International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology

Journal Information
EISSN : 2349-8889
Current Publisher: Vandana Publications (10.31033)
Total articles ≅ 191
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Nagham H. Ali, Amir A. Majeed
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 38-44; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.5

Abstract:
Lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the body's skin and multiple mucous membranes. In multicellular species, protein 53 and syndecan-1protein play an significant role since they control the cell cycle and thus play a major role in tumor suppression and cancer prevention. The p53 gene was therefore identified as a "genome protector," referring to its role in preserving the integrity of genetic information by preventing gene mutations. The purpose of this analysis was to study the association between certain immune markers in lichen planus patients. The aim of this study: Study correlation between some immune markers in patients with lichen planus. Methods: 'Thirty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue pieces, diagnosed as Oral Lichen planus (OLP), were included in the sample of this report. Results: Evaluation of P53 Immunohistochemistry and Evaluation of syndecan-1protein Immunohistochemistry Conclusion: The marker p53 expression is high in the patient with Lichen Planus while the second studed markersyndecan-1 protein is less than marker p53.
Marwa Abbas Abdulrazzak Kubba
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 29-37; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.4

Abstract:
SMA (Spinal muscular atrophies) are category of hereditary inflammation in the funiculars and lower brain stem, tissue fatigue, and degeneration characterized by motor neuron failure. The analytic and genetic phenotypes incorporate a diverse continuum distinguished depending on age of onset, tissue participation arrangement, and inheritance arrangement. Rapid advancements in genetic science have expedite the discovery of causative genes over the past few years, and provide significant access in awareness the biochemical and neurological basis of Spinal muscular atrophies and insights into the motor neurons' selective deficiency. Popular path physiological topics include Ribonucleic Acid metabolism and splicing abnormalities, axonal transmission, and motor neurons' advancement and communication. These also collectively revealed possible innovative prevention methods and comprehensive attempts are what benefits does the company offer? Although a range of promising therapeutic therapies for Spinal muscular atrophies is emerging, it is essential to identify therapeutic windows and establish responsive and appropriate biomarkers to promote future analytic trial success. This research offers a description of Spinal muscular atrophies' logical manifestations and genetics. It discusses recent advancements in learning—mechanisms for the pathogenesis of inflammation and new treatment methods.
Suman Sharma, Santosh Shrestha, Sudip Poudel, Ram Devi Timila
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 156-161; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.20

Abstract:
A case study was conducted at Nala, Kavre district to assess the present cultivation and disease management status in cole crops in the year 2019 with use of semi-structured questionnaire among the local farmers. It was found that majority of respondent cultivated cole crops seasonally and faced five major disease problem in it namely: stalk root (Sclerotina sclerotiorum), Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola), damping off (Pythium sp.), root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) and club root (Plasmodiophora brassicae). For management of those diseases, 83% respondent used conventional method of disease management i.e. chemical fungicides and insecticides. But the methods of management of disease was found significant with IPM training and awareness on biological approaches they have heard or related program attained. Almost 40% respondent had practices IPM packages of pest control based on training they have received and 33% has practiced based on the awareness program they have received. Also female guided farming has more probability to adapt IPM tools to minimize effect of pesticides and cooperatives had also played major role in mass communicating benefits of IPM. With 83% conventional management practicing farmers, they reported to face piles of immediate and chronic health issues due to continuous pesticidal use. Eye irritation (16.9%), skin problems (21.4%), headache (10.7%), respiratory problems (7.1%), and vomiting (5.3%), and chronically cancer (27.7%) was reported in the area due to prolonged and hazardous use of pesticides in conventional practices as per the respondents.
Bishwo Prakash Pokharel
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 184-195; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.24

