Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 25274384 / 25273442
Current Publisher: Cell and BioPharmaceutical Institute (10.21705)
Total articles ≅ 47
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Cyuzuzo Callixte, Nsanzimana Jean Baptiste, Heny Arwati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 39-44; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.74

Abstract:
Background: Nowadays, microbial infections remain as the leading cause of infectious diseases and human death worldwide. The use of plant-derived medicines is currently increasing in the treatment of various diseases. Papaya leaves have proteolytic enzymes and phytoconstituents with antimicrobial properties. Rwandan citizens use papaya leaves to treat hair dandruff, wounds and burns.Materials and Methods: Papaya leaves were collected and allowed to dry under the shed at room temperature for 14 days. The powdered plant materials were soaked separately in clean flask and extracted successively using maceration method with water and methanol. Qualitative phytochemical screening was conducted by using specific standard procedures. Antimicrobial activity assays of all the extracts were performed by agar well diffusion method and determined by measuring the zones of inhibition with transparent scale.Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and phenolic compounds. In this observation, all the extracts exhibit significant inhibitory activity against all test pathogens ranging from 2 mm to 26 mm of diameter. Methanol extracts showed the maximum activity against Candida albicans (inhibition zone: 26±0.11 and activity index: 1.23). Minimum inhibition concentration values ranges between 3.175 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL.Conclusion: The results indicate that Carica papaya leaves could be very potent source of antimicrobial agents and secondary metabolites that can be used by pharmaceutical industries to produce medicines.Keywords: Carica papaya, antimicrobial, agar well diffusion, phytochemical screening, zone of inhibition, activity index
Chrismis Novalinda Ginting, I Nyoman Ehrich Lister, Ermi Girsang, Dewi Riastawati, Hanna Sari Widya Kusuma, Wahyu Widowati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 27-33; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.86

Abstract:
Background: The excessive free radicals condition called oxidative stress can harmful for the body. To prevent and cure it, the antioxidant agents are required. Nowadays, the natural product extracted from plants have been widely used in folk medicine as antioxidant for the treatment of many diseases. Ficus elastica (rubber tree) has some compounds that has several biological activities, i.e., quercitrin, myricitrin, morin, and eleutheroside B. The F. elastica works against the free radicals and can be potential as antioxidant agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant properties of F. elastica ethanolic extract (FEE), quercitrin, myricitrin, morin, and eleutheroside B.Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of FEE and standard compounds were evaluated by free radical-scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities using spectrophotometry method.Results: FEE has the lowest of DPPH scavenging activity (IC50=13.82 µg/mL) than other compounds. In ABTS scavenging activity, FEE has moderate activity with IC50 value 23.29 µg/mL. In FRAP activity, FEE has moderate activity with value 241.58 µM Fe(II)/µg, while in H2O2 scavenging activity, FEE also show moderate activity with IC50=83.97 µg/mL compared to other compounds.Conclusion: In summary, FEE and the pure compounds (quercitrin, myricitrin, morin, and eleutheroside B) have potential as antioxidant agent.Keywords: free radical, morin, myricitrin, quercitrin, rubber tree, scavenging activities
Dwiyati Pujimulyani, Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Astuti Setyawati, Rizal Rizal, Rismawati Laila Qodariah, Zakiyatul Khoiriyah, Annisa Arlisyah, Wahyu Widowati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 45-51; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.88

Abstract:
Background: With the increase of diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence, natural product emerged as complementary source on the development of new drug for this disease. White saffron (Curcuma mangga Val.) is a widely available plant found in Indonesia which often used traditionally as medicine for various ailment. Unfortunately scientific evidence of its antidiabetic activity has not been described very well. Present study was trying to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of white saffron based on the change of lipid accumulation.Materials and Methods: Cells viability assay was done using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) reagent to determine the safe concentrations of C. mangga Val. extract and its fractions including hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, ethanol, water fractions and curcumol for the further assay. The preadipocyte cells (3T3-L1) were grown and differentiated into adipocyte cells using 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone and insulin. The adipocyte cells were treated with C. mangga Val. extract (CME) (the safest fraction at all concentrations) for 24 h. Oil red O staining was used to measure the lipid accumulation in adipocyte cells.Results: The CME was not toxic and able to decrease the lipid droplets of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.Conclusion: The CME has potential antidiabetic activity due to ability to decrease the lipid droplet without disturbing the viability of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.Keywords: white saffron, Curcuma mangga Val., antidiabetic
Rona Kartika, Heri Wibowo
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 1-9; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.64

