Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2527-4384 / 2527-3442
Published by: Cell and BioPharmaceutical Institute (10.21705)
Total articles ≅ 88
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Syed Saqib Ali, Haseeb Ahsan, Sana Ansari, Khan M Abdullah, Fahim Halim Khan
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 35-42;

Background: Glutathione (GSH) is a principle thiol-containing tripeptide (cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine) antioxidant against free radicals and other harmful oxidants in cellular defence. The alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) is large tetrameric zinc-binding glycoprotein which inhibits proteinases regardless of their specificity and catalytic mechanism. Materials and Methods: The interaction of GSH was analyzed with α2M including the structural and functional alterations in α2M using various biochemical and biophysical methods. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to study the binding of α2M with GSH and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was explored to study the structural change induced in α2M. Results: The results suggest that exposure of α2M to GSH decreases the antiproteolytic potential as suggested by the amidase assay. The UV-spectroscopic study showed the formation of α2M-GSH complex and fluorescence analysis showed significant quenching in fluorescence intensity of α2M suggesting GSH binding and structural alteration in the protein. FT-IR spectroscopy was explored to study the structural change induced in α2M which suggest that the secondary structure of α2M changes upon complex formation. Conclusion: Our studies show that interaction of α2M with photoilluminated GSH results in functional and conformational changes of the protein. Keywords: glutathione, GSH, alpha-2-macroglobulin, photo-illumination, ITC, FTIR
Hartiyowidi Yuliawuri, Jeanne Elvia Christian, Nathanael Steven
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 20-7;

Background: The report of mutation sites ORF3a SARS CoV-2 in Indonesia is still limited. Some research showed that mutations in ORF3a protein might alter SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Observation of new variants should be conducted as a risk monitoring framework. Materials and method: We assessed the impact of mutations in ORF3a protein by analyzing 3,751 SARS-CoV-2 DNA sequences from the GISAID database from March 2020 until July 2021. The whole-genome sequences were aligned using Clustal Omega Multiple Sequence Alignment from EMBL-EBI and analyzed using BioEdit version 7.2.5 software. The reference whole genome sequence was taken from the Genbank database with accession number NC045512. We excluded the samples containing N letters due to inaccurate reading. Effect of point mutations on protein structure was analyzed using PredictProtein ( and Protein Variation Effect Analyzer (PROVEAN) v1.1.3. online software. Results: We identified five most frequent non-synonymous mutations in ORF3a protein of SARS-CoV-2 which were Q57H (58.04%), S26L (27.25%), S220I (10.37%), D155H (8.98%), and P104S (5.47%). Conclusion: These mutation data showed the phenomenon of amino acid changes in ORF3a SARS-CoV-2 in Indonesia until July 2021. The implication of this mutation needs to be determined in further studies. Keywords: Indonesia, mutations, non-synonymous, SARS-CoV-2, whole genome
Dinda Dwi Purwati, Arifa Mustika, Lukman Hakim, Mochammad Thaha
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 43-9;

Background: In 2017, about 1.2 million people died because of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Patients with CKD are known to have increased levels of oxidative stress which leads to decrease in NO production. NO is a highly reactive signaling molecule and a major determinant of vascular homeostasis. Thus, the decreased NO can be a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. Meanwhile, Malondialdehyde (MDA) is known as excellent biomarker for oxidative stress. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum total nitric oxide (NO) and urine MDA levels in non-hemodialysis CKD patients. Materials and Methods: This study was an observational clinical study with a cross sectional design. Fourty-nine CKD subjects were selected by consecutive sampling. The samples for laboratory tests were collected from urine. MDA concentration was measured using the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) kit. NO concentration was measured with Griess reaction method and Total Nitric Oxide Parameter kit. The data were analyzed using the Statistic Package for Social Science (SPPS) software version 16. Results: The data showed significant negative correlations between MDA with NO (r=-0.294; p=0.041). Conclusion: There was a correlation between serum total NO and urine MDA levels in non-hemodialysis CKD patients. Keywords: chronic kidney disease, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, non-hemodialysis
Ziske Maritska, Rani Iswara, Ignatius Aldo Winardi, Yuni Dwi Marantika, Irfan Ferdinand Tambunan, Lovina Lovina, Mgs. A. Rifqi Murtadho, Sendy Aditya Nugraha, Cendy Legowo, Victor Pulpa Seda, et al.
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 12-9;

