Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science

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EISSN : 2581-7167
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 121
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Gezahegn Biru Sefera, Habtamu Ashagre,
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 28-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430124

Abstract:
Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is a pulse crop with multiple uses and it was introduced recently in the study area. However, its productivity is limited by inadequate plant population and NPS fertilizer rate in the study area. Hence, this study was carried out to determine optimum plant population and NPS fertilizer rates for mung bean borda varaity in Bako, Western Ethiopia. The experiment comprised of factorial combinations of four different plant populations (500000, 571429, 666667, and 800000 plants ha-1) and five NPS fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and it was laid out using Randomised Complete Block Design with three replications. The results indicated that main effect of plant population and NPS fertilizer rates had significant effect on phenology, growth, yield, and yield components of mung bean, except stand count, above-ground biomass, straw and seed yield, which were affected by the main factors and their interactions. Highest nodule dry weight per plant (0.14g), number of pods per plant (4.74g), seeds per pod (10.26g), 100-seed weight (3.61g), and harvest index (31.16%) were observed under minimum plant population (500,000 plants ha-1). Moreover, the highest days for 50% flowering (49.08 days), 90% physiological maturity (64.5 days), effective nodules per plant (2.28),nodule fresh weight (0.33gm), nodule dry weight (0.141g plant-1),plant height (11.10cm), number of leaves per plant (8.80), number of branches per plant (3.11), tap root length (8.99cm), number of pods per plant (4.79), seeds per pod (10.78g), 100-seed weight (3.73) and harvest index (32.98%) were observed under 200 kg ha-1 NPS fertilizer. The highest stand count per hectare (780,667 plants ha−1), above-ground biomass (4,947kg ha-1), seed yield ha-1 (1,371kg ha-1) and straw yield (3,575 kg ha-1) were recorded at higher plant population (800,000 plants ha-1) with 200kg NPS ha-1 fertilizer rate (kg ha-1). However, higher plant population (800,000 plants ha-1) at the rate of 100 kg NPS ha-1fertilizer produced 1,325 kg ha-1seed yield which was the highest net benefit (50,080 ETB) and marginal rate of returns (5,610.8%). Therefore, application of 100 kg NPS ha-1 fertilizer rate with plant population of 800,000 plants ha-1 can be recommended for mung bean production in the study area and similar agro-ecologes. However, the current study was carried out only in one location for one cropping season, hence further studies over many seasons and across several locations are needed to have a conclusive recommendation for wide range of agro ecologies for mung bean production.
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430123

Abstract:
Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) is cultivated for the nutritional and medicinal values. Information on nutrient requirements which is important components of improved cultural practices for production. A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria in the rainy seasons of 2017 and 2018. This study aims to evaluate the growth and yield responses of muskmelon to varying rates of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer rates (0, 167, 333 and 500 kg ha-1) in a randomized complete block design. Data were collected on growth parameters, number and weight of fruits. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means separated with Duncan's multiple range test. NPK fertilizer rates increased vegetative growth and fruit yield linearly. Muskmelon's response to varying rates of NPK 15-15-15 followed the same trend in the two seasons, and fertilizer application reduced day to flowering significantly. The 500 kg ha-1 NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer produced a significantly higher number of fruits ha-1, but 333 kg ha-1 NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer produced higher quality fruits culminating in higher fruit yield (17.3 t ha-1) and therefore recommended.
, Danar Dono
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 7-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430122

Abstract:
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important staple food in the world including Asia and Pacific. Millions of people around the world depend on rice due to the high calories and economic returns it provides. More than 100 species of insects including 20 economic pests are capable of causing notable damage to rice plants. Insect pests continue to pose threat to rice farming since rice plants serve as their host plants. Pests are major constraints to rice production and coexist with rice growth. Information on pest economic importance, description, biology, distribution, economic threshold level, population dynamics, monitoring and forecasting is a prerequisite. This review is focused on brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) which is an important economic rice pest that are prevalent in tropical rice growing regions. Brown planthopper (BPH) is a serious pest of rice and has tremendous impact especially in Asia-Pacific region. Understanding the biology and ecology of this pest will enhance the designing, formulation and utilization of effective control measures. The control strategies as stipulated by integrated pest management (IPM) should be eco-friendly with minimum use of synthetic pesticides while boosting the activities of natural enemies and other biological control agents. The control measures discussed in this paper are oriented towards the cultural and biological aspects of managing the pest.
A. O. Akinpelu, J. O. Lawal, O. S. Ibiremo, Q. A. Ogunwolu
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430121

