Journal of Geological Research
EISSN : 2630-4961
Current Publisher: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 51
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2831
Chemical whole-rock major oxides and some trace element analyses were done on granitic gneiss rocks located on the southeastern margin of western Nigeria Basement Complex, exposed in parts of Dagbala-Atte District, southwestern Nigeria. This was meant to classify the rocks and to understand the tectonic setting in order to evaluate their crustal evolution. The chemical analyses were done using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer. From the results obtained, these rocks classified into calc-alkaline to shoshonite series with metaluminous to peraluminous varieties, they are I-type granitoids of feroan composition. The granitic gneisses formed from metamorphism of granite and granodiorite. Tectonically, most of the rock samples plotted in the field of island arc, continental arc and continental-collisional granitoids, which indicated that the protolith granite and granodiorite are orogenic and are arc related inferring arc tectonic setting.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i2.3018
With the advancement of science and technology, humans endeavored to build massive structures, both on and sub – surface taking the advantage of physico-mechanical properties of the construction materials like concrete, steel, wood, rock, etc. Quality is the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind. The term itself is subjective until and unless quantified, can’t be controlled. Instrumentation plays a major role to quantify the quality of materials and check if the resources meet the requirements of the structural design. Several types of instruments are developed and used world-wide in different structures to monitor water pressure, seepage, movements, vibration, temperature, stress, strain and other significant parameters. The role of instrumentation specialist lies in understanding the dominating phenomena in the planned structure, designing the instrumentation network, monitoring schedules and timely analysis for cautioning the engineers, designers, quality personnel and the project management to have a check on construction measures vis-à-vis structural performance.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2902
Flooding of Municipal areas is a frequent environmental occurrence in Rivers State that occurs when rainfall runoff meets land surfaces with low water absorbing capacity or when it overwhelms drainage channels. In order to assess the flood situation in the study area, an integrated method which involves Field-measurement, Geographic information system (GIS), Laboratory analysis of soil samples and topographic studies were employed. Digital Elevation Model of the study area reveals that the flooded areas are situated in areas with elevations lower than its surrounding, thereby acting as a natural basin to retain flood waters after rainfall. Four holes were drilled to depth of 3m to obtain soil samples at 1 m sampling interval, from which laboratory analysis was carried out to determine some geotechnical parameters such as soil’s particle size, specific gravity, bulk density, porosity, moisture content, permeability and hydraulic conductivity. Results from the analysis show that permeability, hydraulic conductivity and porosity diminishes with respect to depth. The soil in the flooded areas have high fines content (silt and clay), high bulk density which increase with depth and a specific gravity that is typical of organic rich soils that contain sand mixed with a considerable amount of fines. At Nkpolu, mean permeability rates of 0.003cm/sec, 0.009cm/sec and 0.033cm/sec were obtained at 1, 2 and 3m respectively. At Eneka, mean permeability rates of 0.011cm/sec, 0.018cm/sec and 0.014cm/sec were obtained at 1, 2 and 3m respectively, while at Rukpokwu, mean Permeability rates of 0.021cm/sec was obtained at 1m, while 0.006cm/sec was obtained at 2 and 3m respectively. The Mean hydraulic conductivity for the locations under study is of the order of 10-4ft/day. This study has shown that the flooded areas are located in low lying urban areas which act as basins, therefore, the top soil is crusted with highly compacted soil horizons beneath. With high and frequent rainfall in the region which generates a lot of runoff, in addition to poor drainage system, flooding of the study area occurs frequently. Therefore, construction and maintenance of efficient drainage channels for an effective solution to urban pluvial flooding in the study area are thereby recommended.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2964
