Journal of Geological Research
EISSN : 2630-4961
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 53
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3540
Aeromagnetic data are consistently used for economic interest targeting and geological mapping. Besides solving problems that are concerned with the basement, the method has become a useful tool in exploring minerals,hydrocarbons occurrence,groundwater investigations, and geothermal potentials. This study analyses aeromagnetic data from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency acquired at 100 m terrain clearance over a section of Gwagwalada in Abuja. The study area spans longitudes 7.0875° E to 7.1458° E and latitude 8.9625° N to 9.0° N (about 27 km2 ). After a reduction to the equator (RTE) transformation, the data is downward continued by 50 m. Different filters are applied to outline area of alteration associated to mineral deposit. Regional geologic structures trend NE - SW.The application of vertical derivatives (FVD and SVD) to the RTE grid enhanced shallow structures which trend NE - SW. Horizontal gradients along the X- and Y- directions enhance geological contacts attributable to blind faults. The Tilt derivative (TD) accentuated fault lines which trend NE - SW.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3596
Geology, the science of earth – rocks, minerals, soils, and water within atmosphere and lithosphere encompasses a number of geological phenomena evolved over the geological time.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3146
The need to accurately interpret geological models that approximate mineralized zones in a Basement Complex terrain necessitate the development of horizon loop electromagnetic method (HLEM) forward modeling solutions for such scenarios. The focus of the present work is on finding rapid forward modeling solutions for synthetic HLEM data as an aid in exploration for moderate to deep conductive mineral exploration targets.The main thrust is obtaining idealized HLEM models that are required for geological interpretation of the subsurface in such environment. The original HLEM equations developed by Wesley were extended to represent a horizontally stratified earth with a conductive approximated by shear zone. From these equations a computer program was written to calculate the HLEM responses for optimal conductor model with known values of coil separations (L), depth of burial (z) and angle of dip of the target.The thin conductive model was used because it is simple and suitable for different geological scenarios. The accuracy of the approximate forward solution has been confirmed for HLEM systems with various geometric ranges, frequencies and conductivities. Three models having varying overburden thickness, dip angle of target and source-receiver separation were used in the forward modeling. The effect of varying the dip angle,overburden thickness and coil separation was studied in all the three models used. The result obtained from the forward modeling showed that variation of the dip angle gave rise to changes in the amplitudes of the anomalies generated, while that of overburden and coil separation gave rise to changes in anomaly shape. Also, the geometry and position of the causative body were precisely delineated.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3197
Integration of geophysical and hydrogeochemical methods has been scientifically proven to be useful in vulnerability study and groundwater characterization. Subsurface geoelectric parameters such as resistivity and thickness obtained from geophysical method (Vertical Electrical Sounding VES) was used to determine aquifers vulnerability, longitudinal resistance (ρL) and transverse unit resistance (Rt). Thirty four water samples were collected from groundwater sources for physicochemical analysis.Estimated results from longitudinal conductance (S), (Rt) and (ρL) showed that the values ranges from 0.03 to 2.5mhos, 103.64 to 1964417.8 Ω/m2 and 215.41 to 65731.68 Ω-m respectively. Result from S suggested that 50 % of groundwater is considered to be vulnerable to contamination from the earth surface, while the remaining 50 % is considered to be slightly vulnerable to surface contamination. Further findings obtained from hydrogeochemical analysis such as Gibb’s and Chadba plots revealed that groundwater is highly influenced by rock water interaction,groundwater is classified to be Na+ + HCO3¯, Ca2+ + Mg2++ HCO3¯ , Na+ + Cl¯ and Ca2+ + Mg2+ + Cl¯ water type. Deduction from Soltan classification suggested that groundwater is classified to be of Na+ ˗ HCO3¯ and Na+ ˗ SO4 2¯ water type. Results obtained from Ec and pH suggested that the values were below WHO permissible limit, while result obtained from TDS showed that at some sampling points TDS values were above WHO limit. Based on pH value obtained groundwater within the study area fell within slightly basic to acidic.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2902
