Indo. J. Chem. Res.

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2338-5359 / 2614-2627
Published by: Faculty of Law Pattimura University (10.30598)
Total articles ≅ 133
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Imanuel Berly Delvis Kapelle, Fensia Analda Souhoka, Ainun Maharani Walla
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 19-26; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-ima

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the yield and composition of the essential oil and ethanol extract of nutmeg leaves and determine its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. Nutmeg leaf oil was obtained by isolation using steam-water distillation and extraction methods using maceration with ethanol as solvent. The moisture content of nutmeg leaves is 11.11%. From the distillation method, 0.26% nutmeg oil was obtained, while the yield of nutmeg oil was 29.01% from the extraction method. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer analysis showed that distilled nutmeg oil contains 20 components with the main composition, namely myristicin (15.92%), b-phellandrene (14.35%), limonene (11.20%), b-pinene (10.81%), and a-pinene (8.59%). The ethanol extract of nutmeg leaf contains 37 components with the main composition being myristicin (7.64%), 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11,13,13-tetradecamethylheptasiloxane (7.14%), 2,2-dimethyl-1-decanol (7.12%), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (5.55%), and 9-dodecane-1-al (4.63%). The antibacterial activity test of nutmeg oil was carried out using the good diffusion method. The inhibitory power of nutmeg oil and ethanol extract of nutmeg leaves against S. aureus bacteria were 20.31 mm and 23.56 mm, while against P. aeruginosa bacteria were 11.79 mm and 8.86 mm, respectively.
Farrah Hanum Hanum, Aster Rahayu, Iqbal Hapsauqi
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-far

Abstract:
One of the environmental problems is the waste from the coal combustion process from coal power plants or other industries that use coal as an energy source. The combustion process produces coal fly ash, which will accumulate in the environment. Subsequently, much research about the utilization of coal fly ash has been developed. Silica extraction from coal fly ash is one of the methods that can be used to utilize coal fly ash. This study carried out silica extraction using the Direct Alkaline Leaching (DAL) method. The coal ash was contacted with alkaline solvents (KOH and NaOH) with the variations of concentrations and the leaching time. The leaching solution filtrate will be precipitated with the addition of HCl. The characteristics of this silica from CFA and CFA B were analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Based on the results, it could be known that each of the coal fly ashes has different results for both alkaline solvents. CFA A has relatively less silica extraction results in both types of solvents. Meanwhile, CFA B gave higher silica extraction results with coal fly ash and solvent contact time for one hour.
Vina Melinda Inka Dewi, Maya Rahmayanti
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 14-18; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-vin

Abstract:
Batik wastewater contains a high concentration of dye that comes from the batik dyeing process. In this study, papaya seeds were applied as a natural coagulant to reduce the concentration of remazol red in batik wastewater. Dried papaya seeds were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The coagulation method used the batch method in the pH range of 1-6. The FTIR spectra showed that the papaya seeds contained compounds with -NH2 and -COOH functional groups. The results of coagulation showed that the pH of batik wastewater had an effect on the ability of papaya seeds to reduce the concentration of remazol red. The optimum pH condition was obtained at pH 2 with a decrease in the concentration of remazol red by 96.1%. The interaction that occurs between the coagulant of papaya seeds and the remazol red of batik wastewater is through electrostatic interactions.
Said Zul Amraini, Sri Rezeki Muria, Bahruddin Bahruddin, Irdoni Hs, Ulfa Dwi Artha, Reno Susanto
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 47-52; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-sai

Abstract:
Biosurfactants are surfactants that are synthesized by microorganisms using organic materials and have biodegradable properties, making them environmentally friendly. One of the applications of biosurfactants in the recovery of petroleum. This study aims to determine the type of biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria using crude palm oil as the main carbon source, to determine the effect of variations in pH and CPO concentration on surface tension reduction and emulsification, and compare the best biosurfactant with surfactant synthesis. The production of biosurfactants has 3 stages, namely the bacterial preparation, the biosurfactant production, and the analysis in the form of surface tension, emulsification, crude oil removal, and FTIR. The best biosurfactant was obtained at pH 7 and a carbon source concentration of 3% v/v with surface tension and emulsification values ​​of 42.49 mN/m and 58%, respectively. The pH value and CPO concentration can affect the growth in the biosurfactant production process, thus also affecting the surface tension and emulsification values. The biosurfactants obtained were rhamnolipid biosurfactants. The biosurfactants produced in this study have lower crude oil recovery capabilities than synthetic surfactants with crude oil removal values ​​of 57.78% and 79.34%, respectively.
Ahmad Nurdin, Iriani Iriani, Hamidah Harahap, Aliyah Fahmi
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 8-13; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-ahm

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the yield of activated carbon, iodine number, and surface area of palm activated carbon. Samples were produced by using sodium chloride (NaCl) as an activator. Palm shells that had been produced by the milling process were then sieved with a 12 mesh sieve and soaked in 20 % NaCl solution. The sample solution was heated over a water bath at 70 oC and continued with the drying process at a constant temperature of 105 oC. The activated shells continued the pyrolysis process at temperatures of 300, 400, and 500 oC for 3 hours. The activated carbon obtained from the pyrolysis process was weighed and then washed using hot distilled water. The samples were dried in an oven at a temperature of 105 oC for 24 hours. The results were analyzed for iodine number using iodometric titration method, surface area using Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and pore structure using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) method. The results showed the best yield was 38.13 % obtained at 20% NaCl and a temperature of 400 oC. The best iodine number was 767.745 mg/g and surface area was 6.790 m2/g, pore volume 4.377 cc/g with pore size 9.781 A.
Marianus M. Kafelau, Aloisius Masan Kopon, Anselmus Boy Baunsele, Maria Benediktas Tukan, Maria Uron Leba, Faderina Komisia, Erly Grizca Boelan
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-boe

