International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology

Journal Information
EISSN : 2349-8889
Published by: Vandana Publications (10.31033)
Total articles ≅ 326
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Firas M. B. Alkhashab
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.2.1

Abstract:
A hospital based, cross sectional study this was carried out at the period between the beginning of June 2020 to the end of September 2021. A total of 600 child Suffering from chronic diarrhea were examined. The co-existence of mixed infection of Cryptosporidium Parvum with others intestinal parasitic protozoan parasites as an etiology of chronic diarrhea was the aim of this study, Cryptosporidium Parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lambilia was found to be the more common parasites as a cause of chronic diarrhea among children under five years, stool samples were collected form children who lived in some places of Mosul city which is divided into two sides as a result of the passage of the Tigris River from the center, a total of 400 (66.6%) positive cases were recorded, the highest infectious rate was found at the Right side of Mosul city 230 (38.3%) cases while the rest 170 (28.3%) cases was recorded in Left side. Direct slide preparation method with a Modified Zeihl Neelsen, cultivation of Protozoal parasites  by using special media and ELISA method for stool samples were used to perform the diagnosis of infection of Cryptosporidium Parvum, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lambilia that was to be found in 130 (21.6%),150(25%),120(20%), respectively, The co-existence of mixed infection of Cryptosporidium Parvum with Entamoeba histolytica was recorded in 30 (5%)cases while with Giardia lambilia was found in 24(4%)cases these study also recorded the presence of mixed infection between Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lambilia in 12(2%) cases.
Frédéric Ayant, Prvindra Kumar
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 21-33; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.3

Abstract:
In the present paper, we evaluate the general finite integral invoving the generalized modified Aleph-function of two variables. At the end, we shall see several corollaries and remarks.
Pachal Rahul, Medda A Satyaraj
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 118-126; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.14

Abstract:
Due to numerous reasons, including faulty m RNA, insufficient availability of charged t RNA, genetic errors, ribosomes are failed to synthesize protein sometimes. All organisms develop their machinery to recognize stalled ribosomes. Stalled ribosomes, results in the production of a truncated polypeptide which can affect cells. So, they must be eliminated, by mechanisms known as Ribosome-associated protein quality control (RQC). E3 ubiquitin ligase Ltn1 in RQC promotes clearance of 60S subunit and targets aberrant nascent polypeptides for proteasomal degradation. In eukaryotes, RQC facilitates the ribosomal rescue, where staled m RNAs release and allow to degrade and ribosomal subunits are to be recycled for further use. Ribosome-associated protein quality control in yeast is accomplished by Hel2-dependent ubiquitination of uS10 and RQC-trigger (RQT) complex. RQC in a mammal is done by ZNF598-dependent ubiquitination of collided ribosomes, which also activates signal integrator 3, a component of the ASCC complex. Human RQT (h RQT) is made up of ASCC3, ASCC2, TRIP4, which are orthologs of RNA helicase Slh1, ubiquitin-binding protein Cue3, and ykR023W protein respectively. Ubiquitin-binding activity and ATPase activity of ASCC2 and ASCC3 respectively, are important for RQC. So, it is obvious that the h RQT complex recognizes the ubiquitinated defective ribosome and induces subunit dissociation for RQC. Biogenesis of new polypeptide, folding, correct localization are the fundamental processes to maintain proteostasis, which involve various factors directly attached with ribosomes and chaperones. Ribosome-associated protein biogenesis factors mediate the cellular proteostasis network to form integrity.
Rashmi Kumari, Manoj Kumar Upadhyay
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 196-198; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.25

Abstract:
The origin of fresh water on the planet earth is the result of precipitation process. It has taken a long-time scale process. The changes in vegetation patterns with many geological activities leads to the momentum in precipitation. However, the geological study reveals that the emergency with big freshwater bodies are all the result of plate tectonic activities or meteorological changes. Nevertheless, clear fact about the origin of life on the earth planet goes to the emergence of micro fauna in saline waters. The solar radiation played a key role in the formation of modern living watery planet. of course, the origin of non-saline source of water is very ancient perhaps the floral photosynthetic activities had taken place to the continuous rainfall, the high temperature, natural vegetation and precipitation must have led to the availability of water resource on planet Earth. Sometimes biological process and phenomenon are responsible for the formation of many substances.
Wahidullah Enayat, Sorgul Kashmiri, Mohammad Reza Mohammadizadeh
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 174-182; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.21

