Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2527-4384 / 2527-3442
Total articles ≅ 68
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Feriyandi Nauli, Nurhasanah Nurhasanah, Endang Mahati, Udin Bahrudin
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 1-7; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.165

Abstract:
Background: Central obesity stands for the corner-stone of cardio-metabolic health, while nitric oxide (NO) is a major regulator of cardiovascular function. To day, the correlation between serum NO metabolites nitrate/nitrite and the obesity components in young adults remains elusive. Thus, this current study was conducted to know the correlation between serum NO metabolites levels and body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC) as well as body mass index (BMI) in young adults with central obesity.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riau, Indonesia, involving 79 young adults aged 18-25 years, composing of 39 and 40 subjects with and without central obesity, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were performed to assess WC and BMI. Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis and serum NO metabolites levels were assessed using Griess methods.Results: Levels of serum NO metabolites were significant higher in the subjects with central obesity (168.41±12.64 μmol/L) than that of normal subjects (70.57±44.99 μmol/L, p
Sri Wahdaningsih, Subagus Wahyuono, Sugeng Riyanto, Retno Murwanti
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 8-12; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.166

Abstract:
Background: Hylocereus polyrhizus has activities as antimicrobial agent, anti-hypercholesterolemia, anti-diabetic (diabetes mellitus), cardiovascular risk reduction, health supplement, and melanoma cell suppression. The extracts from the peels of H. polyrhizus were able to increase phagocytic ability, cell numbers and leukocytes and to influence relative spleen weights in the formation of body immune system in male rats. The fruit peels contained phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. This study investigated the active compounds of H. polyrhizus peels, which are able to increase immune system of human body.Materials and method: In vitro assay was applied to examine the active compounds, identified as lupeol, obtained from isolated extract of red dragon fruit for their lymphocyte proliferation and nitric oxide (NO)-producing activities. Lymphocyte proliferation assay was performed with 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The cell control was lymphocyte cell suspension in RPMI medium added with phytohaemaglutinine (PHA). The NO measurement was conducted with nitric solvent and Greiss reagent.Results: The ANOVA analysis of the average optical density (OD) of lymphocyte proliferation showed that the addition of isolated lupeol at the concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL were able to improve lymphocyte proliferation and activate the NO production in the rats with treatment of positive control. Conclusion: Isolated lupeol at concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL revealed significant difference with medium control and cell control. It was able to increase effects on lymphocyte proliferation and NO production. Therefore, the lupeol which was isolated might have high potential to be an immunostimulant.Keywords: Hylocereus polyrhizus, lupeol, lymphocyte proliferation, nitric oxide production
Rizaldy Pinzon, Vincent Ongko Wijaya, Dessy Paramitha
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 22-6; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.170

Abstract:
Background: The prevalence of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) ranges from 20-80%. Some studies found that vitamin D deficiency was common in stroke patients, yet the relationship with cognitive performance remains unclear. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between levels of vitamin D and cognitive performance in post-stroke patients.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 20 post-ischemic stroke patients. Vitamin D levels were measured using enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). The cognitive performance was assessed by computerized mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test (CDT). The relationship between vitamin D levels and cognitive tests were performed using paired T-test.Results: Vitamin D insufficiency (
Tijani Stephanie Abiola, Olori Ogaraya David, Farombi Ebenezer Olatunde
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 27-36; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.186

Abstract:
Background: Piroxicam is one of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition and in arthritis. This study investigated the protective potential of tannin-rich extract of Chasmanthera dependens (TRECDS) against piroxicam-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Thirty two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 received normal saline and served as the control group, group 2 were given 20 mg/kg piroxicam only, while groups 3 and 4 were given 20 mg/kg piroxicam with the addition of 200 and 400 mg/kg of tannin-rich extract of Chasmanthera dependens, respectively. All rats were treated orally once daily for ten days.Results: Administration of piroxicam caused liver atrophy demonstrated by significant rise in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) levels of albumin (ALB), bilirubin (BIL), total cholesterol (TCHOL), triglyceride (TRIGS) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Piroxicam also decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels significantly (p>0.05) with attendant increase in oxidative stress indices in the liver of rats compared with control group. Histological assessment reveled severe damaged to the liver of rats. However, co-administration with TRECDS reversed these observations as evidenced in the histological results.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that exposure of rats to piroxicam provoked damage to the liver via oxidative damage and TRECDS has the potential of ameliorating the damage.Keywords: hepatotoxicity, piroxicam, Chasmanthera dependens, oxidative stress
Innawati Jusup, Lusiana Batubara, Dwi Ngestiningsih, Faizah Fulyani, Devina Afraditya Paveta, Putri Theresia Lemmo Ate Bancin
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 13-7; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.157

