International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology

Journal Information
EISSN : 2349-8889
Published by: Vandana Publications (10.31033)
Total articles ≅ 252
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Abenezer Abebe, Zelalem Tafa, Worknesh Terefe
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.13

Abstract:
Maize is one of the most important cereals broadly adapted worldwide. Though, a number of improved maize varieties have been released, each micro-environment has not been touched that is why the study carried out. The experiment was conducted using seven maize varieties in RCB design with three replications. The analysis of variance signifies the presence of significant difference (p<0.05) among the seven maize varieties evaluated. High value of genetic (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) for grain yield (25.1 and 37.8%) were estimated and this infers less influence of environment. Additionally, moderately high heritability (44.2%) and high genetic advance in percent mean (34.4%) were estimated for grain yield which indicate the trait governed by additive gene action and could be improved via selection based on phenotypic performance. However, traits (male and female flower) with high heritability and moderate genetic advance in percent mean inherited mostly by non-additive gene action and heterosis breeding could be useful. Regarding agronomic performance, Hora maize variety provided highest grain yield (5.0 t/ha) followed by Kuleni (4.1 t/ha), Melkasa 2 (4.0 t/ha) and check (4.0 t/ha). Hora, Melkasa 2, Melkasa 4 and check flowered earlier as compared to the other and could be used as parent for generating early flowering varieties. In summary, Hora maize variety was better performing both statistically and in eyes of farmers and need seed multiplication and distribution to farming community. Moreover, the variability observed among the maize varieties could be utilizing in future breeding activities.
Richard Elisha, I. Abubakar
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.11

Abstract:
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the Treponema pallidum (spirochetes). Syphilis remains a major cause of reproductive morbidity and poor pregnant outcomes in developing countries. This Research work seeks to determine the specificity of serological VDRL test for syphilis against the use of High Vaginal Swab in molecular detection of syphilis among pregnant women attending antenatal in some selected hospitals and clinics in Mubi North and South L.G.A. Adamawa State, Nigeria to subvert the challenges, hence finding lasting solution to the Reproductive and mental health challenges posed by secondary Syphillis. A total of 120 blood samples were collected from 120 consented pregnant women in batches from General hospital, Mubi, Sabon layi clinic, Lokuwa PHC, Lamurde maternity, Kwaja PHC and Alheri Nursing hospital all in Mubi North and South Local Government, during their Antenatal days. In all, 30(25.0 %) of the samples were seropositive, with the highest prevalence recorded as 11(9.17 %) of the 20 samples collected from Kwajah PHC in Mubi South L.G.A. The HVS of pregnant with positive serological test results were subjected to molecular nPCR test to amplify the tpp47 gene of Treponema pallidum. The only amplified fragment which arouse from the positive as the only positive amplification products was analyzed for specificity in an agarose gel developed 0.01 % ethidum bromide for ease of visualization of the band of fragment weight 260 bp tpp47 gene of Treponema pallidum under U.V since all HVS samples showed no bands of amplification, no further sequencing was technically necessary.
Indira Šestan, Demira Bedak Ogri?, Amra Odobaši?, Amra Bratov?i?, Ema Obrali?
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.12

Abstract:
The influence of wetting additive based on C12 - C14 alkyl ester sulfate with essential oils on the quality of nickel coatings is examined in the paper. The additive was tested at different concentrations added to the base electrolyte, taking the following concentrations: the concentration recommended twice lower (C1); lower recommended concentration (C2); upper recommended concentration (C3); the concentration twice higher compared to the lower recommended (C4) and the concentration twice higher compared to the upper recommended (C5). The value of the surface tension of the solution was determined, and the corrosion resistance in the salt chamber was examined. In addition, what is important in the production itself is the visual appearance of the coating, which was determined using the Hull cell test. The additive has been proven to be effective in reducing the surface solutions, which directly affects the production of nickel coatings of better quality and aesthetic appearance.
Dipanjana Dhar, Debayan Dey
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.9