One thing that differentiates one person from another is one’s genetic make-up. Genetic plays a role in every branch of medicine, including anesthesiology. An anesthesiologist must be well familiarized with hereditary (genetic) conditions, chromosomal traits, heredity-familial disorders, and even recessive variants because particular conditions might demand a different anesthetic and perioperative pharmacological management. These circumstances may lead to an opening of a rapidly expanding state of pharmacogenetics/genomics and its relevancy in anesthesia nowadays. This narrative review provides insight into the role of genetics in the field of anesthesiology.
Sari Eka Pratiwi, Sri Nuryani Wahyuningrum, Rachmagreta Perdana Putri, Danarto Danarto, Didik Setyo Heriyanto, Nur Arfian, Sofia Mubarika Haryana, Indwiani Astuti
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 28-34;

Background: Prostatic anomalies are common in tumor or infection condition. The enlargement of prostate gland affects the epithelial cell polarity that involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transition into mesenchymal is mediated by transcription factor ZEB1 and E-cadherin protein. Upregulation of ZEB1 and loss of E-Cadherin expression were associated to proliferation and metastasis of malignancy cells. This study aims to describe the correlation of ZEB1 and E-cadherin expression in prostatic anomaly. Materials and method: Samples were Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) block consist of 8 block Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), 6 blocks High Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HGPIN) and 6 blocks Prostate Carcinoma (PCA). The blocks then sliced into 5 sections to be prepared for RNA extraction procedures. ZEB1 and E-Cadherin expression was analyzed by semi-quantitative procedures using PCR and electrophoresis. Correlation between ZEB1 and E-Cadherin espression was analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation. Results: Relative expression of ZEB1 and E-cadherin mRNA in each group of prostatic anomaly were not significantly different (p>0.05). ZEB1 and E-Cadherin mRNA expression showed a significant and moderate level of negative correlation (p<0.05; 0.40 < r < 0.59). Increasing of ZEB1 mRNA expression will be followed by decreasing of E-Cadherin mRNA expression. Conclusion: ZEB1 negatively correlates with E-cadherin due to EMT process in prostatic anomaly. High expression of ZEB1 induced down-regulation of E-cadherin and vise versa. Various studies can be developed, especially the development of targeted therapy against ZEB1 to suppress the EMT process by increasing the expression of E-cadherin. Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), ZEB1, E-Cadherin, BPH, HGPIN, PCA
Alaa Aldin Alsafi Alalwiy, Alkhair Abd Almahmoud Idris
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 50-4;

Background: Thelison, the adhesive synthetic material that bind surface together, is widely used in industry and domestic purpose along with epoxy, glue and putty. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of thelison use in the etiology of lung disorders among homeless people in Khartoum State, Sudan. Materials and method: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted in homeless people in Khartoum State.Sputum smears samples from 80 alcohol fixed homeless thelison user were collected. After the collection of the sample, Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Region (AgNOR) technique and papanicolaou (PAP) stains were applied to each sample. A questionnaire to obtain essential data about respondents was also provided for each participant. Results: Participant’s ages range was 10-37, while the mean age was 17. The range of participants duration of use per years was 1-10, while the mean was 3 years. Number of thelesion dose use per day was ranged between 1-10, while the mean was 5 years. The majority of participants (80%) showed no cellular change and 20 % showed chronic inflammation. Results showed that 31 of the study population were males (77.5%), while the female population of the study was 9 (22.5%). The mean of AgNoR score was ranged between 1-4, while the mean AgNOR score was 1. AgNoR showed insignificant association with gender, duration and number of thelesion dose used per day (p>0.05), but showed significant association with cytomorhpological and age (p<0.05). Conclusion: AgNoR score showed insignificant association with gender, duration and number of thelesion dose used per day (p>0.05), but showed significant association with cytomorhpological and age (p<0.05). Keywords: AgNoRs score, cytological changes, sputum, homeless thelison users
Phey Liana, Krisna Murti, Zen Hafy, Iche Andriyani Liberty,
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 6, pp 1-11;

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are immune components found in a variety of pathological states. It has been shown to have either beneficial or harmful implications, depending on how it is controlled and has been particularly observed in three major scenarios: infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. In this article, we compiled some of the roles of NETs in pathological conditions, as well as the benefits of targeting them for improved patient outcomes. The role of NETs were primarily positive in infectious disease, whether caused by bacteria, virus, or fungal infection. In non-infectious inflammatory scenarios, on the other hand, it's the complete opposite, with the effects being mainly deleterious and even worse than the original disease states. Targeting NETs directly or indirectly may help to prevent complications and improve patient outcomes. A plethora of compounds, including immunomodulators, anti-thrombosis, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, nuclease, and other compounds, may be used to accomplish the therapeutic goals.
Anthony Tjajaindra, Anna Karmila Sari, , Kris Herawan Timotius
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 115-20;