Clay samples from selected part of Edda were analyzed to identify the clay mineral types present, their chemical and physical properties with a view to appraising their industrial suitability as ceramic materials. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses were done using the principles of X-Ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence respectively. A total of seven clay samples were used for the study, other tests such as plasticity, bulk density, shrinkage, loss on ignition (LOI) and water absorption capacity was carried out to determine the amount of water absorbed under specified conditions. The basic industrial properties assessment showed that more than 70% of the clays are fine-grained. The clays exhibited low to moderate plasticity, moderate shrinkage and bulk density, low to moderate values of both loss on ignition and water absorption capacity. The clays are buff to yellowish in colour. The results of x-ray fluorescence revealed that the mean concentration of major oxide in the clays is shown as follows: SiO2 (62.78%), Al2O3 (20.25%), total Fe (6.09%), CaO (0.56%), MgO (3.21%), Na2O (0.47%), K2O, (1.44%) and TiO2 (0.52%). The samples have high silica content, low alumina and low oxide content. The results of x-ray diffraction revealed that kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral with illite and montmorillonite occurring in subordinate amounts, while quartz and feldspar are the non-clay components present. The characteristics of the clays for each parameter were compared with industrial standards. These properties are appropriate for the Afikpo clays to be useful in the manufacturing of ceramics. However, since the silica content of the clays is high further beneficiation is recommended.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2935
In this study, methods based on the distribution model (with and without personal opinion) were used for the separation of anomalous zones, which include two different methods of U-spatial statistics and mean plus values of standard deviation (). The primary purpose is to compare the results of these methods with each other. To increase the accuracy of comparison, regional geochemical data were used where occurrences and mineralization zones of epithermal gold have been introduced. The study area is part of the Hashtjin geological map, which is structurally part of the folded and thrust belt and part of the Alborz Tertiary magmatic complex. Samples were taken from secondary lithogeochemical environments. Au element data concerning epithermal gold reserves were used to investigate the efficacy of these two methods. In the U- spatial statistics method, and criteria were used to determine the threshold, and in the method, the element enrichment index of the region rock units was obtained with grouping these units. The anomalous areas were identified by, and criteria. Comparison of methods was made considering the position of discovered occurrences and the occurrences obtained from these methods, the flexibility of the methods in separating the anomalous zones, and the two-dimensional spatial correlation of the three elements As, Pb, and Ag with Au element. The ability of two methods to identify potential areas is acceptable. Among these methods, it seems the method with criteria has a high degree of flexibility in separating anomalous regions in the case of epithermal type gold deposits.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i1.2387
Hydrochemical studies was carried out within two geological groups of the Albian to Turonian in age to evaluate factors that influences hydrochemistry of groundwater. To achieve this, 30 groundwater samples were collected. Parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (Ec), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na2+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3¯, NO3¯, Cl¯, CO23¯ and SO42¯) of groundwater were determined. Findings revealed that pH value for Asu River Group ranges from 5.3 to 7.5, and that of Eze Aku Group ranges from 4.1 to 7.9. It was observed that areas around the mines had low pH value. Analyzed results that was obtained were interpreted using various hydrogeochemical models. Parson plots showed that groundwater within the two geological groups fell within Ca˗Mg˗SO4 and Ca˗Mg˗Cl. Results from End˗member plots revealed that 96 % groundwater samples analyzed were categorize under carbonate weathering, 4 % fell under silicate weathering. Deductions from Gibbs revealed that interactions between groundwater and surrounding host rocks is the major processes responsible for chemical characteristics of groundwater, Diamond field plots further suggested that groundwater from the two geological group were categorized to be high in Ca + Mg & SO4 + Cl, plot of Ca2+/(HCO3¯ + SO42¯) against Na+/Cl¯ revealed that groundwater were considered to be within natural state for the two group. Plot of TDS against TH showed that groundwater was classified to be soft fresh water. The study revealed there was no significant difference between factors that influences groundwater within the two geological group.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i1.2805
The quality of any hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir is vital for a successful exploitation work.. The reservoir quality is a function of its petrophysical parameters. Hence the need to model these properties geostatistically in order to determine the quality away from well locations.Composite logs for four wells and 3-D seismic data were used for the analysis. A reservoir named Sand X was mapped and correlated across wells 1 through 4. The four reservoir quality indicators - Effective porosity, permeability, volume of shale and net-to-gross- were estimated and modelled across the field. Sequential Gaussian simulation algorithm was employed to distribute these properties stochastically away from well locations and five realizations were generated. The volume of shale varied from 0.025 (Well 1, second realization) to 0.18(Well 2, first realization). The net-to-gross varied from 0.81 to 0.96 in wells 3 and 4 respectively, for the third realization, while the effective porosity varied from 0.125 to 0.295 for the fifth realization in Wells 3 and 4 respectively. The permeability is above 5000mD at all the existing well locations.These realizations were ranked using Lp norm statistical tool to pick the best for further evaluation. The reservoir quality deduced from the analyzed indicators was favourably high across the reservoir.The application of geostatistics has laterally enhanced the log data resolution away from established well locations.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i1.2814
