Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2527-4384 / 2527-3442
Published by: Cell and BioPharmaceutical Institute (10.21705)
Total articles ≅ 74
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, Ibnu Agus Ariyanto, Selita Agnes Tanudjaja, Ratna Sitompul, Silvia Lee, Patricia Price
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 88-92; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.197

Abstract:
Background: Retinal artery caliber (RAC) is narrower in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to assess associations between variations in genes encoding inflammatory mediators and natural killer receptors and retinal artery caliber (RAC) in HIV patients beginning ART.Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine HIV positive patients beginning ART with less than 200 cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 T-cells/μL were recruited. Examinations were performed before ART (V0) and at months 3, 6 and 12 (V3, V6, V12). The study was approved by ethics committees and informed consent was obtained from each subject.Results: Right and left RAC of the HIV patients were narrower than healthy controls (p=0.016 for right RAC) and narrowed further on ART, but demographic associations with the right and left RAC were not identical. Here we show that polymorphisms in genes encoding NK receptors or TNF activity had no significant impact, but right RAC was associated with carriage of allele 2 at IL1A+4845 (p=0.037 after 12 months on ART).Conclusion: Overall the paradoxical reduction in the RAC in HIV patients responding to ART was not modified by genotypes known to affect NK cell function or TNF responses, but IL1A genotype may modify the decline in the right RAC.Keywords: anti-retroviral therapy, CMV, HIV, IL1A, retinal artery caliber
Dian Sulistya Ekaputri, I Gusti Lanang Sidiartha, I Gusti Ayu Putu Eka Pratiwi
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 68-73; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.191

Abstract:
Background: Hospital Acquired Malnutrition (HAM) is characterized by inadequate nutritional therapy and the risk of developing malnutrition during the hospital stay. In clinical practice, there are many measurements to determine nutritional status. Total lymphocyte count (TLC) is associated with impaired function of immune system in malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of TLC to the occurrence of HAM in pediatric patients.Materials and Methods: This an observational study with a prospective cohort design. Subjects were assessed for weight at the first day of hospitalization, then the subjects were followed until they were discharged. Body weight was re-measured on discharge to determine the presence or absence of HAM. This research was conducted at Sanglah Hospital from May-December 2019. Subjects who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study.Results: Among 120 subjects, 55 subjects or 45.8% were malnourished on admission. Subjects with a low TLC compared to a normal TLC had a 3.9-fold risk of experiencing hospital acquired malnutrition (95% Confidence Interval: 1.59 to 7.19, p=0.001). Subjects who had a low TLC had HAM of 61.8%, while subjects who had a normal TLC had HAM of 32.3%. In multivariate analysis, low TLC was the only risk factor for HAM in this research.Conclusion: This study proved that low TLC is the risk of HAM. Total lymphocyte count could be used as predictor of the risk of HAM in hospitalization children.Keywords: hospital malnutrition, total lymphocyte, children
Anna Meiliana, Nurrani Mustika Dewi, Andi Wijaya
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 41-61; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.198

Abstract:
Compared to the normal tissues, cancer cells tend to have higher proliferation rate and often lost their ability to undergo apoptosis. In addition, cancer cells can separate themselves from their original tissue thus causing metastasis in other part of body. While undergoing program cell death, disordered cellular programming can happen. The main causes of this cellular programming anomaly are epigenetic and genetic alterations, which have been known as two separate mechanisms in carcinogenetic. A recent outcome of whole exome sequencing of thousands of human cancers has been the unexpected discovery of many inactivating mutations in genes that control the epigenome. These mutations have the potential to disturb the DNA methylation patterns, histone modifications, and nucleosome positioning, hence, the causing gene expression alternation. Genetic alteration of the epigenome therefore contributes to cancer just as epigenetic process can cause point mutations and disable DNA repair functions. Epigenetic mechanisms changes could cause genetic mutations, and genetic mutations in epigenetic regulators could cause epigenome changes. Knowing that epigenome play a major role in the hierarchy of gene control mechanisms suggests that mutations might have impact on multiple pathways related to cancer phenotype. This pinpoint the fact that recently, the way the genes are organized and controlled are suggested to be a relevant factor for human carcinogenesis.Keywords: cancer genetic, cancer epigenetic, oncogens, tumor suppressor genes, driver mutation, passenger mutation
Bunga Anggreini Sari, Azalia Talitha Zahra, Ganda Purba Tasti, Ziske Maritska
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 62-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.202