Abstract:
Pathogenesis of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is often associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. This kind of inflammation is characterized by an increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β. From an immunological point of view, an inflammatory response is always followed by an anti-inflammatory response as negative feedback to avoid excessive tissue damages. Regulatory T cells are a subset of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T cells that have the function to maintain peripheral tolerance and suppress immune response. This review would discuss the impaired function of regulatory T cells in type 2 DM. DM is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia due to a defect of insulin secretion or a combination of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been known as a key factor in the development of insulin resistance. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) action through contact and non-contact inhibition could suppress inflammatory response in innate and adaptive immune systems. In type 2 DM, the proportion and function of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell decreases due to the reduced number of Treg cells and the Treg cells depletion contributes to metabolic conditions such as insulin resistance. Moreover, Treg cells are more susceptible to apoptosis, the ability of Treg cells to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and IL-10 decreases, and there is an imbalance between the proportion of Th1/Th17 cells and Treg cells. This inadequate anti-inflammatory response gives rise to the chronic low-grade inflammatory condition in type 2 DM.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammation, regulatory T cell
Bohari Bohari, Fenny Dian Lestari, Anton Rahmadi
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 19-26; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.85

Abstract:
Background: One of the conditions for releasing standardized herbal medicines is the presence of pre-clinical testing that can be conducted with mice. Emulsion products with the main composition of pumpkin, red palm oil, and dragon fruit have high levels of β-carotene. The purpose of this study was to observe changes in weight, cholesterol, and sub-chronic toxicity from mice treated with emulsion products.Materials and Methods: Mice observed consisted of 6 groups: (1) untreated control (given standard ration); (2) negative control (given standard ration and 2.8% (v/b) egg yolk); (3) positive control (given standard ration and 0.4% (v/b) β-carotene); (4) standard ration, 0.4% (v/b) β-carotene and 2.8% (v/b) egg yolk; (5) given a standard ration and 2% (v/b) emulsion products; and (6) given a standard ration, 2% (v/b) emulsion products and 2.8% (v/b) egg yolk. Observations of sub-chronic toxicity were done by measuring creatinine levels, kidney weight, and visual observation of kidney swelling.Results: The use of β-carotene-rich emulsions does not cause a decrease in the average weight of mice. In general, β-carotene and emulsion can overcome cholesterol increases on the 7th day, but not for the 15th day as a result of standard food intake. The increase in creatinine levels only occurs in mice treated with egg yolk control. The additional treatment of β-carotene and emulsion successfully prevents the increase in creatinine levels.Conclusion: Emulsion products did not cause changes in weight, were able to reduce cholesterol levels in a limited manner and were not toxic to mice.Keywords: cholesterol changes, sub-chronic toxicity, b-carotene, emulsion
Rizki Bunaya, Ilhami Romus, Fajri Marindra Siregar, Desby Juananda
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 34-8; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.77

Abstract:
Background: Immobilization stress is one method of stress induction on experimental animals. It affects the psychology and physical of experimental animals and is the recommended method for assessing changes in histological structure damage. The purpose of research was to analyze the effect of immobilization stress on gastric mucosal in mice.Materials and Methods: This research was experimental with post-test-only control group design. Twenty white mice (Mus musculus) male Swiss Webster strains were used in this study and divided into 4 groups: control, immobilization stress 14 days, immobilization stress 21 days, immobilization stress 28 days. Mice were given immobilization stress using 50 cc syringes for 2 hours every day for 14 days, 21 days and 28 days. Gastric mucosal damage in mice was analyzed under a microscope with of 10 fields of view in each sample. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test.Results: Gastric mucosal damage score were 0 in control, 1.42±0.265 in 14 days, 1.82±0.265 in 21 days, and 2.54±0.05 in 28 days. There was significant difference between each group (p
Riyona Desvy Pratiwi, Dian Fitria Agustiyanti, Tri Isyani Tungga Dewi, Nina Herlina, Kartika Sari Dewi, Yuliawati Yuliawati, Aminah Aminah, Asrul Muhamad Fuad
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 10-8; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i1.81

Abstract:
Background: Recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is a first line therapy for neutropenia. However, it is less affordable for most patients in developing and poor countries. Therefore, biosimilar products are developed to suppress the cost of treatment, namely with rhG-CSF. This study aimed to explore the establishment of an affordable rhG-CSF that has similar potential to induce neutrophils recovery as the positive control.Materials and Methods: The rhG-CSF was expressed as inclusion body in Escherichia coli NiCo21(DE3). The inclusion body was then solubilized, refolded, purified and characterized prior to be used in the bioactivity assay. Cyclophosphamide-induced male Sprague Dawley rats were used as animal model and administered with rhG-CSF. Blood sample was collected at several points of time, before and after rhG-CSF treatments. Complete blood count and peripheral blood smear were conducted to investigate the activity of the rhG-CSF on each blood cells type, particularly neutrophil.Results: Specific activity on neutrophil proliferation was shown after treatments with our rhG-CSF and positive control. Positive control dose 40 mg/kg BW was statistically similar with that of the rhG-CSF dose 80 and 120 mg/kg BW. However, in neutropenic condition, recovery of neutrophil counts could not be achieved within 4 days of treatments. Thus, a longer treatment is needed to observe the activity of the rhG-CSF as an antineutropenia agent.Conclusion: The rhG-CSF has been proven having specific activity on neutrophil proliferation. However, improvement in the rhG-CSF preparation is still needed and longer administration of the rhG-CSF has to be applied in the future study.Keywords: rhG-CSF, biosimilar, neutropenia, Sprague Dawley rats
Chandran Frinaldo Saragih, Riza Rivany, Mohamad Fauzie Sahil, Fadjrir Fadjrir, Edy Ardiansyah, Muhammad Rizki Yaznil, Munauwarus Sarirah
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 95-9; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v3i2.50