Abstract:
In an operating system, disk scheduling is the process of managing the I/O request to the secondary storage devices such as hard disk. The speed of the processor and primary memory has increased in a rapid way than the secondary storage. Seek time is the important factor in an operating system to get the best access time. For the better performance, speedy servicing of I/O request for secondary memory is very important. The goal of the disk-scheduling algorithm is to minimize the response time and maximize throughput of the system. This work analyzed and compared various basic disk scheduling techniques like First Come First Serve (FCFS), Shortest Seek Time First (SSTF), SCAN, LOOK, Circular SCAN (C-SCAN) and Circular LOOK (C-LOOK) along with the corresponding seek time. From the comparative analysis, the result show that C-LOOK algorithm give the least head movement and seek time in different cases as compared to other algorithm. Therefore, it maximizes the throughput for the storage devices.
Sabita Ghimire, Hariom Yadav, Prabesh Acharya, Raju Kharel
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 196-201; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.25

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the effect of seed priming (on-farm, hydro, halo, osmo, vitamin c priming, and hardening) on the germination and seedling growth of spring rice varieties: hardinath-3, hardinath-1, and chaite-5 at ambient room temperature. A factorial completely randomized design (CRD) was carried out with two factors: methods of priming and varieties at agriculture knowledge center (AKC), kapilbastu during march 2020. There were, in total, 21 treatment combinations and four replications. Parameters observed were germination percentage, speed of germination, vigor index, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of rice seedlings. Hardinath-3 had superior performance in terms of germination percentage (95.35 %), vigor index (183.86), root length (11.51 cm) and shoot length (7.39 cm) compared to hardinath-1 and chaite-5; the speed of germination, however, was greater in hardinath-1. Seed hardening - alternate soaking (tap water for 24 hours) and drying - induced higher germination percentage (94.91 %), speed of germination (96.00), and vigor index (197.43) than did other priming methods; germination percentage of vitamin c primed seeds (94.75 %), nevertheless, were at statistical par with hardened seeds. Hardened hardinath-3 seeds were better in regards to germination percentage (97.50 %) and root length (12.92 cm), while the speed of germination (97.50) and vigor index (210.50) was greater in hardened hardinath-1. Vitamin c primed seeds of hardinath-3 and hardinath-1 were finer with dry weight, shoot length, and vigor index. In conclusion, farmers' are suggested to hardened seeds of hardinath-3 before sowing to promote uniform germination and growth.
Prabha Adhikari, Prativa Sharma, Surya Sharma Bhatta
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 45-51; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.6

Abstract:
Dairy farming is emerging as commercial enterprise and milk as the part of dietary food but the milk productivity of the cattle varies with the variation in climatic factors. So, breed selection plays imperative role on maintaining productivity and adoptability in different environments. Holstein Friesian and Jersey being the temperate breeds with high milk producing capacities could not perform well on the tropical and sub-tropical region. With proper feeding, Holstein has higher milk yield and low-fat percentage than Jersey. Milk yield varies by 2.58% in Holstein and 2.09% in Jersey cow with the change in climatic factors (minimum temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation). In hot areas, both breeds suffer from heat stress showing low feed intake, higher body and rectal temperature, high respiration rates and high heart beats. Holstein has high increase than Jersey in rectal temperature and heart beat by 0.550C and 15.4 inhalations/min respectively which shows Jersey are more heat tolerant than Holstein. It is due to the larger heat dissipating area, short and light hair, lighter body coat and thin fat. Heat stress can be managed by providing shade, nutritious feed and genetic improvements. As the climate change is emerging, it can affect cattle in tropical regions even more in near future. To overcome this future challenge, further research and study must be done for the proper management of Holstein and Jersey in stress condition and heat tolerance breed must be developed by genetic improvement.
Sayed Mohammad Naeim Oighun
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 69-71; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.9