Abstract:
The ability to make precise adjustments to the human genome has been a goal of healing in which gene also introduces as the fundamental unit of heredity, in biomolecular technology in genetic diseases have opened new knowledge such as gene therapy. Gene therapy is a technique to repair DNA where its usage is to treat the malignancy and inherited genetic diseases. Gene therapy is a choice to the genetic cloth that goals to remedy a sickness this is hard to deal with or perhaps has no treatment. Currently, gene remedy is done in approaches to patients, specifically embryonic cells and somatic cells, every in vivo and ex vivo. Moral considerations with modification of the difficulty's cells and oversight of regulation and reagents want to be taken into consideration within the gene therapy project. Applications for using gene remedies have begun to be widely used, which include in case of maximum cancers, coronary heart disorder, infectious sicknesses, and others. Gene therapy has spread to a wide range of applications then go beyond the modification of genetic disorders. Advances in genetic modification of cancer cells and immunity and the use of viruses and bacteria to control cancer cells have resulted in many clinical trials and product developments for cancer treatment. The miracles and blessings of gene therapy are might believe, but even though they are being studied and developed now and, in the future, so that the desire for gene therapy may be even better future.Keywords: gene therapy, genetic recombination, gene therapy application
Saut Horas Hatoguan Nababan, Seruni Tyas Khairunissa, Erni Erfan, Nafrialdi Nafrialdi, Ening Krisnuhoni, Irsan Hasan, Rino Alvani Gani
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 74-81; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.193

Abstract:
Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an expanding cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, including Indonesia, with higher risk progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Preclinical experiments using several mice models have been conducted to clarify its complex pathogenesis. This study was designed to investigate whether BALB/c mice on a choline-deficient high-fat diet can be used as a model for NASH. Materials and Methods: BALB/c male mice were fed choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined high-fat diet (CDAHFD) or a standard diet for six weeks. The body and liver weights, liver histology, and plasma biochemistry were analyzed. The relative expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, collagen-1α1 (COL1α1), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) genes in the livers were analyzed using a two-step real time-polymerase chain reaction. Liver fatty acids composition was analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Results: CDAHFD induced steatohepatitis in BALB/c mice with increased plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase. The liver of CDAHFD-fed BALB/c mice showed upregulated relative expression levels of TNFα, TGFβ1, COL1α1, GPx1, and UCP2 genes. The liver fatty acid analysis showed a significant accumulation of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and an increased ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the livers of CDAHFD-fed BALB/c mice. Conclusion: This study suggests that CDAHFD can induce steatohepatitis in BALB/c mice and therefore may be used as NASH mice model.Keywords: steatohepatitis, fatty liver, choline-deficient high fat diet, BALB/c
Herman Yosef Limpat Wihastyoko, Erdo Puncak Sidarta
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 82-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.195

Abstract:
Background: Cleft lip is a congenital birth defect caused by many proteins. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-1 are proteins which regulate proliferation and apoptosis role during intrauterine period. This study aimed to observe the expression of these proteins in cleft affected tissue of the lip.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study by examining the TGF-β1, p38 MAPK, and ERK-1 immunohistochemical expression of cleft affected tissue of the lip was conducted. Subjects were patients that were participating for the social event held by Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Univesitas Brawijaya, on December 3-12, 2012 in Nusa Tenggara Timur. Excess lip mucosa (waste tissue) during the operation were stored in 10% formalin then stained by immunohistochemistry for TGF-β1, p38 MAPK, and ERK-1. We counted the average protein expression under the light microscope with 1000x magnification for 20 different fields of view, randomly.Results: Paraffin blocks from 30 subjects were selected. The mean p38 MAPK expression was found to be highest, with the average of 8 per field of view; followed by the mean TGF-β1 expression, with the average of 5 per field of view; and the mean ERK-1 expression was found to be the lowest, with the average of 2 per field of view. Conclusion: Expression of p38 MAPK and TGF-β1 are higher than ERK-1, suggesting that p38 MAPK is in the same signalling pathway as TGF-β1, while ERK-1 is lower, as its role as anti-apoptotic. This is consistent with several previous studies showing that all proteins took part in the development of cleft lip or craniofacial development. Further study needs to be conducted to determine which protein plays the bigger role.Keywords: cleft lip, TGF-β1, p38 MAPK, ERK-1
Arsyi Adliah Anwar, Nusratuddin Abdullah, Andi Nursanty Padjalangi, Firdaus Hamid, Nasrudin Andi Mappeware, Efendi Lukas
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 93-7; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i2.203

