Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal
ISSN / EISSN : 23110902 / 26167271
Current Publisher: Odessa State Environmental University (10.31481)
Total articles ≅ 135
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 5-22; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.01
Abstract:The article presents a complete mathematical formulation of the problem of the boundary layer of the atmosphere and the interacting surface layers of the soil with the active layer of the sea adapted to the North-Western Black Sea Region through the inclusion of the coastline shape, relief elevation angles and climatic characteristics of soil moisture. The numerical model is a three-dimensional, unsteady, hydrostatic model with one- or two-parameter closure. The paper presents a detailed description of the applied sub-grid processes parameterizations such as cloudiness in the lower tier, flows of short- and long-wave radiation throughout thickness of the boundary layer and near the Earth, antigradient migration for basic meteorological variables in the presence of neutral or weakly stable stratification, components of water, heat and radiation balance, phase transitions of moisture in the atmosphere, and different parameterizations of turbulent processes used in the model. The possibilities of the model include description of neutral and stable boundary layers with consideration of the kinetic energy of vertical velocity fluctuations instead of the kinetic energy of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations. Identification of the type of the boundary layer at a particular point in time is estimated using values of the Richardson number. In addition, in case of convective conditions presence, parameterization of dry convection and wet-convective adaptation may be implemented. At the boundaries of "free boundary layer – surface or near-water layer of air, air-soil and air-water" certain bonding conditions are to be set to ensure continuity of meteorological parameters or their flows. On the upper boundary of the free boundary layer actual values of meteorological parameters and necessary parameters, or corresponding values from the global atmospheric model are to set. At the lower boundary of the deep soil layer the invariance of the vertical temperature gradient of the active layer of the sea – the value of temperature which is equal to the value of the latter according to its climatic values in the considered season of the year is to be set. The presented model is the first approximation in numerical modeling of the boundary layer over the adapted territory and is designed for studying the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer of the adapted territory, as well as for identifying the breeze effects over the terrain.
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 83-91; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.08
Abstract:The article presents the results of the research aimed at calculating the vertical speed of sound distribution in the active layer of the Black Sea based on water temperature readings. The research was carried out in the active layer of the deep-water section of the Black Sea at the depth range of 0 – 50 meters. The water temperature values taken at the hydrological stations or the shipboard measurements (OSD: Ocean Station Data) taken with the help of floats (PFL: Profiling Float Data) were used as initial data. The calculations were based on the identification of correlation relationships between the water temperature values at standard horizons of the Black Sea as per OSD data and the speed of sound calculated using the UNESCO equation. The calculation accuracy was estimated after comparing the speed of sound calculated by the established regression equations and by the UNESCO equation based on PFL data. The research allowed establishing the regression equations for calculating the vertical speed of sound distribution in the Black Sea up to the depth of 50 meters over the spring-autumn period. The possibility of calculating the vertical speed of sound distribution using the developed regression equations was also estimated. The calculations indicated statistically significant results over the spring-autumn period. Multiple correlation coefficients appeared to be significant and amounted to 0.99. The developed regression equations were efficient and reliable. Verification of effectiveness and reliability of the regression equations showed that the standard error was within ± 1 m s-1. In order to visualize the results the calculation of the vertical speed of sound distribution in the Black Sea using the regression equations was carried out for 6 hydrological sections (1 section for each of the months) introduced in 2018. The research showed that the isolines of the vertical speed of sound distribution calculated using the regression equations and the UNESCO equation are practically coherent. The studied equations can be used for calculating the vertical speed of sound profile distribution in the Black Sea up to the depth of 50 meters over the May-October period based on the measured or modeled data of water temperature variability. This calculation can be used for the purposes of scientific research and applied purposes in the field of hydrography, hydroacoustics, oceanology, marine ecology, navigation etc.
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 49-63; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.05
Abstract:In the context of Ukraine's integration into the European Union and implementation of the main provisions of Directive 2007/60/EC which implies assessment of potential hydrological risks, long-term factors of their formation, in particular the effects of climate change and the trend of river water regime changes should be taken into consideration. With this in mind, given the presence of both current long-term tendencies to reduction of runoff layers (volumes) and maximum discharge of water of spring flood across the Ukrainian rivers there is an important task to identify, using the modern initial data, both the average long-term values of these characteristics and different probability of their exceedance probability. For the first time, the authors of the study implemented an operator model of runoff formation to determine the average long-term values of maximum water discharge of spring flood in the basin of the Pivdenny Buh using meteorological characteristics (snowpack and precipitation) and runoff coefficients as basic parameters. The model was applied to determine the maximum runoff modules of spring floods for the rivers with a wide range of catchment areas affected by different physical and geographical conditions within the Pivdenny Buh Basin. Application of the operator model allowed the authors of the article to calculate and summarize all input parameters of the calculation model, including those obtained from observational data (snowpack, precipitation) and those that can't be measured by the hydrometeorological network (runoff coefficient, temporal irregularity coefficient and duration of surface inflow of snowmelt and rain water, transformational function of the flood waves layering under the influence of channel lag, coefficient of channel and floodplain regulation) for the rivers of the Pivdenny Buh Basin. The verifying calculation related to determination of the average long-term values of the maximum modules of spring flood runoff using the operator model showed satisfactory concordance with the initial data and this allowed recommending it for practical application for the rivers of the Pivdenny Buh Basin, including those that haven't been studied from the hydrological perspective.