Abstract:
In this paper, the attic space of the building of the Faculty of Physics, University of Tehran has been simulated by Comsol Multiphysics software. Before the energy consumption optimization is applied in it, the building of the Faculty of Physics, University of Tehran has dimensions (80.5 × 17 × 3.2 m) and 50 years have passed since its construction, and so during the summer (July to October), the temperature reaches 50 0C. In these months, energy consumption is higher than in other months of the year. Previously, 18 automatic fans were installed on the roof to lower the attic temperature. But its installation was insignificant in reducing the temperature difference between the attic and the outside space. Now to reduce the temperature, can use a gentle airflow (fan). Before to install the fan on both sides of the gable, it was simulated by Comsol Multiphysics. The simulation of six hypothetical fans is considered reducing the temperature. After calculation by this software, the use of installing six fans at both ends of the attic shows a reduction of 10 degrees, which can be said to save energy.
Mohammad Maruf Seizgain
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 188-190; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.23

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to provide a wealth of information on the history of the development of biology in the passage of history. Beginning with the wizarding era and ending with heart and neurosurgery and hundreds of other developments in Biological Science based on scientific methods. This means that biology is one of the oldest sciences and human beings with intellect, logic, thought and will have drawn many dark corners of ambiguities and are still trying to use chemical, physical, technical, computer and other sciences. Biology was born in ancient Greece in the 6th-7th centuries BC and was developed by the great philosophers of the world such as Hippocrates, Aristotle and other Greek philosophers. Famous Roman scientists have also done great service in the development of this science. With the advent of the holy religion of Islam, Islamic scholars in the field of medicine and other scientific sciences have done great service. The services of Abdul Malik Samael, Abul Hassan Ali bin Sahl Tabari and Abul Mohammad Zakaria Razi in the development of biology are unforgettable. The great scientists of the world of science have succeeded in discovering important biological problems since the seventeenth century.
Zina F. H. Al-Obaidi, Abeer Ali Marhoon
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 34-44; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.4

Abstract:
Thousands of individuals are affected every day by the current covid-19 pandemic, which is caused by a novel coronavirus called SARSCoV2. As a result, medicines and vaccines that are effective against all SARSCoV2 subtypes are critical today. Viral genome mutations are prevalent, and they can affect the encoded proteins, resulting in varying levels of detection and illness treatment effectiveness. Despite its clinical relevance, the SARS-CoV-2 gene set remains uncertain, making COVID-19 biology difficult to understand. A single type of mutation in the S gene that was changed the anticodon 614 from aspartic acid to glycine (D614G) consequence in increased virus infection. Herein, we report the gene mutation of structural proteins particularly spike and nucleocapsid proteins in viral genome. The overall prevalence of S and N gene mutations in SARS-CoV-2 were investigated. Among the structural proteins, our findings suggest that nucleocapsid had the highest mutation density, whereas Spike D614G was the most prevalent 93.9 %, found largely in genomes worldwide. These findings indicate that while designing diagnostics tools and therapeutic alternatives, the virus genotype in a certain community should be taken into account.
Mirwais Safi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 183-187; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.22

