Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences

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EISSN : 2617-6149
Total articles ≅ 67
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O. O. Borshch, S. Yu. Ruban, V. M. Polishchuk
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 51-55; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.10

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to study bioenergetic and ethological indicators in crossbred first-calf heifers compared to purebred first-calf heifers. The research was conducted on the first-calf heifers of Ukrainian Black-Pied dairy breed and first-generation crossbreeds obtained as a result of crossing with Brown Swiss breed, as well as, on the first-calf heifers of Ukrainian Red-Pied dairy breed and first-generation crossbreeds obtained as a result of crossing Ukrainian Red-Pied dairy with Montbéliarde breed. The purebred Black-and Red-Pied first-calf heifers prevailed over crossbreed first-calf heifers on the indicator of milk yield for 305 days of lactation by 106.45 and 218.36 kg, respectively. Accordingly, the indicators of average daily milk yield were also higher by 0.35 and 0.72 kg and the indicators of average daily milk yield adjusted by 4 % fat content per 0.15 and 0.16 kg. At the same time, the indicator of average fat content in milk prevailed in crossbreeds of Black-Pied and Brown Swiss breed by 0.08 % compared to purebred Black-Pied breeds, and in Red-Pied crossbreeds with Montbéliarde breed by 0.16 % compared to purebred Red-Pied breeds. The purebred Black-Pied first-calf heifers had an advantage by 2.04 MJ compared to crossbreeds, while the Red-Pied first-calf heifers had a slight advantage by 0.06 MJ compared to crossbreed first-calf heifers on the indicator of daily cost of exchange energy (EE). The purebred Black-and Red-Pied first-calf heifers had higher cost of exchange energy allocated with milk compared to crossbreed first-calf heifers by 0.42 and 0.82 MJ. They also had higher cost of exchange energy rates for heat products by 0.79 and 0.25 MJ. According to the energy index indicator, purebred Black - and Red-Pied first-calf heifers prevailed over crossbreeds first-calf heifers by 0.16 and 0.07 %, respectively. The same trend was observed in relation to the productive index indicator. The purebred Black-and Red-Pied first-calf heifers had a slight advantage by 0.001 and 0.002 kg adjusted by 4 % of milk fat content per 1 MJ. According to the indicators of daily behavioral reactions, no special differences between a purebred and crossbreed were found.
Liu Zhike, Tetiana Fotina, , Zhanna Klishchova,
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 33-38; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.07

Abstract:
The article provides data on the isolation and identification of the pathogen S. Pullorum from pathological material of chickens. With further study of tinctorial, cultural-morphological and biological properties of the pathogen. The susceptibility of Salmonella pullorum to broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs such as cephalosporins and carbopenems was further studied to determine the drug of choice for improving treatment and prevention of avian bacterial diseases. In order to diagnose Salmonella pullorum (S. Pullorum) diarrhea accurately and analyze its drug resistance. In this study, the pathogen of a chicken suspected of S. Pullorum was isolation, PCR amplification and drug sensitivity analysis of the pathogen from in chicken farm in Xinxiang, north China. The results showed that the bacteria strain was diagnosed as S. Pullorum base on isolation and identification, Gram staining and biochemical identification of the bacteria. Antibacterial drugs sensitivity test confirmed that the bacteria was sensitive to ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, meropenem and kanamycin, and the effect of sensitive antibiotics was obvious in clinical treatment. Altogether, the present experiment revealed a detailed measure for S. Pullorum prevention and control and that achieved good clinical results, which laid a fundamental information for farmers and veterinary workers on eradication of S. Pullorum.
Y. V. Martyniv,
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 29-32; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.06

Abstract:
Microsporia is a common infectious disease in the practice of a veterinarian. This disease carries a risk of human infection because it is anthropozoonotic. The main pathogen Microsporum sanis affects the upper layers of the skin and has the ability to stay on the body of an animal for up to two years. Therefore, treatment should be carried out by a complex method and be aimed at preventing the spread of the pathogen in the environment and increase the body's resistance in the fight against the disease. “Micromar” based on clotrimazole and povidone iodine and the immunostimulant “Biogluc” based on beta glucan and biotin were used to treat patients with microsporia. Clotrimazole and povidone iodine have antifungal and antiseptic properties, and beta glucan in combination with biotin stimulates the immune response and accelerates the regeneration of damaged skin. In order to determine the immune reactivity of the organism in the treatment of microsporia, hematological, immunological blood tests and histological examinations of the skin of guinea pigs infected with the pathogen M. canis were performed. The obtained results showed that when using the antifungal drug “Micromar” and immunostimulant “Biogluk” the number of leukocytes decreases from 11.13 ± 0.72 to 6.95 ± 0.10 109/L, rod-shaped neutrophils from 16.00 ± 1.29 to 6.17 ± 0.65 %, ESR from 5.67 ± 0.67 to 2.17 ± 0.31 mm/h, and the number of segmental neutrophils increases from 12.17 ± 1.47 to 22.00 ± 0, 86 %. There is a tendency to increase T-helpers. These changes indicate the development of an active immune response to the inflammatory process. In the structure of the skin there is a decrease in exudation and infiltration in the dermis, active trophism of hair follicles, which indicates the course of regenerative processes.
O. Bilyy, I. Kotsyumbas, I. Kushnir, T. Grechukh, S. Hnatush, O. Maslovska, B. Gutyj
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 7-11; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.02

