Journal of Geological Research

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EISSN : 2630-4961
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 59
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Hafizullah Rasouli, Roya Quraishi, Kaltoum Belhassan
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i4.3574

Abstract:
This sedimentary is from a largest basin of Afghanistan, which covers an area of 9772 km2. It is located about 80 km, at west side of Kabul. In this research, we studied different types of heavy and light minerals, gravel analysis in river sediments. Logar River is core stream flowing over basin,it carries diverse masses of sediments from dissimilar parts of surroding montians. Further, in the months of summer while snowmelting is started,transfer diverse materials and cause different traces to be made. Area of basin is enclosed by mountain range and separated into two sections,majore part is Khawat Olya and second one is Khawat Sufla. The main aim of study is to characterize different sizes and types of minerals in river load for the previous geological periods. This research is therefore essential to explain different sizes and type of minerals in river sediments, which is no any study has been conducted in the study area. This study found out that the category of sediments is related to the parental materials that are placed in the close mountains such as; gneiss, limestone, and granite, dissimilar varities of conglomerate, slate, schist, reefs, conglomerate and sandston.
, Agung Harijoko, Lucas Donny Setijadji
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i4.3605

Abstract:
The Kyaukmyet prospect lies approximately 5 km ENE of the highsulfidation Kyisintaung copper-gold deposit, Monywa district, central Myanmar. Geologically, the research area is remarked by magmatic extrusion that occurred during the Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene of Magyigon Formation which led to the outcrops of volcanic rocks. Study detailed on petrographical and geochemical of the Kyaukmyet volcanic rocks has not been performed before the present work. The principal aim of this paper is to document the petrographical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic suite rocks exposed in the Kyaukmyet prospect. The results of this data have provided insight into the origin of the rocks and petrogenetic processes during evolution. Petrographically, all the studied volcanic rocks in the research area show that trachytic and porphyritic textures with phenocrysts of quartz, plagioclase, and K-feldspar which are embedded in a fine to medium grained groundmass. The accessory minerals of this rock consist of biotite, chlorite and opaque mineral.Geochemically, these volcanic rocks having calc-alkaline nature and classified as volcanic field (rhyolite) as well as volcanic arc setting. Based on the chondrite normalized spider diagram, LREE has enriched to HREE in this area which indicated negative Eu anomaly and subduction tectonic setting.
Priscillia Egbelehulu, Abu Mallam, Abel. U. Osagie
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i4.3581

Abstract:
This study analyzes aeromagnetic data over a section of Gwagwalada in Abuja. The data were obtained from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency acquired at 100 m terrain clearance. The study area spans longitudes 7.0875 E to 7.1458 E and latitude 8.9625 N to 9.0 N (about 27 km2). The dataset was reduced to the equator (RTE) and downward continued by 50 m. Analytic signal filter was applied on TMI-RTE grid to detect the edges of the magnetic bodies present. The structure was observed to trend NE-SW. The CET lineament map reveals intersections such as junctions and corners on the map. This revealed structure liable for potential mineralization zone. Euler deconvolution technique applied over the transformed dataset ascertain the location and depth of the structure,having a maximum depth of about 421 m and a minimum of about 59 m.Variation in magnetic depth and susceptibility contrast is specified by the gridded SPI depth map.
S. Kekelia, Nona Gagnidze, I. Mshvenieradze, G. Kharazishvili
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i4.3572

Abstract:
The paper presents brief characteristics of geological environments of ore deposit occurrences in Turkey, Georgia and Armenia. They can be attributed to Kuroko-type deposits, being distinguished by the character of ore accumulation. To the west, in Turkey, there are epigenetic and hydrothermal-sedimentary copper-zinc deposits that were formed in deep restricted basinal settings. An example of the latter is the Chayeli deposit.To the east, in the Caucasus, we have predominantly only epigenetic deposits. Besides, in the Bolnisi mining district (Georgia) there is the Madneuli deposit which represents an example of polyformational deposit. Here, within the restricted territory, have been concentrated:barite, barite-polymetallic, gold-bearing secondary quartzite, large-scale stockworks of copper ores. Judged by the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, some volcanites which are spatially associated with ores, might have been products of the “differentiation” of undepleted mantle, or other magmas that were generated in the lower part of the earth crust.In the Alaverdi ore district in Armenia, there are Jurassic volcanodepressions that host copper, copper-zinc and barite-sulfide ores. All the deposits of the Alaverdi district, porphyry copper including, contain economic reserves of ores.On the basis of available literature material and our own data, there has been created a mental-logical geological-genetic model of volcanogenic deposits.
Pauline Wokwenmendam Nguet, Benjamin Ntieche, Joseph LeGrand Tchop, Bouba Christian Mana, Eddy Ferdinand Mbossi
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3325