Background: Infusate of the whole plant of Physalis angulata is used traditionally for the remedy of various diseases including diabetes and gout. This study focused on the stem of P. angulata. The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential of the stem infusate (INPA) and ethanol extract (EEPA) of P. angulata as inhibitors of α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase.Materials and Methods: INPA and EEPA were determined for their α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities in vitro, whereas antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay. Reference inhibitors were used for comparison. The total phenolic compounds were also estimated.Results: EEPA had more concentrated phenolic than INPA which were 7.96 and 0.08 mgGAE/g dried biomass, respectively. INPA and EEPA inhibited α-glucosidase considerably, with IC50 of 149.11 and 409.86 µg/mL, respectively (acarbose was 130.66 µg/mL). However, they inhibited xanthine oxidase weakly, with IC50 of 0.546 and 2.643 mg/mL, respectively, compared with allopurinol 0.005 mg/mL. EEPA scavenged DPPH radicals very weakly (16.04 mg/mL) compared to BHT (0.021 mg/mL), whereas no activity was observed for INPA.Conclusion: The stem infusate and ethanol extract of P. angulata are able to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase, thus can be further explored for sources of bioactive compounds with α-glucosidase inhibition activity.Keywords: α-glucosidase, infusate, ethanol extract, Physalis angulata, stem, xanthine oxidase
Tubagus Djumhana Atmakusuma, Andhika Rachman, Ni Ken Ritchie
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 145-52;

Background: Evaluation and identification of HLA antibodies in the recipient’s serum is of utmost importance prior to transplantation and transfusion. HLA typing is a steppingstone in proposing a donor panel. In order to obtain the HLA typing, Polymerase Chain Reaction-Sequence Specific Primers (PCR-SSP) can be performed.Materials and method: This is a preliminary study to determine HLA polymorphism by HLA genotyping in 43 blood donors. DNA from the samples was isolated using commercial kits according to the standard protocol. The DNA then was amplified using PCR-SSP methods and analyzed using the provided set in the kit.Results: This study found that the most frequent HLA-A alleles was HLA-A*24 (41.9%). For HLA-B alleles, the most common was HLA-B*15 (28%). Most frequent HLA-A-B haplotypes was HLA-A*24-B*15 (11.3%). The results from this study concurs with that of previous study. However, some alleles might vary due to difference in study population. Determining HLA-typing is of paramount importance in an ethnically diverse country such as Indonesia. In contrast to homogenous caucassian country, difference in ethnicity might cause platelet refractoriness due to incompatibility. HLA-typing would also guide the diagnostic workup and required treatment strategy for platelet refractoriness.Conclusion: From the HLA typing using PCR-SSP in blood donors in Jakarta, we found that the most frequent alleles were HLA-A*24 and HLA-B*15; and the most frequent haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*15. This study should be upscaled to include larger population and ethnic groups to obtain complete profile of Indonesian population.Keywords: platelet refractoriness, HLA, donor, PCR-SSP, transfusion medicine
Dona Arlinda, Intan Sari Oktoberia, Muhammad Karyana
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences, Volume 5, pp 127-36;

Background: Insufficient plasma level of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) can select resistance and will further hinder malaria elimination program. We investigated clinical applicability of a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to quantify plasma concentration of DHA in healthy subjects from a single oral administration of fixed dose combination of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine.Materials and Methods: Micro-elution solid-phase extraction in a 96-well plate format was used to prepare the samples. DHA separation happened in Acquity UPLCTM BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm). Mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate 10 mM pH 3.5 (50:50, v/v) at 0.3 mL/minute flow rate. Waters Acquity UPLC™ H-Class system coupled with triple quadruple mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode was used for detection. The internal standard was a stable isotope labelled DHA.Results: Calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient >0.995 over a concentration range of 1–1,000 ng/mL. Bias and variation for accuracy and precision were in the range of 15% (20% at the lower limit of quantification). Using 5 µL sample, lower limit of quantification was 1 ng. Matrix effect was less than 15%. The method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of DHA from five healthy subjects, although carry over and the role of anticoagulants were not tested.Conclusion: The LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of plasma DHA was validated for selectivity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, matrix effect and stability. Although clinical applicability was demonstrated, this method was to be improved to address the not-tested validation parameters.Keywords: dihydroartemisinin, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay (LC-MS/MS), malaria, Indonesia
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