Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2527-4384 / 2527-3442
Current Publisher: Cell and BioPharmaceutical Institute (10.21705)
Total articles ≅ 54
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Marlina Marlina, Rizki Rahmadian, Armenia Armenia, Wahyu Widowati, Rizal Rizal, Hanna Sari Widya Kusuma, Satrio Haryo Benowo Wibowo, Wahyu Setia Widodo, Ika Adhani Sholihah
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 76-82; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.100

Abstract:
Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the cells which has high renewal capacity and and are capable for differentiating into some types of cells. MSCs can be obtained from several tissues including bone marrow, synovial membrane, blood, adipose tissue and periosteum. The proliferation and self-repair ability of MSCs are the advantages to use as stem cells-based therapy of various diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the differentiation, characterization and priliferation of synovial membrane-derived MSCs (SM-MSCs).Materials and Methods: The cells proliferation capacity was determined by cell counting using trypan blue, characterization of MSCs (cluster of differentiation (CD)90, CD11b, CD73, CD34, CD19, CD45, CD105 and human leukocyte antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR)) using flow cytometry analysis, and differentiation capability into three lineage cells was determined with red alcian blue, oil red O and alizarin staining.Results: The type culture of SM-MSCs was adherent and showed positive CD44, CD105, CD73, CD90 and negative of CD19, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD45, CD34 surface marker. Based on the result, SM-MSCs P3 showed differentiation potency into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineage cells. The population doubling time of SM-MSCs has increased from P3 to P8. The population doubling time of SM-MSCs P3 was 1.69 days and SM-MSCs P8 was 3.64 days.Conclusion: The results indicated that SM-MCSCs from osteoarthritis patients are able to differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and highly express of CD105, CD73, CD90, CD44 and negative for CD34, CD45, CD14, CD19.Keywords: synovial membrane, mesenchymal stromal cells, adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteocyte
Nurani Hayati, Caesary Cloudya Panjaitan, Ferry Sandra
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 52-60; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.160

Abstract:
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is part of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma which is the ultimate cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer. The alteration of microbial community in the saliva might act as a helpful marker for the prediction, detection and prognosis oral cancer, particularly the transition of cancer precursor lesion. There are three mechanisms of action of oral microbiota in cancer pathogenesis; chronic inflammation from stimulation of the bacteria, cellular proliferation and apoptosis inhibition, and also carcinogenic substances that produced by microorganisms. Changes in the composition of microbiota could therefore have the potential to be used as a significant oral biomarker to predict the pathological transition from oral epithelial precursor lesion to cancer, especially for Indonesian people who have so many oral habits due to different cultures.Keywords: apoptosis inhibition, cellular proliferation, microorganism, oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma
I Gusti Lanang Sidiartha, I Gusti Ngurah Made Suwarba, Dyah Kanya Wati, Ida Bagus Subanada
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 83-7; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.105

Abstract:
Background: Valproic acid is an effective drug for controlling seizure in children with epilepsy and it is usually used for treatment as long as two years or more. Blood ammonia level often increased in epileptic children who were treated with long-term valproic acid. The study was conducted to determine the relationship between blood ammonia level with valproic acid therapy in epileptic children.Materials and Methods: This is an observational study with cross-sectional approach. The subjects were 64 children with epilepsy, average age of 6.2 years old. Subjects were 33 boys and 31 girls. Blood ammonia level was examined using enzymatic glutamate dehydrogenase. Subjects were divided into 2 therapeutic groups based on the duration, doses and combination therapy of valproic acid. Subjects were recruited from Pediatric Neurology Clinic, Sanglah General Hospital, Bali, Indonesia, from May to December 2017. Comparison of blood ammonia level between groups were analyzed using an Independent t-test with significances if the p
Annisa Mulia Anasis, Anna Rozaliyani, Heri Wibowo
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 61-7; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.92