Abstract:
Background: Endometriosis is a benign disease that has malignant properties such as genetic polymorphism, loss control of cell proliferation, infiltration, and local spread or to distant places. Several endometriosis studies linking endometrioma/ ovarian endometriosis with an increased risk of ovarian malignancy give rise to a transformation phenomenon of endometriotic cysts into malignancy. Bax is a pro apoptotic protein whose expression decreases in a malignancy. This decrease is related to the poor prognosis of endometrioma and ovarian carcinoma. This study was aimed to identify the expression and the difference of Bax expression between endometrioma and ovarian carcinoma.Materials and Methods: Fifty of paraffin blocks of endometrioma tissue and ovarian carcinoma (serous, mucinous, clear cell, and endometrioid type) were examined by immunohistochemical using Bondmax Full Automatic with specific monoclonal antibody to identify Bax expression. The difference of Bax expression score between endometrioma tissue and ovarian carcinoma was tested by Mann-Whitney test with significant value was set at p0.05). No difference of Bax expression between the clinical stages and histopathological types of ovarian carcinoma (p>0.05).Conclusion: There are no statistically significant difference in Bax protein expression in ovarian cancer and endometrioma.Keywords: Bax expression, endometrioma, ovarian carcinoma, apoptotic resistance
Janti Sudiono, Meylisa Hardina
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 115-21; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v3i2.70

Abstract:
Background: Inflammation is a body response caused by injury and infection. Pulpitis is a pulp tissue inflammation which is the continuous process of pulp hyperemia by bacteria invasion. Myrmecodia pendans or Sarang semut is known to contain flavonoid compound which has the anti inflammation effect. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Myrmecodia pendans ethanol extract on the healing process of pulp inflammation.Materials and Methods: This experimental study involved pre- and post-in vivo treatment of 27 Sprague Dawley rats in which the inducted pulpitis model was obtained by injecting 0.01 mL Porphyromonas gingivalis into the dental pulp for 48 hours. Subjects were divided randomly into Group I (negative control), Group II (pulpitis treated by Myrmecodia pendans extract ethanol as treatment group), and Group III (pulpitis treated by Ca(OH)2 as positive control group). Group II and III as pulpitis treatment groups were divided into subgroups based on the induction periods of 48 hours (2 days), 168 hours (7 days), and 366 hours (14 days). All specimens were processed into the slides and evaluated microscopically for the healing process.Results: The result of this study showed significant difference (p
Agus Limanto, Adelina Simamora, Adit Widodo Santoso, Kris Herawan Timotius
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 3, pp 67-74; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v3i2.60

Abstract:
Background: Plant-phenolics and flavonoids, including gallic acid, quercetin and rutin, are considered as safe inhibitors for α-glucosidase. This study aimed to compare antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of gallic acid (GA), quercetin (QUE) and rutin (RUT).Materials and Methods: Pure compounds of GA, QUE, and RUT were used. Their antioxidant and inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase were investigated spectroscopically, including their kinetic analysis and interaction mechanism by docking simulation.Results: All the tested compounds (GA, QUE, and RUT) showed good antioxidant activity better than the standards ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), with QUE showing the highest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Based on their reducing properties, the activities of the compounds follow the following order: AA > GA > BHT > QUE > RUT. Both GA and RUT induced a competitive type of inhibition, with activities stronger than acarbose (IC50 = 823 μg/mL), whereas QUE inhibited in a mixed type manner. The IC50 of GA, QUE, and RUT were 220.12, 65.52, and 224.55 μg/mL respectively. The results obtained from molecular docking indicate that all compounds have affinity in the active site pocket of α-glucosidase, with the hydrogen bond being the major force involved in each compound binding to the enzyme.Conclusion: In conclusion, QUE has better antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than GA and RUT. This work provides insights into the interactions between GA, QUE, and RUT and α-glucosidase.Keywords: docking, gallic acid, α-glucosidase, rutin, quercetin
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