Abstract:
Aims: The study was aimed at; profile the socio economic characteristics of the farmers in the study area, ascertaining types of cocoa rehabilitation techniques prevalent in the study area and ascertaining farmers’ knowledge of cocoa rehabilitation. Place and Duration of the Study: Boki local government area of cross river state, Nigeria. Methodology: Data obtained was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation. The study employed a multistage random sampling technique to select cocoa farmers. The first stage was a purposive selection of the local government area. A total of eighty seven (87) cocoa farmers were randomly selected in the local government area. Well-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the farmers. Results: About 77.0% and 96.6% of the farmers were male and married. Mean age, household size, farming experience, age of cocoa farms were 46years±10, 12±7, 24 years ±9 and 18 years±10, respectively. Cocoa rehabilitation techniques considered in the study were coppicing, complete replanting, side grafting, top grafting, phased farm replanting, fertilizer application and planting under cocoa trees. Conclusion: It was recommended that cocoa farmers in the study area should be encouraged to stay on the farms through provision of infrastructure to reduce rural-urban migration. Cocoa research institute of Nigeria and other stakeholders in cocoa production should ensure that farmers are encouraged to adopt and practice other cocoa rehabilitation techniques.
, L. Tembo, K. Kamfwa
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 52-60; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330120

Abstract:
Thirty nine (39) popcorn landraces alongside three (3) check varieties were evaluated for variability and relationships based on 15 agromorphological traits in Kabwe, Zambia during 2019/20 and 2020/21 seasons. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications in both instances. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p<0.001) differences among the popcorn landrace populations in some traits such as days to anthesis, days to silking, anthesis-silking interval, 100 seed weight, ear and plant heights.Principal component analysis also delineated these traits as the most important in contributing to the variability among the landraces alongside tassel length. The first two principal components accounted for 71.1% of total variability with PC-1 accounting for 41.7 and PC-2 with 28.4%. Genetic diversity based on discriminant analysis revealed low mean differentiation (D2=0.12) among the landrace populations. The check population ‘Lion popcorn’ had the largest mean genetic distance among the studied populations (D2=0.42) while ZMP 1932 was the most differentiated among the landraces (D2=0.38). Cluster analysis resulted in seven clusters with the clustering mostly based on the relative strength of the popcorn landraces in particular traits such as long A-S interval (cluster I) and high seed weight (cluster VII). Overall, two popcorn landraces were identified for their relatively high genetic diversity index (ZMP 1932 and ZMP 1902). These alongside the check variety ‘Lion popcorn’ can be used to cross with the local landraces as a way of increasing genetic diversity.
, David Mutisya Musyimi, Phoebe Anyango Sikuku, Duncan George Odhiambo
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 33-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330119