Abstract:
Beka area is situated in the Adamaoua Plateau of Cameroon in central Arica. Lavas in this area has not been studied before the present work.The volcanism of Beka is characterized by basalt, trachyte and phonolite domes and flows. The petrographic study shows that basaltic lavas have porphyritic microlitic textures. The felsic lavas indicate trachytic textures.The rocks are composed of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and irontitanium oxide minerals for the basalts; clinopyroxene, alkali feldspar (including foids), sphene and titanomagnetite for the felsic lavas. Chemical analyses show that basaltic lavas are basanites. Felsic lavas contain modal feldspathoid (nepheline in phonolites). All these lavas belong to the same series, because the felsic lavas are derived from the differentiation of basaltic lavas by fractional crystallization. They show an alkaline nature according to their geochemistry. Trace elements including Rare Earth Elements characteristics show that rocks emplaced in the Winthin Plate volcanic zone. They derived from an evolved parent magma showing a low degree of partial melting and characteristics closer to a modified and evolved primitive spinel lherzolite.
Egbelehulu Priscillia, Abu Mallam, Abel U. Osagie, Adewumi Taiwo
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3540

Abstract:
Aeromagnetic data are consistently used for economic interest targeting and geological mapping. Besides solving problems that are concerned with the basement, the method has become a useful tool in exploring minerals,hydrocarbons occurrence,groundwater investigations, and geothermal potentials. This study analyses aeromagnetic data from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency acquired at 100 m terrain clearance over a section of Gwagwalada in Abuja. The study area spans longitudes 7.0875° E to 7.1458° E and latitude 8.9625° N to 9.0° N (about 27 km2 ). After a reduction to the equator (RTE) transformation, the data is downward continued by 50 m. Different filters are applied to outline area of alteration associated to mineral deposit. Regional geologic structures trend NE - SW.The application of vertical derivatives (FVD and SVD) to the RTE grid enhanced shallow structures which trend NE - SW. Horizontal gradients along the X- and Y- directions enhance geological contacts attributable to blind faults. The Tilt derivative (TD) accentuated fault lines which trend NE - SW.
Ramesh Man Tuladhar
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3596

Abstract:
Geology, the science of earth – rocks, minerals, soils, and water within atmosphere and lithosphere encompasses a number of geological phenomena evolved over the geological time.
A. A. Adepelumi, O. B. Olayiwola, D. E. Falebita, O. Afolabi, B. O Soyinka, J. Obokoh
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3146

Abstract:
The need to accurately interpret geological models that approximate mineralized zones in a Basement Complex terrain necessitate the development of horizon loop electromagnetic method (HLEM) forward modeling solutions for such scenarios. The focus of the present work is on finding rapid forward modeling solutions for synthetic HLEM data as an aid in exploration for moderate to deep conductive mineral exploration targets.The main thrust is obtaining idealized HLEM models that are required for geological interpretation of the subsurface in such environment. The original HLEM equations developed by Wesley were extended to represent a horizontally stratified earth with a conductive approximated by shear zone. From these equations a computer program was written to calculate the HLEM responses for optimal conductor model with known values of coil separations (L), depth of burial (z) and angle of dip of the target.The thin conductive model was used because it is simple and suitable for different geological scenarios. The accuracy of the approximate forward solution has been confirmed for HLEM systems with various geometric ranges, frequencies and conductivities. Three models having varying overburden thickness, dip angle of target and source-receiver separation were used in the forward modeling. The effect of varying the dip angle,overburden thickness and coil separation was studied in all the three models used. The result obtained from the forward modeling showed that variation of the dip angle gave rise to changes in the amplitudes of the anomalies generated, while that of overburden and coil separation gave rise to changes in anomaly shape. Also, the geometry and position of the causative body were precisely delineated.
Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware, Christopher Ogwah, Umayah Otitie Star
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3197