Abstract:
Today, the study of the origin of life is one of the active fields in scientific research, and cooperation between different disciplines of science has greatly contributed to increasing our knowledge about the formation of life. According to scientists, the age of the earth is estimated at (4.6) billion years, but the signs of life are approximately (3.8) billion years ago. Thus, life had hundreds of millions of years to begin with the formation of citrus CO2, H2O, C, H2, N2 after the formation of the Earth's initial atmosphere. There are several theories before the organ molecules formed in the early earth. Organic matter may have been produced on the surface of the earth and formed by the earth at the site of hot water pores. The primary cells were probably heterotrophic. Aerobic organisms have appeared in the atmosphere after increasing oxygen, eukaryotic organisms have evolved from prokaryotes; Organisms diversified during the Paleozoic, with dinosaurs and other reptiles dominating during the Mesozoic (about 250 million years ago); The Sinusoid age is the age of mammals, but it does not exist to prove any of the above ideas that can satisfy all scientists and philosophers. Evolutionary sources, the origin of the evolutionary history of life, scientific studies on the origin of life, the evolution of living beings and intelligent human beings old and present, and clear cultural evolution.
Rasha Saad Mahmood Aldoury
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 45-65; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.5

Abstract:
Radiation exposure has the potential to have a significant impact on biological performance. An illumination regimen (overall dosage, portions, or timeframe) is a significant predictor of the physical and chemical because biological impact on the cells concerned, so it differs across functions as well as tissues. Unless the hypothalamic-pituitary pathway has been engaged mostly with scattered electromagnetic, radiotherapy to a central and peripheral nervous system can change the duration if adolescence, create hyperprolactinemia, and produce testosterone insufficiency. Smaller concentrations from external radiation to the testicle impact its embryological epithelium; dosages more than 0.35 Gy produce aspermia, that may be recoverable. To high dosage, healing time tends to increase; regrettably, aspermia could be irreversible at dose levels greater than 2 Gy. Secreted related to the power would being harmed with extreme radiation exposures (> 15 Gy). With contrast to the radiological dosage, the testis' sensitivity is determined either by man's sexual actual age of exposure or his pubescent condition. This same ovary's reaction to the impacts of radiation varies according to age or dosage in females, although it's difficult to separate menstrual malfunctioning into endocrine or reproductive consequences. Girls and females can experience 30% infertility from such with 4 Gy ovary dosage, although females beyond 40 years or age might experience 100% infertility. Pelvic irradiation can also affect the uterus, causing stunted development in prepubescent girls or lack of endometrial contraction throughout pregnancies, leading to miscarriages or early childbirth. Despite the modest handful of examples examined, certain basic themes emerged. Among men, fractional radiotherapy of the testicles, equivalent to ultimate outcome from roughly 600 cGy, can be as damaging than abrupt radiotherapy (rad). Aspermia is caused by dispersed dosages more than 35 cGy, having recuperation times expanding with dosage, but aspermia becoming irreversible around 200 cGy. Feminine reaction differs on age or dosage for women. As instance, 400 cGy can produce 30% infertility in teenage girls, and 100% infertility for women ages of 40. People of both sexes, on the other hand, respond to radiation is different ways.
Thavarajah Vaigunthan, B. G. N. Sewwandi
International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Volume 9, pp 127-139; https://doi.org/10.31033/ijrasb.9.1.15

Abstract:
Quantification of environmental pollution risk (EPR) induced by open dumping practice of municipal solid waste (MSW) is important to improve MSW management practices and to provide effective countermeasures for mitigating EPR at the MSW open dumping site. This study targeted an open dumping site at Karadiyana, Western province of Sri Lanka and aimed to assess EPR by using geographical and hydrological information, water (landfill leachate and surface water) and soil quality monitoring for samples collected at the pollutant source (i.e., MSW dumping site) and its surrounding with monthly interval from June to December 2019 to cover both wet and dry periods. The maps of EPR induced by the pollutant source were visualized by analysing measured physicochemical parameters including heavy metals incorporating with interpolation and weighted overlay techniques of geographic information system (GIS). Results showed that the EPR mapharacterized well spatial distribution and seasonal variation of pollutants from the source. Especially, it was found that the pollutants flowed towards the Northwest and North from the pollutant source at the investigated site. It was also found that higher concentrations of phosphorous and heavy metals were observed from landfill leachate samples in dry season than those in wet season. The findings in this study raise the mapping of EPR would contribute to take actions for establishing environmental sound waste disposal and to promote sustainable MSW management practice in Sri Lanka.
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