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 23-32; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.02
Abstract:The paper presents a new method of critical control of atmospheric radiosounding data in the range of extreme deviations of air temperature, isobaric level elevation, relative humidity and wind components. The method was developed based on atmospheric radiosounding data taken from 9 Ukrainian aerological stations over the period of 1973–2018. “Buoyant” threshold values form the basis of the developed method. These values correspond to the deviation threshold for each of aerological characteristics where statistical distribution of such characteristics reaches a zero value for the first time. Departure from constant threshold values in favor of “buoyant” values allowed for consideration of the main features of aerological characteristics dispersion, dependence from altitude and difference of distribution parameters observed during daylight and at night time. Potential errors in the range of extreme deviations may be identified when the values go beyond the thresholds of "the distribution body". The total percentage of such overrange amounts to 0.2% in the middle and upper troposphere, 0.3–1.8% in the lower troposphere, and up to 2% in the stratosphere. At the second stage of the developed method potential errors are checked using partial vertical, partial horizontal and temporal control techniques. The second stage of control is implemented for the levels where time series reach at least 3700 values. It allows for accurate calculation of average multi-year values required for performing the horizontal control. Potential errors are considered as real ones if there is a confirmation of existence of three extreme deviations taken from the “neighbor stations – neighbor observation periods – neighbor isobaric levels” set. It means that a potential error should be confirmed with at least two different types of critical control. At high altitudes two confirmations are enough provided a conclusion is made following the results of different types of control. The developed critical control method allowed rejection of the claim about incorrectness of 568 values with their maximum deviations reaching 6.2 and -6.4 σ for the total period of observation. The critical control of extreme deviations and the physical permissible limits control form necessary components of the complex critical control of atmospheric radiosounding data. They provide input information used for horizontal, vertical and hydrostatic control techniques.
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 33-40; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.03
Abstract:The topicality of the study is stipulated by the need to diagnose, monitor and predict the weather conditions causing temperature anomalies in Ukraine in order to prevent their adverse impact on the country's economy. On the climate change background, extreme weather events become more frequent and intense. The forecast for anomalous events can be significantly improved if the main types of atmospheric circulation related to those events will be identified. This paper aims to identify the main circulation processes causing the initiation of hot and cold weather conditions in Ukraine. These conditions are the so-called indices of extremes: summer days (SU), tropical nights (TR), ice days (ID), and frosty days (FD), calculated using the daily minimum and maximum air temperature at the regular grid points covering the territory of Ukraine with a spatial resolution of 0.75×0.75 degrees. The GWL circulation types were obtained from the Hess-Brezovsky objective classification for the atmospheric processes, which is widely used for synoptic analysis in Europe. The GWL circulation types differ by the location of ridges (anticyclones) and troughs (cyclones) on the 500 hPa isobaric surface. The difference from most other atmospheric circulation classifications is that each GWL remains for at least 3 days. If the transition to another GWL lasts more than 1 day, such days are considered as the previous or next GWL, whichever is most similar. The frequencies for ten types of weather patterns by the Hess-Brezovsky classification for the period from 1971 to 2001 were analyzed for Ukraine, and the circulation types, which are the most common for summer days, tropical nights, frosty days and frosty nights, were detected. It was shown that the extreme hot or frost weather conditions are in most cases initiated by the same circulation type. Also, the initiation of hot and frost weather is almost completely unaffected by the weather pattern caused by the third, fifth and ninth types of the GWL classification.