Abstract:
Agroforestry trees have been reported to improve soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, coupled with leaves and twig decomposition. High human population pressure in Vihiga County has led to reduced land area under farming. This has resulted into increased demand for food and consequently forced smallholder farmers in the region to carry out poor farming practices such as continuous cultivation and clearing of trees to avail more land for crop production. The poor farming practices have occasioned severe land degradation, climate change and reduced farm productivity. However, it is not known how intercropping maize and banana with Sesbania sesban, Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena diversifolia impacts on the growth and gas exchange parameters of maize and banana. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of intercropping agroforestry tree species with maize and banana on maize and banana height, leaf area, number of leaves, stem diameter, intercellular Carbon (IV) oxide concentration, transpiration rate and net photosynthesis in Vihiga County. The study was conducted at Maseno university farm located in Vihiga County in Kenya. The Williams varieties of banana of the same age were obtained from KALRO-Thika. Seeds of selected agroforestry trees were obtained from KEFRI – Muguga, planted in a seedbed and the seedlings raised in nurseries before being transplanted in the study plots. Hybrid maize seed (H513) was purchased from an agrovet. Banana holes were dug 2x2 feet, 20 Kg of decomposed cow dung manure + 20 Kg of top soil + 200g of NPK fertilizer added in each banana hole before planting. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications was used with seven treatment levels of unfertilized Maize (M), Banana (B), Maize + Banana + Calliandra (MBC), Maize+ Banana+ Leucaena (MBL), Maize+ Banana+ Sesbania (MBS), Maize + Banana (MB) and Fertilized Maize (MF). Maize was planted at 0.75 m inter row by 0.3 m spacing. Fifteen (15) tagged maize and four (4) banana plants in each plot were sampled for measurement of height, number of green leaves, leaf area, stem diameter, intercellular Carbon (IV) oxide concentration, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate. The data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using Genstat statistical package version 15.2. Means were separated using Fischers’ protected LSD test at 95% confidence level. The MBS treatment showed higher growth in terms of height, leaf area, number of leaves and stem diameter throughout the study period. Increased growth seen under fertilized maize was not significantly different from those under MBS. Gas exchange responses had no significant differences (p≤0.05) among most treatments. However, agroforestry tree species had shown higher intercellular Carbon (IV) oxide concentration, transpiration rates and net photosynthesis of maize and banana plants. Sesbania sesban reported maximum intercellular Carbon (IV) oxide concentration, transpiration rates and net photosynthesis as compared to those treatments without agroforestry trees. Therefore, incorporating nitrogen-fixing trees in farming could have a positive impact on growth, increased carbon (IV) oxide intake, transpiration rates and net photosynthetic rate. Sesbania sesban promoted growth and recorded higher gas exchange parameters of maize and banana. These findings may be used to advice smallholder farmers of Vihiga County on the best intercropping system and agroforestry tree species to adopt for maximum maize and banana yield.
Kouamé Désiré, Biego Henri Marius, , Konan Ysidor, Sidibé Daouda
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 22-32; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330118

Abstract:
Aims: Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food for millions of people in Côte d’Ivoire. Due to its high productivity and low cost of calorie it is preferred crop for food security of the country. Thus, this study was conducted to assess nutritive quality of maize produced and stocked in five purposively selected regions of Côte d’Ivoire which represents five agroecological settings. Study Design: A total of 1500 samples of maize as grains, epis and spathes were collected at rate of 500 samples by region (Gbêkê, Poro, Hambol, Indénié-Djuablin and Gontougo) and sent to the laboratory in order to analyse their nutritional quality. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out during March 2016 to January 2017. The collected sample were carried out at the laboratory unit of Food Sciences and Biochemistry of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan. Methodology: Proximate analyses were carried out using standard methods AOAC (2000). Results: The results show significant difference from the biochemical compositions of maize type and region. Mean value intervals were as follow: dry matter (85.83 – 91.42%), ash (1.19 - 2%), proteins (7.99 - 9.32), lipids (3.21 - 4.47), carbohydrates (71.80 - 77.94), starches (62.30 - 68.44%), fibers (5.03 - 5.83%), total sugars (2,13 - 2.99%), reducing sugars (0.33 - 0.66%), free fat acidity (1.86- 4.50%), peroxide value (1.34 - 3.07 meq O2/kg), iodine value (100.93 - 130.56 g I2/100 g), unsaponifiable (0.89 - 1.54%) and energy values (357.88 - 374.39 kcal). Conclusion: A significant variability from one region to another can be noticed at level of maize quality regardless the type of maize. The nutritive quality of maize seems to be tied to postharvest treatments (drying), type of storage (epis, grains and spathes) and structure of storage.
Adinew Getachew,
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 14-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330117