Abstract:
Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tree that emerges as a response to exogenous factors, such as allergens, irritants, and infections. Some asthmatic patients had been reported having symptoms of asthma due to house-dust mites (HDM) allergen exposure. It is associated with immune responses which were increased in the form of specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) production against HDM allergens. This case-control study aimed to determine the HDM profiles in persistent asthmatic patients, including density of mites, as well as its relationship with specific IgE anti-HDM serum levels.Materials and Methods: A total of 13 patients with persistent asthma and 12 control patients had their specific anti-HDM IgE levels examined using Immulite 2000 xpi. The house dust samples were taken and analyzed with the Fain method.Results: The results have shown that 69% of patients in the persistent asthma group and 25% of normal patients were positive for IgE anti-HDM. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is a predominant species with a total of 120 mites (83.9%) of 143 mites. Correlation analysis indicated a positive relationship between IgE anti-HDM levels within the serums of patients and the density of mites in the dust obtained from bedroom spaces (Spearmen Rho, R=0.35, p=0.04).Conclusion: Positive IgE anti-HDM patients in the persistent asthma group were higher (69%) than those in the clinically normal group (25%). The density of mites were dominated by D. Pteronyssinus. The bedroom-dust mites density revealed a positive correlation with serum IgE anti-HDM levels in persistent asthma patients.Keywords: asthma, density, Dermatophagoides spp.,IgE
Ermi Girsang, I Nyoman Ehrich Lister, Chrismis Novalinda Ginting, Maulidwina Bethasari, Annisa Amalia, Wahyu Widowati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 68-75; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.90

Abstract:
Background: Skin-aging is a progressive changes in the skin combine with cumulative extrinsic factors which are mostly caused by free radicals caused by exposure to lots of free radicals molecules from pollutant, wrongly food intake, or too much sun bathing. These free radicals can be tackled by a treatment using antioxidants. Prevention of aging can be done by escalating antioxidant intake. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) and Ferulic acid (FA) have been known for their scavenging properties on free radicals and antiaging activity. Antioxidant and antiaging activity of both compounds have not been compared comprehensively before. Hence, current study was conducted to compare the potential of PCA and FA for their antioxidant and antiaging activities using various methods.Materials and Methods: Antioxidant analysis of PCA and FA was conducted using H2O2 scavenging assay, 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Meanwhile, antiaging activities of PCA and FA were examined using inhibitory activities of tyrosinase, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase.Results: IC50 of scavenging activity of ABTS were 125.18 µg/mL (PCA) and 35.55 µg/mL (FA), inhibition activity of collagenase were 126.16 µg/mL (PCA) and 52.85 µg/mL (FA) and inhibition activity of tyrosinase were 246.42 µg/mL (PCA), 253.58 µg/mL (FA).Conclusion: In conclusion, FA has better ABTS scavenging and collagenase inhibition activities compared to PCA. Meanwhile, PCA has better activity of tyrosinase inhibition than FA.Keywords: antioxidant, antiaging, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid
Callixte Cyuzuzo, Dusabimana Jean Damascene, Anwar Ma'aruf, Yoes Prijatna Dachlan, Anggraini Dwi Sensusiati, Ndayisaba Daniel, Eka Nora Vitaloka Aprilia Putri Winthoko
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 94-9; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.133

Abstract:
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) has reported the antimicrobial resistance as one among the ten threats to global health in 2019. The development of plant-derived antibiotics is currently considered as a modern medicine’s greatest success. Persea americana is a plant with high medicinal profile which allow its different parts to be used for therapeutic purposes. This study is aimed to determine the antibacterial potential of ethanol and chloroform extracts from epicarp of mature fruits of P. americana Mill against human pathogens.Materials and Methods: The epicarps of avocado were dried in oven and ground into powder using porcelain mortar and pestle. The powdered plant materials were extracted with both 96% ethanol and chloroform. Extracts were qualitatively screened to examine their bioactive contents and agar well diffusion method was used to analyze the antibacterial activity of extracts against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Results: Both solvents showed the ability to dissolve the secondary metabolites from avocado epicarps. Phytochemical screening disclosed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and phenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts and absence of flavonoids and tannins in chloroform extracts. The extracts showed the inhibition zones ranging from 14±4.5 mm to 26±2.1 mm while streptomycin demonstrated high inhibition zones ranging from 20±3.1 mm to 30 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts fall in the range of 0.3125 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL while the MIC values for streptomycin vary from 0.25 mg/mL to 1.25 mg/mL.Conclusion: The ethanol and chloroform extracts proved to be potentially effective and to be used as natural alternative preventives to fight against various disease-causing bacteria.Keywords: antibacterial activity, ethanol extract, chloroform extract, Persea americana, Rwanda
Antonia Anna Lukito, Syakib Bakri, Peter Kabo, Andi Wijaya
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 88-93; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i2.104