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 64-71; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.06
Abstract:The relevance of the work consists in the need to study the water quality of the Siverskyi Donets River and its tributaries at the beginning of the 21th century, since the river is a main source of water supply in the eastern part of Ukraine. The catchment area of the Siverskyi Donets River is located in the most industrialized region of Ukraine. It is a transboundary river and its catchment is located in the territory of both Ukraine and Russia. The volume of the river's water use, if compared to its runoff volume, is the largest in Ukraine. The condition of water quality is determined by high water consumption and large amount of polluted water being discharged into it. The largest impact is caused by discharges from the residential and commercial complex (big cities) and the enterprises of coal industry, ferrous metallurgy, chemical and petrochemical industry which are concentrated in the Donets Coal Basin. The purpose of this work is to assess the changes of surface water quality of the Siverskyi Donets Basin and to establish the role of the tributaries affected by considerable anthropogenic pressure in the formation of the ecological state of the main river. The research aims at analyzing the hydrochemical indices of the Siverskyi Donets River and its tributaries: the Udy River (9 km to the south from Kharkiv) located in the forest-steppe zone and affected by the wastewater of Kharkiv megalopolis; the Oskil River (Chervonooskilske Reservoir) located in the karst area, having a significant underground water supply and the runoff of which is regulated by the reservoir; the Luhan, Kryvyi Torets, Kazennyi Torets, Bakhmut rivers that are tributaries originating from the Donetsk Highlands and affected by the wastewater of Donbas industrial and municipal enterprises. The subject of the research is the ecological condition of water resources in the rivers of the Siverskyi Donets Basin estimated using the generalized ecological index. The water quality condition was analyzed based on the hydrochemical observations performed from 1990 to 2015 by Central Geophysical Observatory in Kyiv. The main method of research is the method of ecological assessment of surface water quality of land and estuaries in Ukraine using relevant categories. The assessment of the surface water quality using the generalized ecological index (with application of average indicators) showed that the water quality deteriorates along the main river with its worst condition at Lysychansk section. Analysis of the tributaries indicated the worst ecological condition of the Bakhmut River (Donbas). For most of the considered rivers the 3rd class of quality (“satisfactory”), the 4th category ("satisfactory condition and slightly contaminated”) were established. If we consider the index of ecological condition by maximum indicators, the results are almost the same for all the studied rivers: 5th class, 7th category ("very poor condition and very contaminated”). According to...
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 92-104; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.09
Abstract:Ice cover is one of the most important factors determining the state of sea surface. Study and forecasting of its parameters is not only of scientific, but also of great practical interest for maritime economy. In the northern-west part of the Black sea and in the Sea of Azov the ice situation can be quite complicated, resulting in restriction of navigation opportunities and requiring use of icebreakers. Accounting actual and forecast ice characteristics significantly affects the efficiency of hydrometeorological services in marine industries, which determines the relevance of the chosen topic. Modern global climate change led to changes of specific parameters of the ice regime in the northern-west part of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Studies showed that for the last 30 years the number of warm winters had increased by 15% and the number of cold winters had decreased by 19%. The duration of the ice period had decreased by a decade in the Sea of Azov and by a month in the northern-west part of the Black Sea. This determines the need for verification of the methods used for ice phenomena forecasting. Currently, hydrometeorological services are delivered using the methods of ice phenomena forecasting that were developed in the 1980s. The main disadvantage of these methods is the limitation of the period of their application and the fact that they do not consider any climatic changes taking place over recent years. The article's aim is to assess ice conditions changes in the north-western part of the Black Sea and in the Azov Sea over the past 20 years and to verify the method used for forecasting the dates of ice formation and disappearance. The analysis showed that during the studied period ice formation begins later and its disappearance is observed earlier than if compared with average multi-year periods. Verification of the ice formation and disappearance forecasting method showed unsatisfactory results that did not meet the practical requirements. Based on the regression analysis new modified equations for forecasting the dates of ice formation and disappearance were defined. The accuracy of a new equation-based calculation technique constitutes 70-94% and the forecasting equations can be recommended for practical use.
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 72-82; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.07
Abstract:Conducting mineral extraction activities usually requires obtaining a set of permits for each of the activities planned to be undertaken. This directly concerns water management and discharges associated with any mineral extraction operations. In response to the growing demand for energy resources worldwide, the industry demand for permits relating to the extraction of coal seam (and shale) gas also increased dramatically. This was in turn accompanied by the growing community concerns in regard to fracking and wastewater management practices. To address these concerns, the state governments in Australia developed a strict framework and guidelines for the permit application process and provided terms of reference for the environmental impact assessments, where required. In accord with the guidelines, a liquefied natural gas mining operator was conducting a research to assess several facets of water releases from Reedy Creek Water Treatment Facility to Yuleba Creek in Queensland. The scope for the research was developed in line with such guidelines and included estimating the downstream extents of flows from several Water Treatment Facility discharge volumes over a period of planned discharges. More specifically, the purpose of the study presented in this paper was to assess flows in Yuleba Creek before and after the proposed releases of treated water from the Reedy Creek Water Treatment Facility, and how the planned change to flow parameters would satisfy the regulatory guidelines. The assessment was based on 41 years of data collected at the Forestry Station gauge. An analysis of the obtained results suggested that the historical maximum was 25,825 ML/d. An analysis of the median flows suggested that the years 1983, 1999, and 2010-2012 had the highest medians of around 15 ML/d, 10 ML/d, and from 9 ML/d to 12 ML/d respectively. The median flow values would exceed from 0.09 ML/d to 0.69 ML/d flows during the months of February and March only. The lowest 90th percentile flows were obtained for the months from April through to October. The highest flow estimates would be in the months from November through to March. An analysis of the flow duration curves suggested that the annually averaged flow of 0.08 ML/d in the Yuleba Creek would be present for around 48% of the time. Flows predictabilities were calculated; for the baseline flow records, the value of predictability was 0.50, and the constancy/predictability ratio was 0.89. The rates of streamflow rise and fall were estimated and analysed. The results suggested that the rate of streamflow rise varied within a range from 0.0 up to 320.0 ML/d per day. The rates of streamflow fall was up to 15.0 ML/d per day.
