifying and measuring specific characteristics that engender reliance, trust, and collaboration. We find that the quantitative measures of behavioral and personality characteristics help explain the interactions of highly networked individuals in a social network, or, conversely, of individuals who have low levels of network engagement.
Abstract:
Organizations performance assessment is one of the critical aspects in today’s project management research. The performance of organizations can be affected by various factors beyond financial measures. Construction organizations faces difficulty in performance assessment stemming from the uncertain fragmented unique nature of the construction industry. Only few research focused on the non-financial factors that impact the organizations performance. Although many research works have been done to study organization success factors, most of the conducted research was only focusing on the construction project level rather than the organizational level. In addition, most of the research neglected the different perspectives of construction organizations functional units when assessing the performance. The goal of this research is to study the effect of different functional units on the company performance through identifying, ranking a set of critical success factors (CSFs) and build comprehensive performance construction organizations assessment models. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique has been used for the data analysis and the models’ development. The research findings indicated that the CSFs factors in construction organizations have different priorities and weights according to the different functional units. Four assessment models are eventually developed to reflect the unique perspective of four functional units in construction organizations. The developed models have been validated with satisfactory results ranging 80% to 90%. This research will benefit organizations managers to accurately assess their performance according to the different functional units.
Ali Hosseini, Paulos Windimu, Ole Jonny Klakegg, Bjorn Andersen, Ola Laedre
Abstract:
Clarification of what partnering is and its practical implications may help the construction industry to achieve the full benefits of this concept. The purpose of this study is to shed more light on how the partnering concept as practiced in real-life projects compares with the way partnering is described in the literature by exploring the hard (formal/contractual) elements of this concept. By this, we aim to identify discrepancies between theory and practice and help clear up the confusion that results from conflicting definitions of partnering. This investigation is based on a literature study and 39 interviews with respondents from 44 construction projects classified as partnering projects. Findings reveal that the discrepancies between theory and practice are remarkable: either the practitioners have misunderstood what partnering entails or the minimum requirements are too stringent and do not reflect the real-life use of the concept. Observation from case projects shows that no partnering hard element is applied in all studied projects. Partnering projects may share the partnering label, but use different sets of hard elements. Partnering can be identified as being present through a range of features, characteristics and interaction behaviors. This concept should be studied as an enacting strategy that can be adopted by various contract models rather than simply as an alternative contract form.
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