Abstract:
Background: The calcium in the artery was thought to be the result of the imbalance or dysregulation of the promoter and inhibitor cytokines influenced by various subclinical and clinical conditions. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between central obesity, as an early subclinical condition, also known as a chronic low grade inflammation condition and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in non-diabetic population including the underlying pathomechanisms of a CAC in the early stage of atherosclerosis.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional pathway analysis study enrolling 60 central obesity non-diabetic men that underwent coronary calcium score scan, anthropometrics and biomarker assays.Results: There was a positive correlation between increasing free leptin index/adiponectin (FLI/A) ratio and CAC (r=0.297; p
Chrismis Novalinda Ginting, I Nyoman Ehrich Lister, Ermi Girsang, Dewi Riastawati, Hanna Sari Widya Kusuma, Wahyu Widowati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 27-33; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.86

Abstract:
Background: The excessive free radicals condition called oxidative stress can harmful for the body. To prevent and cure it, the antioxidant agents are required. Nowadays, the natural product extracted from plants have been widely used in folk medicine as antioxidant for the treatment of many diseases. Ficus elastica (rubber tree) has some compounds that has several biological activities, i.e., quercitrin, myricitrin, morin, and eleutheroside B. The F. elastica works against the free radicals and can be potential as antioxidant agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant properties of F. elastica ethanolic extract (FEE), quercitrin, myricitrin, morin, and eleutheroside B.Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of FEE and standard compounds were evaluated by free radical-scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities using spectrophotometry method.Results: FEE has the lowest of DPPH scavenging activity (IC50=13.82 µg/mL) than other compounds. In ABTS scavenging activity, FEE has moderate activity with IC50 value 23.29 µg/mL. In FRAP activity, FEE has moderate activity with value 241.58 µM Fe(II)/µg, while in H2O2 scavenging activity, FEE also show moderate activity with IC50=83.97 µg/mL compared to other compounds.Conclusion: In summary, FEE and the pure compounds (quercitrin, myricitrin, morin, and eleutheroside B) have potential as antioxidant agent.Keywords: free radical, morin, myricitrin, quercitrin, rubber tree, scavenging activities
Cyuzuzo Callixte, Nsanzimana Jean Baptiste, Heny Arwati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 39-44; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.74

Abstract:
Background: Nowadays, microbial infections remain as the leading cause of infectious diseases and human death worldwide. The use of plant-derived medicines is currently increasing in the treatment of various diseases. Papaya leaves have proteolytic enzymes and phytoconstituents with antimicrobial properties. Rwandan citizens use papaya leaves to treat hair dandruff, wounds and burns.Materials and Methods: Papaya leaves were collected and allowed to dry under the shed at room temperature for 14 days. The powdered plant materials were soaked separately in clean flask and extracted successively using maceration method with water and methanol. Qualitative phytochemical screening was conducted by using specific standard procedures. Antimicrobial activity assays of all the extracts were performed by agar well diffusion method and determined by measuring the zones of inhibition with transparent scale.Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and phenolic compounds. In this observation, all the extracts exhibit significant inhibitory activity against all test pathogens ranging from 2 mm to 26 mm of diameter. Methanol extracts showed the maximum activity against Candida albicans (inhibition zone: 26±0.11 and activity index: 1.23). Minimum inhibition concentration values ranges between 3.175 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL.Conclusion: The results indicate that Carica papaya leaves could be very potent source of antimicrobial agents and secondary metabolites that can be used by pharmaceutical industries to produce medicines.Keywords: Carica papaya, antimicrobial, agar well diffusion, phytochemical screening, zone of inhibition, activity index
Rona Kartika, Heri Wibowo
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 1-9; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.64

Abstract:
Pathogenesis of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is often associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. This kind of inflammation is characterized by an increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β. From an immunological point of view, an inflammatory response is always followed by an anti-inflammatory response as negative feedback to avoid excessive tissue damages. Regulatory T cells are a subset of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T cells that have the function to maintain peripheral tolerance and suppress immune response. This review would discuss the impaired function of regulatory T cells in type 2 DM. DM is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia due to a defect of insulin secretion or a combination of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been known as a key factor in the development of insulin resistance. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) action through contact and non-contact inhibition could suppress inflammatory response in innate and adaptive immune systems. In type 2 DM, the proportion and function of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell decreases due to the reduced number of Treg cells and the Treg cells depletion contributes to metabolic conditions such as insulin resistance. Moreover, Treg cells are more susceptible to apoptosis, the ability of Treg cells to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and IL-10 decreases, and there is an imbalance between the proportion of Th1/Th17 cells and Treg cells. This inadequate anti-inflammatory response gives rise to the chronic low-grade inflammatory condition in type 2 DM.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammation, regulatory T cell
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