Abstract:
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) haploids and doubled haploids are widely used in breeding, the investigations of a combinative variability and its stabilization in homozygotes. In four domestic varieties of winter wheats (Moskovskaya 56, Moskovskaya 39, Galina, Nemchinovskaya 24) and three domestic varieties of spring wheats (Ester, MIS, Amir). With spring wheat variety Falat as a control, the efficacy of embryogenesis in isolated microspores was tested using standard protocol for induction of direct embryo formation in the isolated microspore culture. In all winter varieties there was shown a low frequency of cytoplasmic strands, which are typical for the embryogenic microspores, whereas in the spring varieties it was high. After 4 days cultivation in the medium used for induction, the microspore viability decreased in winter varieties. and another 10 days later the Viable cells were not observed. The spring varieties developed the multicellular structures, which could produce embryos. The reference variety Falat produced 28 % of proembryoids, able mostly to further embryonic formation. Basing on these results, the protocol for inducing direct embryogenesis in wheat microspores was modified, including maltose concentration in medium, the conditions of spikelet heat treatment, the number of ovaries and time when they were added to the culture, the combination and concentration of hormones in the media for induction and cultivation.
Edrees Khan Rahmatzada, Paras Nath Yadav, Yuba Raj Pokharel
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 88-97; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.11

Abstract:
Thiosemicarbazone have the antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer effects. 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibited the cell viability of HepG-2 cells by CV assay in a concentration dependent manner (control, 1μM, 3μM, 10μM, 30μM, and 100μM) with IC50 value of 9.587622μM. Further colony formation assay demonstrated that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibits colony number and size of HepG-2. Wound healing assay exhibited that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibit the migration of HepG-2 cells. DAPI staining showed that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibited proliferation of HepG-2 cells in 30μM and 100μM concentrations respectively. 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibited VEGF, p38 alpha, C-JUN, BECN-1, ERK, NF-KB, in HepG-2 cells. We found that 3-OH-Me-TSC inhibit proliferation of HepG-2 cells by inhibiting MAPK signaling pathway, 3-OH-Me-TSC can be developed as future chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma after the evaluation of this compounds in more cancer cells an in vivo model.
Shailja Choudhary, Hemlata Kaurav, Gitika Chaudhary
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 114-125; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.14

Abstract:
Cichorium intybus is commonly known as Chicory, kasani. It is a recognized medicinal plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family. This plant is a well-known traditional herb used in various medicinal systems like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medicinal system to treat variety of diseases ranging from wounds to diabetes. The species is native to the European region (Mediterranean region) but can also grow in the temperate and semi-arid regions. The juice extracted from this plant is used as a traditional remedy to cure uterus cancer and tumors. The plant is well-known for its roots that are used as an additive in coffee as it provides bitterness in taste without the caffeine. It is also reported that the roots of the plant contain 40% inulin and acts as an anti-diabetic agent. Historically, the plant was cultivated by ancient Egyptians as a medicinal plant, vegetable crop, coffee substitute and also used as animal forage. Cichorium intybus contains various phytochemical constituents mainly sesquiterpene lactones, caffeic acid derivatives, inulin flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, steroids terpenoids and many more. The reported pharmacological properties of the C. intybus plant include hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cardiovascular, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antimalarial, anti-allergic and gastroprotective activities. In this review article, the medicinal and ayurvedic importance of C. intybus plant along with its phytochemicals are briefly explained.
C. P. Khuntia, S. K. Kar, N. Mohanty, H. K. Khuntia, B. Dwibedi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 8, pp 153-155; doi:10.31033/ijrasb.8.2.19

Abstract:
Salmonella meningitis is a disease with high mortality in infants though incidence is rare. This article reports a case of Salmonella meningitis in a two months male infant, who presented with high fever, convulsion and difficulty in breathing. Salmonella typhi was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that showed resistance to Cephalosporins, Fluroquinoles, Macrolides and Aminoglycosides but susceptiblity to Chloramphenicol and Cotrimaxozole. This case was admitted on fourth day of onset of illness and treated with parenteral Vancomycin and Ceftriaxone to cover both gram positive and negative bacterial agents of bacterial meningitis in a young infant, but succumbed to death on ninth day of illness. This indicated importance of S. typhi as a possible bacterial etiology and a great concern on resistance to the normally chosen antibiotics. An early suspicion can be suggested to reduce the risk of mortality. Environmental hygiene and household cleanliness practices also warrants attention, which were identified as possible risks for enteric infection in spite the baby was absolutely breast fed.
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