Abstract:
Integration of geophysical and hydrogeochemical methods has been scientifically proven to be useful in vulnerability study and groundwater characterization. Subsurface geoelectric parameters such as resistivity and thickness obtained from geophysical method (Vertical Electrical Sounding VES) was used to determine aquifers vulnerability, longitudinal resistance (ρL) and transverse unit resistance (Rt). Thirty four water samples were collected from groundwater sources for physicochemical analysis.Estimated results from longitudinal conductance (S), (Rt) and (ρL) showed that the values ranges from 0.03 to 2.5mhos, 103.64 to 1964417.8 Ω/m2 and 215.41 to 65731.68 Ω-m respectively. Result from S suggested that 50 % of groundwater is considered to be vulnerable to contamination from the earth surface, while the remaining 50 % is considered to be slightly vulnerable to surface contamination. Further findings obtained from hydrogeochemical analysis such as Gibb’s and Chadba plots revealed that groundwater is highly influenced by rock water interaction,groundwater is classified to be Na+ + HCO3¯, Ca2+ + Mg2++ HCO3¯ , Na+ + Cl¯ and Ca2+ + Mg2+ + Cl¯ water type. Deduction from Soltan classification suggested that groundwater is classified to be of Na+ ˗ HCO3¯ and Na+ ˗ SO4 2¯ water type. Results obtained from Ec and pH suggested that the values were below WHO permissible limit, while result obtained from TDS showed that at some sampling points TDS values were above WHO limit. Based on pH value obtained groundwater within the study area fell within slightly basic to acidic.
Eruebi Toju B, Eze Uchechukwu Stanley, Ibitoye Taiwo Abel, Abolarin Olayiwola Macpaul
Journal of Geological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v3i2.2902

Abstract:
Flooding of Municipal areas is a frequent environmental occurrence in Rivers State that occurs when rainfall runoff meets land surfaces with low water absorbing capacity or when it overwhelms drainage channels. In order to assess the flood situation in the study area, an integrated method which involves Field-measurement, Geographic information system (GIS), Laboratory analysis of soil samples and topographic studies were employed. Digital Elevation Model of the study area reveals that the flooded areas are situated in areas with elevations lower than its surrounding, thereby acting as a natural basin to retain flood waters after rainfall. Four holes were drilled to depth of 3m to obtain soil samples at 1 m sampling interval, from which laboratory analysis was carried out to determine some geotechnical parameters such as soil’s particle size, specific gravity, bulk density, porosity, moisture content, permeability and hydraulic conductivity. Results from the analysis show that permeability, hydraulic conductivity and porosity diminishes with respect to depth. The soil in the flooded areas have high fines content (silt and clay), high bulk density which increase with depth and a specific gravity that is typical of organic rich soils that contain sand mixed with a considerable amount of fines. At Nkpolu, mean permeability rates of 0.003cm/sec, 0.009cm/sec and 0.033cm/sec were obtained at 1, 2 and 3m respectively. At Eneka, mean permeability rates of 0.011cm/sec, 0.018cm/sec and 0.014cm/sec were obtained at 1, 2 and 3m respectively, while at Rukpokwu, mean Permeability rates of 0.021cm/sec was obtained at 1m, while 0.006cm/sec was obtained at 2 and 3m respectively. The Mean hydraulic conductivity for the locations under study is of the order of 10-4ft/day. This study has shown that the flooded areas are located in low lying urban areas which act as basins, therefore, the top soil is crusted with highly compacted soil horizons beneath. With high and frequent rainfall in the region which generates a lot of runoff, in addition to poor drainage system, flooding of the study area occurs frequently. Therefore, construction and maintenance of efficient drainage channels for an effective solution to urban pluvial flooding in the study area are thereby recommended.
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