Abstract:
Background: Leptin resistance which leads to excessive circulating leptin levels is thought to affect ovarian function. This study aimed to study the correlation between serum leptin levels with insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in several teaching hospitals in Makassar, Indonesia. We included patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) aged 18-40 years old. Serum leptin levels were examined in all eligible subjects using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The results obtained were further analyzed statistically.Results: Approximately 53 PCOS subjects were included in this study, 25 subjects with insulin resistance and 28 subjects without insulin resistance. After examining serum leptin levels, we found that leptin is directly proportional to insulin resistance (p<0.001). We even found a strong positive correlation between serum leptin levels with homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels (r=0.659; p<0.001). Leptin was found to be independent of HOMA-IR, not influenced by confounding factors such as body mass index (BMI) (p=0.090).Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between serum leptin levels and HOMA-IR values in PCOS patients. This correlation was found to be significant regardless of patient's BMI, therefore is considered to have a direct effect on insulin resistance in PCOS.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, leptin, insulin resistance, HOMA-IR
Sri Wahdaningsih, Subagus Wahyuono, Sugeng Riyanto, Retno Murwanti
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 8-12; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.166

Abstract:
Background: Hylocereus polyrhizus has activities as antimicrobial agent, anti-hypercholesterolemia, anti-diabetic (diabetes mellitus), cardiovascular risk reduction, health supplement, and melanoma cell suppression. The extracts from the peels of H. polyrhizus were able to increase phagocytic ability, cell numbers and leukocytes and to influence relative spleen weights in the formation of body immune system in male rats. The fruit peels contained phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. This study investigated the active compounds of H. polyrhizus peels, which are able to increase immune system of human body.Materials and method: In vitro assay was applied to examine the active compounds, identified as lupeol, obtained from isolated extract of red dragon fruit for their lymphocyte proliferation and nitric oxide (NO)-producing activities. Lymphocyte proliferation assay was performed with 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The cell control was lymphocyte cell suspension in RPMI medium added with phytohaemaglutinine (PHA). The NO measurement was conducted with nitric solvent and Greiss reagent.Results: The ANOVA analysis of the average optical density (OD) of lymphocyte proliferation showed that the addition of isolated lupeol at the concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL were able to improve lymphocyte proliferation and activate the NO production in the rats with treatment of positive control. Conclusion: Isolated lupeol at concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL revealed significant difference with medium control and cell control. It was able to increase effects on lymphocyte proliferation and NO production. Therefore, the lupeol which was isolated might have high potential to be an immunostimulant.Keywords: Hylocereus polyrhizus, lupeol, lymphocyte proliferation, nitric oxide production
Rizaldy Pinzon, Vincent Ongko Wijaya, Dessy Paramitha
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 22-6; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.170

Abstract:
Background: The prevalence of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) ranges from 20-80%. Some studies found that vitamin D deficiency was common in stroke patients, yet the relationship with cognitive performance remains unclear. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between levels of vitamin D and cognitive performance in post-stroke patients.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 20 post-ischemic stroke patients. Vitamin D levels were measured using enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). The cognitive performance was assessed by computerized mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test (CDT). The relationship between vitamin D levels and cognitive tests were performed using paired T-test.Results: Vitamin D insufficiency (
Tijani Stephanie Abiola, Olori Ogaraya David, Farombi Ebenezer Olatunde
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 27-36; https://doi.org/10.21705/mcbs.v5i1.186

Abstract:
Background: Piroxicam is one of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition and in arthritis. This study investigated the protective potential of tannin-rich extract of Chasmanthera dependens (TRECDS) against piroxicam-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Thirty two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 received normal saline and served as the control group, group 2 were given 20 mg/kg piroxicam only, while groups 3 and 4 were given 20 mg/kg piroxicam with the addition of 200 and 400 mg/kg of tannin-rich extract of Chasmanthera dependens, respectively. All rats were treated orally once daily for ten days.Results: Administration of piroxicam caused liver atrophy demonstrated by significant rise in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) levels of albumin (ALB), bilirubin (BIL), total cholesterol (TCHOL), triglyceride (TRIGS) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Piroxicam also decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels significantly (p>0.05) with attendant increase in oxidative stress indices in the liver of rats compared with control group. Histological assessment reveled severe damaged to the liver of rats. However, co-administration with TRECDS reversed these observations as evidenced in the histological results.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that exposure of rats to piroxicam provoked damage to the liver via oxidative damage and TRECDS has the potential of ameliorating the damage.Keywords: hepatotoxicity, piroxicam, Chasmanthera dependens, oxidative stress
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