This paper presents the results of petrographic study of sedimentary iron ore from surface strata of the Shendi -Atbara Basin, River Nile State, Sudan. The aims of this study are to investigate the geological behavior and geological conditions affecting precipitation of sedimentary iron ore. The methodologies have been used to realize the objectives of this study included; field work, office work and labrotary work include thin sections and polished sections analysis. According to field observation sedimentary iron ore can broadly be considered as occurring in three major classes: Ferribands iron, ferricrete iron and oolitic iron ores. The modes of occurrence of iron ore was described at the outcrops and vertical sedimentary profiles revealed that the iron occurred in study area at different types in stratigraphic sequence such as cap, beded and interbeded conformable with Shendi Formation. Petrographic study of iron ore in collected samples using polarized microscope and ore microscope includes study of the textures and structures of ores to obtain ore history. The main types of textures and structures in studied samples are oolitic, granular, lamellar and bands. According to these results the origin of iron ore is formed by chemical precipitation during chemical weathering of surrounding areas in continental lacustrine environment. The iron ore in study area is potential for future mining works and steals industry.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i1.2809
A priori geologic and geophysical information has been used to construct conceptual VLF experiments on conductively and inductively coupled overburden geological models of the lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) mineralization zone found in southeastern Nigeria. This is based on the finite element approach to (1) simulate different geologic situations of overburden occurrence, (2) examine the roles played by overburden in modifying and masking VLF responses of a buried conductor target, and (3) confirm the effectiveness of VLF method in mapping lead-zinc lodes found in sedimentary terrains. The computed theoretical model curves and field examples are expected to serve as guide for VLF anomaly pattern recognition due to overburden thickness, resistivity and width of conductor in similar terrain as the study area.
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jgr.v3i1.2520
Regularities of rank distributions and binary relations between nine parameters are given. The most active are the geographical coordinates of 48 test sites. This proves that the geomorphology of the steppes in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia is becoming decisive. Factor analysis showed that the first four places for influencing variables and dependent indicators are the same: in the first place is the northern latitude, the second is the east longitude, the third is the average annual precipitation, and the fourth is the intensity of sheep grazing. The rest of the factors are located in different ways. The density of organic carbon was only in ninth place as an influencing variable, and in seventh place as a dependent indicator. This is based on the fact that organic carbon is an accumulative (cumulative) parameter over many years. The productivity of the biomass of steppe grass as an influencing variable is in sixth place, and as a dependent indicator (criterion) only in ninth place. This parameter is seasonal, therefore, in comparison with organic carbon, it is highly dynamic. The average annual temperature as an influencing variable is in fifth place, but as a dependent indicator only in eighth place. This was influenced by the strong averaging of the parameter (average value for the year). Plants are strongly influenced by the temperature dynamics during the growing season, and even more by the sum of temperatures during the growing season. With the productivity of steppe grass less than 75 g / m2, the intensity of sheep grazing is zero. According to the second term of the trend, an optimum of 270 g / m2 appears with the maximum intensity of sheep grazing on average 65 pcs / km2. The first fluctuation shows that with an increase in grass biomass, there is a loss of stability of the grass cover with an exponential growth of the amplitude. The second oscillation is dangerous in that with an increase in the biomass of the grass, the half-period of the oscillation sharply decreases and this will also lead to the collapse of the steppe grass. From the remnants of the effect of sheep grazing on grass biomass, it can be seen that there are three clusters: 1) from 0 to 30; 2) from 30 to 95; 3) more than 95 pcs / km2. In this case, the variability of the productivity of the grass decreases.