Abstract:
Marine molluscs are ecologically and economically important group of organisms that survive in the challenging environments of different oceanic zones. Of all the classes of the phylum Mollusca, gastropods have radiated into marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats, successfully adapting themselves to thrive in changing environmental conditions. Hence, marine gastropods can be considered as an ideal system to study stress adaptation. In order to withstand the constant fluctuations in temperature, salinity and shifts in oxygen concentration of the intertidal zone, the gastropods inhabiting here rely on a modified and adaptive energy metabolism. The same is applicable for gastropods living in the deep sea environment, which is characterized by high hydrostatic pressure, low oxygen concentrations and abundance of heavy metals. Therefore, survival of these organisms may be correlated to their adaptive mitochondrial genome which serves as the principal site for energy metabolism and production in the cell. Here, we estimated selection pressure acting on the mitochondrial protein-coding genes of 13 intertidal and 2 deep sea gastropods based on site and branch-site specific models. The results exhibited higher number of sites under diversifying selection for the mitochondrial protein-coding genes of intertidal gastropods compared to deep sea species. Overall, this study focusses on the adaptive mitogenome evolution of marine gastropods for survival in the dynamic environments of the intertidal zone as well as deep sea.
Faraj Hato Johni
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.8

Abstract:
The study was conducted in Basrah University – veterinary medicine college, used about (60) sixty male rats divided into two groups randomly, control group and nicotine treated group with 0.5 mg / kg / BW, the result showed no significant difference in growth rats compared to control group also significant increase of liver enzymes compared to the control groups.
Alaefuna E. C., Uzor P. F., Okafor S. N., Osadebe P. O.
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.10

Abstract:
The leaves of Sida acuta Burm. f. (Malvaceae) has been reported to possess potent anti- inflammatory, anti- plasmodial and anti-microbial activities. The relationship of these bioactivities and immune responses lead to the evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of Sida acuta Burm. f. leave extract and fractions. This our study was done to determine the immunomodulatory activity and chemical study of methanol leave extract and fractions of Sida acuta Burm. f. The immunomodulatory evaluation was done by invivo Delay Type Hypersensitivity reaction (DTHR) in the body and in vitro measurement of phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans by the phagocyte polymorphonuclear leucocytes using slide method. Acute toxicity, phytochemical and GC-MS analysis were also performed. The DTHR tested in the blood with T-cells in mice showed that the extract and its fractions caused a delayed hypersensitivity response in 24hrs which was very significant (P ? 0.05) in the n- hexane fraction of the extract when compared to the control group at the dose of 100mg/kg. The in vitro studies showed a very significant difference (P ? 0.05) in the positive control group (LEVA) at concentration of 50, 100 and 200µg/ml, in crude extract (SrE) at concentrations of 50, 100 and 200µg/ml, n- hexane fraction 50, 100 and 200µg/ml, Ethyl acetate fraction at 200µg/ml and Absolute methanol fraction at 100µg/ml and also have high percentage phagocytic stimulation (PPS). The acute toxicity test did not cause clinical signs or death within 24hours post treatment in all doses tested and highest dose of 5000mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, tannins, steroids and cardiac glycosides. GC-MS analysis of fraction with highest activity was carried out on n-hexane fraction which showed the presence of some compounds like hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1 (hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester, 3,4-seco-5alpha-cholestan-3-oic acid,4-hydroxy-4-methyl epsilon-lacto
Aparajita Chakraborty
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.7