Abstract:
Background: Osteoporosis is one of chronic degenerative diseases especially in postmenopausal women, characterized by a decreased bone mass due to imbalance activity between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Recently, oxidative stress is believed to play an important role in osteoporosis pathogenesis. Oxidative stress is commonly considered as the consequence of an imbalance between pro and antioxidants species, which results in damage in the affected tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is frequently used as a biomarker of oxidative stress in many health problems since MDA is produced at high levels during lipid peroxidation. Meanwhile, glutathione is well known as one of antioxidant which against oxidative stress by preserving its homeostasis in the reduced form of glutathione sulfhydryl (GSH) and the oxidized form of glutathione disulphide (GSSG). This study was aimed to determine the association between MDA, GSH/GSSG ratio and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women.Materials and method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 40 postmenopausal women. MDA and GSH/GSSG ratio were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bone mineral density (BMD) was obtained from secondary data. The statistical analysis was conducted using Spearman rho’s correlation test.Results: Based on the test, we didn’t found significant correlation between MDA and BMD (r=-0.054, p=0.741), but we found significant moderate correlation between GSH/GSSG ratio (r=0.436, p=0.005) and BMD in postmenopausal women. Conclusion: There was no correlation between MDA and BMD in postmenopausal women. However, there was significant moderate correlation between GSH/GSSG ratio and BMD in postmenopausal women.Keywords: MDA, GSH/GSSG ratio, BMD, osteoporosis
I Gusti Lanang Sidiartha, I Gusti Ngurah Made Suwarba, Dyah Kanya Wati, Ida Bagus Subanada
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 18-21; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.177

Abstract:
Background: Long-term use of valproic acid is associated with a high level of blood ammonia related to carnitine deficiency. This study investigates the effect of carnitine supplementation on blood ammonia levels in children with epilepsy who have been treated with valproic acid for more than six months.Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study where children with epilepsy who were treated with valproic acid were randomly allocated to the carnitine supplementation and control group. All children were followed for month, and then measured for blood ammonia level. Blood ammonia levels of both groups were compared using an Independent t-test with a significant of p
Joserizal Serudji, Nuzulia Irawati, Johanes Cornelius Mose, Hirowati Ali, Yusrawati Yusrawati
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 37-40; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.192

Abstract:
Background: Impaired trophoblast invasion is associated with early abortion. The calorie needed for the trophoblast cell (TC) invasion is mainly met by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produced in the mitochondria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), byproduct of ATP synthesis, plays an important role in cellular physiology, but a high level of ROS may result in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage or cell dysfunction, thereby impaired TC invasion leading to early abortion. The study aims to determine elevated serum ROS level to predicts early abortion.Materials and method: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Fifty subjects with gestational age less than 12 weeks, consist of 25 early abortions and 25 normal pregnancies subjects, were included in this study. Clinical examination and diagnosis are carried out in 2 Hospitals and 5 Public Health Centers in Padang. Examination of ROS levels was carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the Biomedical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Andalas. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the difference of serum ROS levels, with a significance level of 0.05.Results: The subjects of the two study groups were equivalent in terms of age, gestational age, and gravidity (p=0.051, p=0.453, and p=1.000). The median ROS levels were found to be 1.36 (1.02-26.30) ng/mL in the early abortion and 1.20 (0.43-2.75) ng/mL in the normal pregnancy (p=0.003).Conclusion: There is a significant difference between ROS levels in early abortion and normal pregnancy.Keywords: ROS, early abortion, normal pregnancy
Ivanna Valentina, Achadiyani Achadiyani, Sunarjati Sudigdo Adi, Ronny Lesmana, Reni Farenia
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 113-20; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.95