Abstract:
One of the basic agronomic practices to improve the yield of chickpea are ideal sowing date and high yielding varieties. Thus, a field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different sowing dates on yield and yield components of chickpea varieties in the main cropping season of 2019 at Toke Kutaye District. Four sowing dates (September 4th, September 14th, September 24th, and October 5th) and four kabuli varieties. Four Kabuli types of chickpea varieties were Dalota, Ejere, Teji and Dube (local check). Experiment was laid out in split plot design using factorial arrangement with three replications and sowing date treatments were assigned to the main plots and varieties to sub plots. The main effect of sowing date showed highly significant effect on days to emergence, days to 50% flowering and physiological maturity. Highest days to emergence (12.4 days) were recorded from a plot sown on October 5th, while longest days to 50% flowering (54.92 days) and physiological maturity (122.5 days) were recorded from a plot sown on September 14th. Moreover, varieties had significant effect on days to physiological maturity of chickpea. Longest days to physiological maturity (133 days) were recorded from local variety and early days to physiological maturity (113.3 days) was recorded from Dalota variety. The main effects of sowing date and variety were significant on plant height, as the tallest plant height (42.75 cm) was recorded from September 24th sown plants. Similarly, the tallest (41.42 cm) plant was recorded from Dalota variety. In addition, the highest number of primary branches (6.83) and secondary branches (16.42) per plant were recorded from Dalota variety, while the lowest number of primary branch (5.5) and secondary branches (8) were scored from Ejere and Teji varieties, respectively. Highest grain yield (2415.4 kg ha-1) was obtained from plots sown on September 14th whereas Dalota variety produced highest grain yield (2051.25 kg ha-1). Hence, Dalota variety and September 14th sowing date emerged as best among all tested treatments and can be recommended for chickpea production in the study area and similar agro-ecologies. Conclusive recommendation could be obtained if the study is repeated at more locations and seasons in the future.
Brou Kouassi Guy, Doga Dabé, Diarrassouba Nafan, Oro Zokou Franck, N’Goran Yao Claude François, Kouassi Koffi Ii Nazaire, Dogbo Denezon Odette
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330116

Abstract:
As in all cashew producing areas, anthracnose causes enormous production losses in cashew agroforestry farms in Côte d'Ivoire. To overcome this problem, the use of anthracnose-resilient production plant material in cashew forest agrosystems is becoming a necessity for sustainable development. Thus, this study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the behavior of genotypes of cashew trees cultivated in peasant agroforestry systems in the north of Côte d'Ivoire. To do this, peasant agroforestry cashew orchards were prospected, cashew trees were marked, codified and geolocated. The incidence and severity of anthracnose were then assessed on the marked and geotagged cashew leaves, twigs, inflorescences and fruits. Descriptive analysis of the incidence and severity data revealed that more than 50% of the genotypes studied are resilient to anthracnose with an incidence on nuts in the order of 0.00 ± 5.75%. The ACP explained 52.96% of the total variability observed with the first two axes. The CAH made it possible to structure these genotypes into four groups. MANOVA showed that genotypes in groups 2 and 4 exhibited traits of resilience against anthracnose disease. Group 2 was characterized by a relative absence of disease in the fruits (0.00 ±0.00) and by very severe infections in the twigs (88.19 ± 2.98). Groups 4 were differentiated by low fruit infections (1.32±0.32) and low incidence on fruits (2.17±1.09). These results should help promote the agroecological management of anthracnose disease, enhance and intensify agroforestry practices in Côte d'Ivoire.
, Andi Bahrun, Makmur Jaya Arma
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science pp 44-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i230115

Abstract:
Aims: The research aimed to study the potential of cow dung fertilizer residue in increasing the growth and yield of corn plant in planting period II on marginal dry land. Study Design: Singel factor design in Randomized block design. Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted in Field Laboratory of the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, University of Halu Oleo, Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted for four months. Methodology: Single factor design in Randomized block design was used in the research. consists of 6 treatment levels of cow manure residue that have been applied in the previous planting period (planting period I), namely: without cow manure (R0), using cow manure 2.5 t ha-1 (R1), 5 t ha-1 (R2), 7.5 t ha-1 (R3), 10 t ha-1 (R4) and 12.5 t ha-1 (R5). Each treatment was placed in three groups so that there were 18 experimental units. The data was analyzed using analysis of variance and continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) 95% confidence level. Results: The results showed that the vegetative growth of corn plant 30 day after planting (dap) and plant yield was affected by residual effect of cow dung that applicated in the planting periode I, thus with P uptake by plant and available P in planting medium. Conclusion: Plant productivity during planting period II more increased with the higher dose of cow manure applied during planting period I. The highest plant productivity (3.88 t ha-1) in planting period II was obtained by application of cow dung 12.5 t ha-1 during planting period I. While in the planting medium without cow dung, no seeds formation was found in plants.
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