Indo. J. Chem. Res.
ISSN / EISSN : 2338-5359 / 2614-2627
Current Publisher: Faculty of Law Pattimura University (10.30598)
Total articles ≅ 93
Latest articles in this journal
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 85-92; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-dwp
This research aimed to study the synthesis of dimercaptoethyl adipate as raw materials for polyvinyl chloride thermal stabilizer from mercaptoethanol and adipic acid in a batch reactor in which water as a side product was removed by azeotropic evaporation. The study was done through comparative experimental tests where the factors studied included entrainer, mercaptoethanol excess, and reactor volume. It was found that the products obtained were liquid at room condition having clarity in the 95%-99% range, sulfhydryl content in the 23.3%-24.3% range, and yield in the 83.7%-92.1% range. Clarities, sulfhydryl contents, and yields at 20% and 40% mercaptoethanol excesses were not significantly different. At 1 L and 5 L reactor volumes, sulfhydryl contents were found to be significantly different but clarities and yields were not significantly different. Both n-hexane and cyclohexane could be used as entrainers to remove water in the synthesis of dimercaptoethyl adipate. Both entrainers gave clarities and yields that are not significantly different. n-hexane resulted in sulfhydryl content which was 0.77% higher than that of cyclohexane. However, bearing in mind health factors, cyclohexane is considered to be better than n-hexane.
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 137-143; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-hrm
Research on the use of the spray aeration method with adsorption of cocoa rind powder to reduce iron and manganese levels in dug well water has been carried out. This study aims to make comparisons from two methods to reduce iron and manganese in dug well water. The parameters optimized in this study are the aeration time and the variation of the addition of the adsorbent mass and the adsorption time. Based on the research results, the spray aeration time for 2 hours gave the optimal percentage reduction for Fe3+ and Mn4+ metal ions, namely 98.68% and 94.22%. Meanwhile, for adsorption using cocoa pod husk powder, the optimal reduction occurred in the adsorbent mass of 0.2 grams and the adsorption time of 60 minutes for iron and manganese 96.36% and 95.15%, respectively.
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 120-124; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-tri
The presence of mercury in crude oil creates problems in oil processing in refineries, both in terms of operations and health. The previous removal process of mercury has not yet optimally removed mercury in the product, due to ionic and metallic mercury species. In this study, to obtain optimum results, the process of removal of mercury begins with the process of converting ionic (non-metallic) mercury into metallic mercury thermally in the liquid phase, followed by the transfer of metallic mercury to the gas phase by instant evaporation (flashing) and reinforced by gas stripping using internal gas cone from the evaporation of an instant. The results of the optimization of the process carried out can eliminate mercury with an efficiency of more than 95%.
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 144-150; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-dwi
Pentingnya mengetahui kandungan logam nikel (Ni) dalam air laut dan persebarannya disekitaran Teluk Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara karena kebolehjadian terjadinya pencemaran limbah domestik dan akumulasi sedimentasi di badan perairan yang terbawa melalui aliran sungai dan drainase perkotaan. Penelitian ini menyajikan beberapa korelasi antara aktivitas keramaian masyarakat dengan tingkat kandungan logam Ni disekitaran Teluk Kendari yang dianalisis menggunakan instrumentasi spektroskopi serapan atom (SSA). Penentuan 5 titik lokasi berbeda dipilih berdasarkan banyaknya kegiatan aktivitas masyarakat. Selanjutnya, sampel diambil masing-masing sebanyak 1 Liter sejauh ±100 m dari garis pantai yang selanjutnya dianalisis menggunakan instrument SSA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adanya hubungan aktivitas keramaian kegiatan masyarakat terhadap tingginya kandungan logam Ni yang terakumulasi dalam air laut Teluk Kendari. Kandungan logam Ni yang diperoleh bervariasi berturut-turut T1< T4< T3< T2> T5 yaitu 0,047; 0,052; 0,063; 0,068; 0,073. Berdasarkan baku mutu, standar kandungan Ni dalam air laut sebesar 0,05 mg/L, sehingga pada T2, T3, T4, dan T5 dinyatakan telah melebihi ambang batas. Hal ini disebabkan lokasi tersebut maraknya aktivitas masyarakat sehingga kebolehjadian nilai logam Ni juga meningkat. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi terkini terkait wilayah pencemaran lingkungan akibat akumulasi logam berat dan juga bagi masyarakat agar tidak mengkonsumsi ikan yang diperoleh dari Teluk Kendari.
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 151-159; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-ydn
Waste from the textile industry is considered as a potential source of environmental pollution, especially water because it contains dangerous dyes. In this research, natural zeolite is used as an effective and efficient alternative adsorbent to overcome pollution caused by methylene blue and methyl orange dyes. Activation of natural zeolite was carried out with 3 M HCl solution and was characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). While the methylene blue and methyl orange adsorption processes were studied in variations in the weight of the adsorbent, contact time, and pH. The concentration of dyes left in the solution was observed with Spectrophotometer UV-Vis. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of natural zeolite in absorbing methylene blue was 21.189 mg/g and and methyl orange was 18.208 mg/g. The optimum conditions of methylene blue and methyl orange adsorption are achieved with successive adsorbent weights 0.3 g and 0,4 g, successive contact times are 60 minutes and 90 minutes, and successive pH are 6 and 2 respectively. The adsorbent weight factor, contact time, and pH have an effect on the adsorption of methylene blue and methyl orange by natural zeolite from Ende.