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 124-133; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.12
Abstract:The transformation of the salt-water liman Sasyk into a fresh water reservoir through its separation from the sea by a dam and connection with the Danube by a canal caused certain ecological problems. One of them was that during the first decades the expected water irrigation conditions were not achieved because of salt infiltration from the bottom sediments. Use of high-salinity water led to soil salinization. As a result, Sasyk ceased to be considered as an object for irrigation purposes. At present, the process of Sasyk water quality formation stabilized and the need for land irrigation is still of great importance. The authors of the researches devoted to solving the environmental problems of Sasyk classify the irrigation properties of water as average and maximum values of mineralization. However, these properties can change significantly over the year and therefore the water may belong to different irrigation categories (classes). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the irrigation properties of Sasyk water and their variability based on the hydrochemical observations conducted near the village of Trapivka, at base pumping station GNS-2 during warm periods of a year from 2007 to 2017. The article presents an overview of different methods of irrigative water assessment and a detailed typification of the irrigative water using the water typification suggested by Aliokin O.A. The research includes the evaluation of the Sasyk water quality as per the studied methods. The authors discovered the fact that mineralization of Sasyk water during a warm period is within the 1-3 g/dm3 range in 90-95% of cases under study and only in 5-10% of those its value is less than 1 g/dm3. The ratio of main ions in Sasyk water may be of the following subtypes: IIa (30%), IIb (50%), ІІIb (10%) and ІІIc (10%). The mineral composition is mainly represented by the toxic salts such as NaCl, Na2SO4, MgSO4. Their content in the water does not exceed 2.0 g/dm3. Among the toxic salts NaCl is the one that prevails. Under normal conditions the mineralization of the water and the content of sodium and magnesium ions in Sasyk contribute to salinization and soil alkalinization. To provide safe irrigation of all types of soil using the water from Sasyk its chemical melioration and dilution with low-mineralized water is required. At present, the irrigative properties of Sasyk water (mineralization, composition of toxic salts and their concentration) allow its use of for irrigation of light, permeant and drained soils.
Published: 9 December 2019
Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal pp 105-114; doi:10.31481/uhmj.24.2019.10
Abstract:On the basis of satellite and field atmospheric and marine observations, the water circulation processes of the north-western shelf (the NWS) of the Black Sea in the summer of 2017 were studied. The study indicated high stability of summer offshore winds of northern and north-northwest directions and 12 cases of coastal upwelling. Three cases of upwelling were instrumentally detected on the across-the-shore oceanographic sections during seasonal field works performed by the oceanographic unit of the branch “Odesa Area of State Hydrographic Service” of the state institution "State Hydrographic Service of Ukraine (SHSU)". The increase of coastal water density led to an abnormally active transfer along the coast of the Danube-Dniester interfluve area to the northernmost parts of the NWS. In 2017 a visual manifestation of anticyclonic character of summer circulation of the NWS's water could be observed. The obtained data confirm the previous conclusions on frequent cases of change in summer periods of traditional cyclonic water circulation to the anticyclonic one. The abnormal development of the summer circulation regime allowed us to record for the first time the transfer of coccolithophores phytoplankton from the open sea to the northern regions of the NWS and to reveal its intraseasonal spatial transformation and development process duration. In the seaward part of the Gulf of Odessa a frequently repeated vortex formation of cyclonic vorticity with spatial dimensions of up to 7-8 miles and orbital velocities, according to the presented data, of 0.12–0.18 m.c-1, and according to the latest field work, of over 0.30 m.c-1, was found. When analyzing the considered situations associated with transfer and vorticity of sea water a significant role was played by high-resolution visual images obtained from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 satellites having a spatial resolution of 10 and 30 meters respectively, as well as by similar satellites of earlier modifications.