Flooding of Municipal areas is a frequent environmental occurrence in Rivers State that occurs when rainfall runoff meets land surfaces with low water absorbing capacity or when it overwhelms drainage channels. In order to assess the flood situation in the study area, an integrated method which involves Field-measurement, Geographic information system (GIS), Laboratory analysis of soil samples and topographic studies were employed. Digital Elevation Model of the study area reveals that the flooded areas are situated in areas with elevations lower than its surrounding, thereby acting as a natural basin to retain flood waters after rainfall. Four holes were drilled to depth of 3m to obtain soil samples at 1 m sampling interval, from which laboratory analysis was carried out to determine some geotechnical parameters such as soil’s particle size, specific gravity, bulk density, porosity, moisture content, permeability and hydraulic conductivity. Results from the analysis show that permeability, hydraulic conductivity and porosity diminishes with respect to depth. The soil in the flooded areas have high fines content (silt and clay), high bulk density which increase with depth and a specific gravity that is typical of organic rich soils that contain sand mixed with a considerable amount of fines. At Nkpolu, mean permeability rates of 0.003cm/sec, 0.009cm/sec and 0.033cm/sec were obtained at 1, 2 and 3m respectively. At Eneka, mean permeability rates of 0.011cm/sec, 0.018cm/sec and 0.014cm/sec were obtained at 1, 2 and 3m respectively, while at Rukpokwu, mean Permeability rates of 0.021cm/sec was obtained at 1m, while 0.006cm/sec was obtained at 2 and 3m respectively. The Mean hydraulic conductivity for the locations under study is of the order of 10-4ft/day. This study has shown that the flooded areas are located in low lying urban areas which act as basins, therefore, the top soil is crusted with highly compacted soil horizons beneath. With high and frequent rainfall in the region which generates a lot of runoff, in addition to poor drainage system, flooding of the study area occurs frequently. Therefore, construction and maintenance of efficient drainage channels for an effective solution to urban pluvial flooding in the study area are thereby recommended.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2964
Clay samples from selected part of Edda were analyzed to identify the clay mineral types present, their chemical and physical properties with a view to appraising their industrial suitability as ceramic materials. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses were done using the principles of X-Ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence respectively. A total of seven clay samples were used for the study, other tests such as plasticity, bulk density, shrinkage, loss on ignition (LOI) and water absorption capacity was carried out to determine the amount of water absorbed under specified conditions. The basic industrial properties assessment showed that more than 70% of the clays are fine-grained. The clays exhibited low to moderate plasticity, moderate shrinkage and bulk density, low to moderate values of both loss on ignition and water absorption capacity. The clays are buff to yellowish in colour. The results of x-ray fluorescence revealed that the mean concentration of major oxide in the clays is shown as follows: SiO2 (62.78%), Al2O3 (20.25%), total Fe (6.09%), CaO (0.56%), MgO (3.21%), Na2O (0.47%), K2O, (1.44%) and TiO2 (0.52%). The samples have high silica content, low alumina and low oxide content. The results of x-ray diffraction revealed that kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral with illite and montmorillonite occurring in subordinate amounts, while quartz and feldspar are the non-clay components present. The characteristics of the clays for each parameter were compared with industrial standards. These properties are appropriate for the Afikpo clays to be useful in the manufacturing of ceramics. However, since the silica content of the clays is high further beneficiation is recommended.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2935
In this study, methods based on the distribution model (with and without personal opinion) were used for the separation of anomalous zones, which include two different methods of U-spatial statistics and mean plus values of standard deviation (). The primary purpose is to compare the results of these methods with each other. To increase the accuracy of comparison, regional geochemical data were used where occurrences and mineralization zones of epithermal gold have been introduced. The study area is part of the Hashtjin geological map, which is structurally part of the folded and thrust belt and part of the Alborz Tertiary magmatic complex. Samples were taken from secondary lithogeochemical environments. Au element data concerning epithermal gold reserves were used to investigate the efficacy of these two methods. In the U- spatial statistics method, and criteria were used to determine the threshold, and in the method, the element enrichment index of the region rock units was obtained with grouping these units. The anomalous areas were identified by, and criteria. Comparison of methods was made considering the position of discovered occurrences and the occurrences obtained from these methods, the flexibility of the methods in separating the anomalous zones, and the two-dimensional spatial correlation of the three elements As, Pb, and Ag with Au element. The ability of two methods to identify potential areas is acceptable. Among these methods, it seems the method with criteria has a high degree of flexibility in separating anomalous regions in the case of epithermal type gold deposits.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2831