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 108-113; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-fas
This research aims to isolate oil from patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth) and identify the chemical components of patchouli oil using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Patchouli plant samples were obtained from Welulu Village, Kolaka Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province. Fresh patchouli leaves are dried in the sun for four days to a constant weight. Patchouli leaves water content is 77.41% (w/w). Dry patchouli leaves are distilled using the water and steam method for two hours. Water and oil distillates are separated using a separating funnel. Patchouli oil obtained was dried using Na2SO4 anhydrous and yield 0.73% (w/w). The results of GC-MS analysis showed that patchouli oil contained 13 chemical components compounds, namely β-patchoulene (4.56%), cedr-8-ene (1.24%), trans-caryophyllene (7.96%), α-guaiene (18.61%), seychellene (5.70%), patchoulene (2.88%), eremophilene (1.33%), azulene (8.74%), delta-guaiene (18.90%), cyclohexanone (1.10%), globulol (1.88%), veridiflorol (4.39%), and alcohol patchouli (22.7%).
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 114-119; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-dgr
The Shorea sumatrana (tengkawang) plant is endemic to Indonesia, especially in Kalimantan and Sumatera regions, which produces chemical diversity especially as a natural drugs. Specific aims to investigate both the profile analysis of fatty acid and antibacterial potential of tengkawang oil. The extract of tengkawang oil was carried out using the soxhlet extraction method. The profile analysis of fatty acid was verified by GC-MS and the antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc-diffusion method. The profile analysis of fatty acid of tengkawang oil indicated the presence of palmitic acid (17.26%), stearic acid (60.68%), oleic acid (11.98%), oleic acid chloride (1.80%), stearic acid chloride (1.86%), glycidyl stearate (1.92%), diethyl phthalate (4%), and 2-monopalmitin (0.5%). We determined the antibacterial activity by the diameter of inhibition of growth zone against Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus at a concentration of 12.5%, 25%, 50%. These were compared with standard tetracycline as positive control and DMSO was assigned negative control. It was found that the highest percentage of fatty acid in tengkawang oil is stearic acid, at 60.68%, and that tengkawang oil is an antibacterial agent with a concentration optimum at 25% with more susceptibility to Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria.
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 93-100; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-ywb
The performance of a reverse flow reactor (RFR) is strongly influenced by the switching time used to alternate the flow direction. This research aimed to study the effect of the switching time on reactor dynamics including the heat propagation along the bed and reaction rate in the oxidation methane for low concentration using catalytic reverse flow reactor. The experimental results show that the reverse flow operating mode can influence heat propagation along the reactor and reaction conversion. Based on the three switching times was tested, the temperature dynamics formed were in the sliding regime. The effect of switching time on RFR on conversion is very significant. When compared to steady operation, RFR operation provides the highest conversion at smaller switching times. At large switching times, the effect of reversal of flow direction becomes less dominant and reactor behavior approaches steady state.
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 160-167; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-frf
Gold reserves on Gunung Botak (Bald Mountain), Buru Island, were discovered in 2011. Since then, thousands of illegal miners have used amalgamation methods to extract gold in the areas of Gunung Botak and Gogrea, Buru Island. The resulting waste is disposed of into the environment directly without any treatment process so it is very dangerous for humans and the environment. This research was conducted to determine the ability of the Enhalus acoroides type of seagrass to accumulate heavy metal mercury (Hg) in the aquatic environment. This research shows that the heavy metal mercury has been distributed in the water sediments along Kayeli Bay. Mercury bio-concentration (accumulation) Gunung Botak, Kayeli Bay, Mercury (Hg), bioconcenstration, Seagrass, Enhalus acoroides, Kayeli Baywas found in Enhalus acoroides seagrass, in leaves (0.0243-0.0373 mg/Kg), and in rhizomes (0.0453-0.0663 mg/Kg). This result shows that the Kayeli Bay ecosystem has been contaminated with mercury.
Indo. J. Chem. Res., Volume 8, pp 125-136; doi:10.30598//ijcr.2020.8-sra
Adsorption-desorption studies of phosphate on CTAB modified bentonite have been investigated. The results were characterized by FT-IR spectrometer to determine the functional groups in bentonite and X-ray diffractometer to determine the type of minerals in the bentonite. Adsorption was conducted by shaking 10 mg adsorbent in 5 mL adsorbate solution at the optimum condition of pH, contact time, and concentration. Furthermore, desorption studies were conducted on 5 mL medium of both water and citric acid 0.33 M and using 6.5 mg of adsorbent which has adsorbed phosphate. The results showed that the bentonite has been successfully modified with CTAB. The adsorption capacity of phosphate is 0.028 mmol g-1. Desorption studies showed that the solubility percentage of phosphate anion in citric acid was 0.33 M (73.33%) greater than in water (57.81%) which is a requirement for the use of slow-release fertilizers (SRF).