Abstract:
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is also known as nuclear factor erythroid-derived-like-2, is a transcription factor which is encoded by the NFE2L2 gene. It is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein which coordinates the basal and stress-inducible activation of a vast array of cytoprotective genes. It modulates a cellular antioxidant response program and plays a major role in the protection against oxidants and electrophiles; extracellular and intracellular oxidant/electrophiles have great contributions to the damages in cellular macromolecules such as proteins, lipids or DNA. Keap1 protein which is a regulator of Nrf2, is a highly redox-sensitive member of BTB-Kelch family assembling with Cul3 protein to form a Cullin-RING E3 ligase complex for Nrf2 degradation. Thus, this factor is a regulator of many processes of life and it’s signalling system (Nrf2-KEAP-1-ARE pathway) has been found to participate in various ocular or eye diseases and even other systemic diseases such as respiratory disease, chronic diseases or cancer. In microbial infections, the host oxidative stress response may lead to the production of cytoprotective molecules, which in turn induces the activation of cellular Nrf2 factor. The crystallins or eye lens proteins, (?B-crystallin being one of them) may possibly interact with Nrf2 factor and regulate oxidative stress, but it is yet to be deciphered. Proteomic studies may provide valuable information, regarding such detailed protein interactions and their pathways especially in case of diseases or infections in the upcoming days.
Krishani Jayasinghe, Duminda Guruge, Manuja N. Perera
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.5

Abstract:
Bullying is a form of aggression which has negative impacts on health. Bullying acts are reported to be common among early adolescents in rural schools in Sri Lanka. It is timely to design and implement interventions aiming to reduce bullying in schools in Sri Lanka. In this article, we aim to describe the process and the content of a health promotion intervention carried out aiming to reduce bullying among early adolescents in a rural school in Sri Lanka. The intervention is comprised of a six-step process. A logical framework developed based on Samarasinghe et al (2011) was used to guide the intervention. The content of the intervention was designed following health promotion principles. Health promotion aims for empowering people- to take collective community actions aiming to achieve desired health outcomes. The intervention for bullying was designed aiming for empowering early adolescents -to generate collective actions to reduce bullying in their school. In the intervention, adolescents not merely participated but also engaged and involved in modifying the planned intervention. Different activities, brainstorming sessions, facilitated discussions, role plays, etc. were carried out in the process. In this intervention, the health promotion approach we employed enabled engagement and involvement of adolescents beyond mere participation in the intervention.
I. Abubakar, A. Mohammed, M.M. Tanko, R. Elisha
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.6

Abstract:
Resistant strains of K. pneumoniae and C. freundii due to under use and over use of antibiotics and biocides has contributed to economic burden due to nosocomial infections. This study focuses on screening hospital wastes for antibacterial and biocide resistant K. pneumoniae and C. freundii in Adamawa state specialist hospital, Yola. One hundred and twenty (120) hospital wastes samples were analysed. Samples were cultured on appropriate media and incubated at 37 oC for 24h. Biochemically identified isolates were molecularly confirmed and sequenced. K. pneumoniae being 93% identical to strain KPNIH48 and C. freundii being 99% identical to complex sp CFNH4 were confirmed. Resistant K. pneumonia and C. freundii were subjected to phenotypic ESBLs test, then DDS test was carried out to confirm ESBLs production. Phenotypically ESBLs positive K. pneumoniae were positive for DDST but negative for C. freundii. The DDST positive isolates were then screened for bla-TEM-68 gene. All the DDST positive K. pneumoniae harboured the bla-TEM-68 gene but none in C. freundii. The isolates carrying bla-TEM-68 gene were cured using 10 % SDS and the results showed that the ESBLs genes were plasmid and/or chromosomally encoded. The presence of K. pneumoniae carrying bla-TEM-68 gene indicates a possibility for increased nosocomial infections in Adamawa state and Nigeria at large and so relevant preventive recommendations were made.
Sulaiman M. Hasan
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.8.5.4

Abstract:
The COVID 19 pandemic has caused great havoc amongst the people in society across the globe. It has affected people both physically and emotionally. The epicentre of the virus has been attributed to Wuhan, from where it spread in the different parts of the globe. Vaccination emerged as one of the best solutions to deal with the proliferation of the virus. It also helped people to protect themselves against hospitalization and reduced death rates. The researcher has used Secondary sources to gather information and data related to the immunological markers in Covid-19 vaccinated population. A major immune marker is the manufacturing of neutralizing antibodies. However, the further implication in this aspect is still under research by scientists.
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