Chemical whole-rock major oxides and some trace element analyses were done on granitic gneiss rocks located on the southeastern margin of western Nigeria Basement Complex, exposed in parts of Dagbala-Atte District, southwestern Nigeria. This was meant to classify the rocks and to understand the tectonic setting in order to evaluate their crustal evolution. The chemical analyses were done using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer. From the results obtained, these rocks classified into calc-alkaline to shoshonite series with metaluminous to peraluminous varieties, they are I-type granitoids of feroan composition. The granitic gneisses formed from metamorphism of granite and granodiorite. Tectonically, most of the rock samples plotted in the field of island arc, continental arc and continental-collisional granitoids, which indicated that the protolith granite and granodiorite are orogenic and are arc related inferring arc tectonic setting.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.3018
With the advancement of science and technology, humans endeavored to build massive structures, both on and sub – surface taking the advantage of physico-mechanical properties of the construction materials like concrete, steel, wood, rock, etc. Quality is the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind. The term itself is subjective until and unless quantified, can’t be controlled. Instrumentation plays a major role to quantify the quality of materials and check if the resources meet the requirements of the structural design. Several types of instruments are developed and used world-wide in different structures to monitor water pressure, seepage, movements, vibration, temperature, stress, strain and other significant parameters. The role of instrumentation specialist lies in understanding the dominating phenomena in the planned structure, designing the instrumentation network, monitoring schedules and timely analysis for cautioning the engineers, designers, quality personnel and the project management to have a check on construction measures vis-à-vis structural performance.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i1.2520
Regularities of rank distributions and binary relations between nine parameters are given. The most active are the geographical coordinates of 48 test sites. This proves that the geomorphology of the steppes in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia is becoming decisive. Factor analysis showed that the first four places for influencing variables and dependent indicators are the same: in the first place is the northern latitude, the second is the east longitude, the third is the average annual precipitation, and the fourth is the intensity of sheep grazing. The rest of the factors are located in different ways. The density of organic carbon was only in ninth place as an influencing variable, and in seventh place as a dependent indicator. This is based on the fact that organic carbon is an accumulative (cumulative) parameter over many years. The productivity of the biomass of steppe grass as an influencing variable is in sixth place, and as a dependent indicator (criterion) only in ninth place. This parameter is seasonal, therefore, in comparison with organic carbon, it is highly dynamic. The average annual temperature as an influencing variable is in fifth place, but as a dependent indicator only in eighth place. This was influenced by the strong averaging of the parameter (average value for the year). Plants are strongly influenced by the temperature dynamics during the growing season, and even more by the sum of temperatures during the growing season. With the productivity of steppe grass less than 75 g / m2, the intensity of sheep grazing is zero. According to the second term of the trend, an optimum of 270 g / m2 appears with the maximum intensity of sheep grazing on average 65 pcs / km2. The first fluctuation shows that with an increase in grass biomass, there is a loss of stability of the grass cover with an exponential growth of the amplitude. The second oscillation is dangerous in that with an increase in the biomass of the grass, the half-period of the oscillation sharply decreases and this will also lead to the collapse of the steppe grass. From the remnants of the effect of sheep grazing on grass biomass, it can be seen that there are three clusters: 1) from 0 to 30; 2) from 30 to 95; 3) more than 95 pcs / km2. In this case, the variability of the productivity of the grass decreases.