Abstract:
Traditionally in the village of Alor, East Nusa Tenggara Province, a combination of avocado and papaya leaves is often used to treat malaria. To be able to be developed as an ingredient in traditional medicine, it is necessary to conduct preliminary research to determine the content of secondary metabolites contained in the combination of avocado and papaya leaves. This study aims to determine the secondary metabolites contained in avocado and papaya leaves through phytochemical screening and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis. Extraction was carried out using methanol solvent by maceration, and the extract yield was 91.4%. Testing the content of secondary metabolites in avocado and papaya leaf extracts was carried out by phytochemical screening. Furthermore, the TLC test was carried out to confirm the presence of a positive group of compounds on phytochemical screening, and to determine the chromatographic profile of the extract. After being tested by phytochemical and TLC analysis, the extract contains several metabolites, including flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and steroids. The TLC system used in this study can separate the phytochemical content and give positive results that confirm the results of the phytochemical screening.
Jolantje Latupeirissa, Matheis F. J. D. P. Tanasale, Eirene Grace Fransina, Alesya Noya
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-lat

Abstract:
A study has been conducted aimed to synthesize chitosan-citrate using the ionic gelation method and its characterization with FTIR, SEM, SAA, and PSA, as well as solubility and swelling tests. The results showed that chitosan reacted with sodium citrate producing chitosan-citrate particles. The product of chitosan-citrate has a rough and thickened surface morphology. Surface area is obtained by 35.233 m2/g and pore size is 0.027 cc/g, smaller than chitosan. Based on solubility and swelling tests in acidic, alkaline, and neutral media, chitosan-citrate has good resistance and low swelling effect.
Ismail Marzuki, Irham Pratama Putra
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-ism

Abstract:
Plastic waste pollution in the marine environment triggers the formation of microplastics dissolved in seawater. Microplastics are one of the nutrients for plankton and phytoplankton. Through the food chain, microplastics can accumulate in the bodies of marine biota, until they finally reach the human body. The purpose of this research is to investigate and determine the microplastic group in fish in Makassar City KWB destinations. The method applied is maceration extraction using 70% C25OH for 3 days, then extracted with N-Hexane. The non-polar extracts identified the microplastic components using FTIR spectroscopy and analyzed the types of microplastics based on their absorption spectrum images. The results of the study were that all fish samples coded PS.B.1, PS.B.2, PS.B.3, were contaminated with secondary microplastics. Types of microplastics were identified, namely PP, PVC, PE, PS, PET and PC. The microplastic contaminants are thought to be the result of community activities. The public needs to be aware of the potential for microplastic accumulation in the bodies of marine fish that are consumed. Managers of Makassar City KWB destinations are advised to apply a pattern of supervision to the community to care about waste and educate the implementation of plastic waste recycling management
Nadya Nursidah Pratiwi Subroto, Fadhil Muhammad Tarmidzi, Ina Wati, Velia Mulya Armans
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 53-57; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-nad

Abstract:
A high level of lead in the sediment will cause contamination of aquatic biota. Lead pollutants in water may be treated by an easy and common adsorption process. A combination of both environmentally friendly and renewable materials, low methoxy pectin (LMP), and guar gum as adsorbents can reduce the need of activated carbon which requires high temperatures in its synthesis process. LMP was prepared from high methoxy pectin using a demethylation process under alkaline conditions. LMP and guar gum are diluted in 1 M calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent. The degree of esterification was carried out to determine the demethylation process. Adsorption of lead was carried out with a lead concentration of 165 ppm in acidic conditions for 24 hours. Lead concentration was measured using AAS. Results show that the optimal pH for demethylation was 12. The ratio of 1:2 pectin-guar gum produces the strong beads related to more O-H bonds in guar gum that can be developed. pectin-guar gum beads can adsorb 63% of lead at pH 6 due to the development of hydro-complex metal ions under more basic conditions.
Adewale Elijah Fadeyi, Oluremi Isola Adeniran, Saheed Olatunbosun Akiode
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 10, pp 58-67; https://doi.org/10.30598/ijcr.2022.10-ade

Abstract:
Plants play a crucial role in human well-being and health. They provide some of the essential nutrients that humans require as well as act as medications to alleviate and cure various health problems. The purpose of this study is to look into the nutritional value, mineral composition, and the overall contributions of Pterocarpus osun to human nutrition and health. The result of the proximate analysis showed that protein is 9.52% in stem bark and 13.63% in the leaf, while the crude fiber in the stem bark is 37.89% and 46.03%, in the leaf. Ash, 6.74% and 7.46% in the stem bark and leaf respectively while carbohydrate content is 15.37% (stem bark) and 3.26% (leaf). Alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and tannins were detected in both organs of the plant tested. The mineral elements present include Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mg, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Sulphur, and phosphorus. The antioxidant effect compared favorably well with that of the ascorbic acid used as standard. The extracts were screened for antimicrobial activities using eleven human pathogens. Each of the extracts successfully killed six microbes.
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