Law and Safety
ISSN / EISSN : 1727-1584 / 2617-2933
Published by: Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs (10.32631)
Total articles ≅ 190
Latest articles in this journal
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 143-144; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.22
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 116-121; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.18
Визначено основні засади діяльності Конституційного Суду України. Наголошено на основних проблемах відсутності єдиного підходу до тлумачення юридичного терміна. Зазначено шляхи подолання помилок і непорозумінь, пов’язаних з неоднозначним підходом до розуміння юридичної термінології. Визначено сутність офіційного тлумачення, яке застосовується Конституційним Судом України. Запропоновано видову класифікацію офіційного тлумачення. Наголошено на тому, що офіційне тлумачення не змінює зміст терміна, а, навпаки, шляхом тлумачення з’ясовується його дійсний зміст.
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 122-129; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.19
Проаналізовано проблеми здійснення права приватної власності на нерухоме майно за законодавством України. На підставі дослідження конституційних і цивільно-правових норм, а також наукових праць із цієї тематики окреслено загальні засади та принципи реалізації власником своїх майнових прав щодо нерухомого майна, яке йому належить. Оскільки майнові права всіх суб’єктів правовідносин є не лише основою економічного розвитку всього суспільства, а й потужним фактором становлення кожної особистості в нашій державі, створення, ухвалення та застосування справедливих норм здійснення права приватної власності буде запорукою гармонійного соціально-економічного підґрунтя для кожного громадянина нашої держави.
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 13-19; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.01
The subject matter of the research is theoretical and applied problems of criminal and legal qualification of domestic violence. Its purpose is to form propositions for solving these problems. The latter include the difficulties of unambiguous interpretation and legal assessment of the features of a socially dangerous act provided by the Art. 126-1 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine, and the features of “systematic”, establishing socially dangerous consequences and causal relation and distinguishing domestic violence from related corpus delicti of criminal offenses. The author has revealed the “interdiction” of socially dangerous results (as features of an action) and consequences, which leads to incompleteness and incorrect qualification. The solution of this problem is directly related to: a) the separation of psychological violence from those forms of psychological influence on a person that cannot be considered violence; b) separation of domestic violence as an administrative tort from a criminal offense. The author has suggested a two-dimensional model of the consequences of psychological violence, where the first (closer) level consists of those consequences defined in the Law of Ukraine “On Preventing and Counteracting Domestic Violence”, and the second (remote) level – in the Art. 126-1 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. When there are sufficient grounds to believe that domestic violence is systematic, the use of prior administrative response procedures should be avoided after the first report or personal detection by the police officer. Special attention has been paid to the criteria for distinguishing between the legal components of domestic violence and criminal offenses against life and health, sexual freedom and sexual integrity, as well as those provided by the Articles 164 and 165 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 66-72; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.10
In this paper tools, organization and tactics of crime mapping are analyzed. The directions of application of mapping for maintenance of public safety and order, in criminal intelligence process, etc. are outlined. The domestic experience of mapping is briefly analyzed. The main goals that are achieved with the use of mapping are defined. Features of visualization of criminogenic cells are revealed. Pin mapping features (when points which symbolize a certain event are placed on the map on the corresponding coordinates) are outlined. Kernel density mapping is described, which makes it much easier to detect criminogenic foci, as hot-spot maps clearly reflect the concentration of certain events in the region. A method of mapping using proportional symbol mapping is disclosed when the increase in the size of the symbol denoting a point on the map is proportional to the increase in the number of events or other parameters at these coordinates. The building of geographical profiles of criminals is briefly described. The theoretical basis of mapping for the prediction of crimes is outlined. Prediction strategies based on equations and machine calculations and actuarial strategies based on expertise and clinical strategy are analyzed. Considerations are given to the appropriateness of applying appropriate strategies in different countries. The phenomenon of near repeat patterns is studied. Some software solutions for the implementation of the tasks of mapping criminal manifestations and the use of artificial intelligence systems for this purpose are described. Examples are given. It is noted that the use of cartography to prevent and predict crimes in Ukraine is in its infancy. Some solutions are proposed that could improve the situation in the field of crime mapping in Ukraine.
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.04
Based on the analysis of scientific concepts and legal principles the author has provided the definition of information security, provision of information security in Ukraine and has characterized its components. The current state of legal regulation of the organization and activity of cyberpolice units of the National Police of Ukraine has been analyzed. Particular attention has been paid to the legal analysis of the tasks, functions and structure of the Cyberpolice Department of the National Police of Ukraine. Special attention has been drawn to certain shortcomings of Ukrainian legislation in the field of ensuring information security by the police, its compliance with the norms and standards of international law. Taking into account the specifics of the tasks, the author has provided characteristics of the functions of cyberpolice units in the information sphere, which should be divided according to the purpose into: 1) basic (external), which are focused on law enforcement and preventive aspects; 2) auxiliary (intrasystem), which are focused on promoting the implementation of basic functions, the introduction of appropriate management mechanisms within the system. It has been stated that the modern system of ensuring information security and cybersecurity in Ukraine should be one effective system, consisting of such mandatory components as legal, educational and technical. It has been concluded that in order to improve the legal principles for the organization and activities of cyberpolice units of the National Police in the field of ensuring information security and counteracting cyber threats, first of all, it is necessary to optimize the organizational structure of cyberpolice, reasonably distribute the functions (powers) between cyberpolice units and other subjects combating cyber threats in Ukraine, to create appropriate conditions for reaching a qualitatively new level of interaction between them and coordination of their activities in the field of ensuring information security in modern conditions.