Abstract:
Background: Chronic Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure causes oxidative stress that may induce damages to the collagen matrix and thus plays a role in the wrinkle formation. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that may exerts antioxidant effects, thus helping to reduce damages caused by UVB-induced oxidative stress in the skin.Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight male Balb/c mice were divided equally into control group, UVB radiation only group, oral L. reuteri supplementation only group, and UVB radiation with oral L. reuteri supplementation group. UVB irradiation was given 3 times a week (100 seconds/exposure, within 3 cm distance) for 10 weeks, with a total dose of 166 mJ/cm2. Oral L. reuteri supplementation (0.2 mL, 108 CFU) was provided every morning after meal via orogastric feeding tube for 10 weeks. Wrinkle formation on the dorsal skin of the mice was evaluated in accordance with the Bissett method and type I procollagen levels was evaluated by western blotting.Results: In comparison with the group receiving only UVB irradiation, the group receiving probiotic and UVB irradiation showed significantly lower wrinkle scores (Group 1 vs. Group 3, 2.50±0.55 vs. 1.00±0,00; p
Ridwan Ridwan, Ami Febriza, Elmiana Bongga Linggi, Rosdiana Natzir, Nurpudji Astuti Tazlim
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 105-12; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.109

Abstract:
Background: Obesity contributes to the increased risk of chronic kidney and systemic inflammation. This condition can occur in obese adolescents. Most researches of cystatin-C (cys-C) and adiponectin have been carried out in adult and children subjects. The purpose of this research is to determine differences in serum cys-C and adiponectin levels between obese and normoweight adolescents and their correlation with blood pressure and obesity parameters.Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese adolescents and 22 normoweight adolescents aged 15-18 years old participated in this research. After the measurement of blood pressure and obesity parameters, we examined serum cys-C levels as a biomarker for decreased early stage renal function and adiponectin, an antiinflammatory adipokine. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum cys-C is calculated using the eGFR-Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (eGFR-CKD EPI cys-C equation formula). Results: Cys-C levels in obese adolescents were higher than normoweight adolescents. In contrast, serum adiponectin levels in obese adolescents were lower than for normoweight adolescents. Interestingly, eGFR based on serum cys-C showed no difference, although eGFR in obese adolescents was lower than normoweight adolescent. Serum cys-C was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Serum adiponectin was negatively correlated with SBP, DBP, BMI and WC. SBP is a predictor factor for the increase in serum cys-C and BMI is a predictor factor in the decrease in serum adiponectin levels. Conclusion: There is a decline in early stage kidney function and inflammation in obese adolescents as evidenced by increased serum cyst-C levels and decreased serum adiponectin levels. These two biomarkers correlate with blood pressure, BMI and WC and play a role in the pathomechanism of early stage impairment of kidney function and inflammation in obese adolescents.Keywords: adiponectin, body mass index, cystatin-C, early stage renal diseases, inflammation, systolic blood pressure
Dicha Yuliadewi Rahmawati, Hernindya Dwifulqi,
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 4, pp 100-4; doi:10.21705/mcbs.v4i3.159

Abstract:
Cancer constitutes of complex heterogeneous organ-like structures with a hierarchical cell structure, and only minor phenotypic subpopulations with stem-like properties have a dual capacity to indefinitely self-renew and generate all heterogeneous cell phenotypes consisting of bulk tumor cells. Cancer stem cells (CSC) has similar properties to ordinary stem cells. It is understood that CSC is responsible for the recurrence of metastasis and drug resistance. Thus, control of CSC can provide successful therapy intervention that inhibits cancer growth and aggressive behavior. Conventional cancer therapy is realized to be insufficient for oral cancer therapy. Meanwhile, accurate targeting of OCSC has proved to be a significant challenge due to the commonality of many markers between OCSC and healthy cells. This article discusses the current understanding of oral CSC, with focus on origin, stemness, marker and signalling pathway.Keywords: oral cancer stem cell, CSC, marker, origin, stemness, therapy
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