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 44-47; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.06
It has been noted that the legal regulation of local taxes and fees is carried out simultaneously at the national and local levels. An exhaustive list of mandatory payments, the range of taxpayers, the objects of taxation, the maximum rate are defined at the national level. The powers granted by the state are used, each of the taxes and fees is established and put into effect separately, the collection mechanisms are regulated in details at the local level. The peculiarity of the legal regulation of local taxes and fees is that local self-government agencies do not have the right to set their own taxes and fees on their territory. It has been noted that each of the local taxes and fees has a number of its own features; examples of such features have been provided. The studied feature is the existence of a simplified system of taxation, accounting and reporting in Ukraine, in particular the legal mechanism for the administration of a single tax in Ukraine. The peculiarity of local taxation systems in Ukraine is its variability due to the instability of tax legislation. It has been concluded that local self-government agencies, taking into account the peculiarities of legal regulation of local taxes and fees, should focus on improving the efficiency of budget and tax planning through reasonable and prudent establishment of local taxes and fees in the relevant territorial community. The need to increase the share of local taxes and fees in local budget revenues has been stressed. It has been argued that most local taxes should be direct taxes to local budgets.
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 73-78; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.11
One of the urgent tasks of criminalistics has been studied – the content and elements of forensic security of the participants of criminal proceedings have been determined. Traditionally, this activity is given considerable attention in the areas of criminal law, criminal procedure, as well as operative and search activities. The few works of criminalists mainly reflect the problems of anonymity of interrogating the witnesses, recommendations on tactical features of the interrogation and identification by the means of videoconference. Thus, there are currently no comprehensive studies of forensic aspects of ensuring security for the participants of criminal proceedings in Ukraine. Systematization and improvement of theoretical provisions of forensic security of the participants of criminal proceedings, determining the content and elements of forensic aspects of the researched activity will facilitate both further development of forensic science and have a positive impact on investigative and judicial practice. The author has defined such forensic aspects of ensuring the security for the participants of criminal proceedings as technical and forensic, tactical and forensic, methodological and forensic. Technical and forensic aspect should cover the development and improvement of scientific principles and forensic recommendations for the application of special technical means and methods of ensuring the security of persons. The content of tactical and forensic security of the participants of criminal proceedings will be the development of scientific principles and forensic recommendations for the application of organizational measures and tactical means and methods (tactics, tactical combinations, tactical operations) during the preparation, conduction and recording of certain investigative (search) actions with the participation of persons, in respect of whom security measures are provided. Methodological and forensic security of the participants of criminal proceedings should include the development of methodical recommendations on such specific features of investigating certain types of crimes due to the security of individuals, in particular due to the interaction of law enforcement agencies in ensuring the security for the participants of criminal proceedings, the use of special knowledge, cooperation with national state institutions, law enforcement agencies of other countries, etc.
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 110-115; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.17
Досліджено нормативно-правову складову українсько-європейської співпраці в галузі охорони та збереження історико-культурної спадщини України. Проаналізовано загальноєвропейську нормативно-правову базу основ співпраці, визначену міжнародно-правовими документами, ратифікованими Україною. Розглянуто основні договори між Україною та окремими європейськими країнами в галузі охорони та збереження історико-культурної спадщини України.
Law and Safety, Volume 79, pp 48-53; https://doi.org/10.32631/pb.2020.4.07
The negative socio-economic situation and large gaps in the moral and ethical education of the younger generation have led to an increase in the number of cases of deliberate abuse of older and stronger to the smaller and weaker members of educational institutions. The author has studied administrative and legal principles of the activity of the National Police of Ukraine on preventing and counteracting bullying. Based on a comprehensive analysis of national legislation on preventing and combating bullying in Ukraine, the author has determined perspective areas for improving administrative and legal principles in this area. It has been emphasized that the role of the National Police in this area cannot be limited to the preventive registration of a child. It is necessary to develop a set of preventive and educational measures aimed at preventing bullying manifestations among minors. It has been found out that there are no tools to assess the effectiveness of the impact of existing strategies to combat bullying in Ukraine, which necessitates further research in this area. It has been determined that it is necessary to fight not with individual facts of bullying, but to enshrine in the legislation the system of counteraction to harassment in educational institutions, which can be preventive in nature. It has been established that the legislator has introduced a number of amendments over the last few years, which are characterized by the strengthening of the component of protection of children’s rights. A positive novelty is that the main task of the juvenile police was preventive activity instead of punitive one. In general, the regulatory basis for the activities of the National Police of Ukraine to prevent and combat bullying can be divided into two parts: general legislative acts and departmental regulatory acts. It has been noted that the prevention of bullying and the prevention and combating of domestic violence are different aspects of the same problem, which are in constant close cooperation, and then the measures to overcome them should be common.