Abstract:
The article deals with the concentration changes and relative content of bacterial cells of Desulfuromonas acetoxidans in the intervals of sizes 0.2–2.0 µm under the influence of nano silver particles. Correlation between these changes of light-scattering properties of bacterial cells and growth abilities of bacteria Desulfuromonas acetoxidans under inflence of silver nanoparticles and ions has been shown. The purpose of the work was to research the intensity of processes the change of indexes of the antioxidant system the cells of Desulfuromonas acetoxidans at influence of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate. The influence of various concentrations of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate on enzymatic activity of catalase and reduced glutathione synthesis by Desulfuromonas аcetoxidans cells under their cultivation with fumarate addition and with absence of sulphur has been determined. Specific catalase activity increased with enhancing of concentration and duration of bacterial cultivation under the addition of this salt. The highest specific catalase activity was determined on the second day of bacterial growth under the influence of all concentration range of investigated metal salt. The reduced glutathione content under silver nitrate and silver nanoparticles exposure varied depending on the cultivation time and metal concentration. The maximum reduced glutathione content has been observed. The result of catalase activity changes and glutathione content changes of sulfur-reducing D. acetoxidans bacteria cell-free extracts and has been investigated under the influence of different concentrations of Ag nanoparticles during four days of cultivation has been investigated.
R. M. Trofimiak, L. G. Slivinska
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 16-23; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.04

Abstract:
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is one of the most common acquired diseases of the cardiovascular system of genetic etiology in small breed dogs. A long asymptomatic course characterizes the disease. Presently, the main diagnostic technique for heart diseases is echocardiography. This study evaluates individual echocardiographic indices of the left atrial and ventricular morphology with the determination of the diagnostic value of each of them in predicting the course of the disease. The study was conducted in a private veterinary hospital “Eurovet” and on the basis of the clinic of the Department of internal animal diseases and clinical diagnostics of Stepan Gzhytskyi National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology Lviv during 2018–2019. The objects consisted of 46 dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of myxomatous mitral valve disease according to the recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) and no signs of comorbidities. During the study, three experimental groups of animals were formed according to the clinical and functional status characteristic of each stage of MMVD development – B1, B2, C. According to the results, all experimental dogs showed changes in the mitral apparatus in the form of thickening of the anterior and posterior cusps, mitral valve (MV) prolapse into the left atrial (LA) cavity and regurgitation (MR), the severity of which increased with the stage of the disease (from 20 % to 60 %). In 44.4 % of animals in group B2, thickening of the left ventricular walls was diagnosed in diastole and in 22.2 % in systole. Instead, these values increase to 46.1 % and 53.8 % in group C, respectively. However, the degree of hypertrophy is disproportionate. With the development of the disease, we detect its decrease from 0.64 ± 0.03 (group B1) to 0.50 ± 0.04 (group B2) and 0.51 ± 0.03 (group C) also we observed an increase in LVEDD/2 from 1.30 ± 0.05 cm (group B1) to 1.46 ± 0.12 cm (group B2) and 1.54 ± 0.13 cm (group C). The value of nLVEDD in B1 was 1.36 times (P < 0.001) lower compared to B2 and C. Higher values of this parameter were found in 23.1 % of dogs in group C compared to the maximum value of B2. As MV insufficiency progresses, the LA/Ao index increases slightly (1.08 times) in B2, followed by an increase in C (1.38 times, P < 0.001). At the same time, we diagnose an increase (P < 0.05) in PV/PA by 1.18 times in B2 and 1.46 times (P < 0.001) in C. Thus, an increase in the severity of mitral regurgitation, a rapid increase in nLVEDD, the dynamics of the decrease in the degree of hypertrophy h/R, as well as an increase in LA/AO, PV/PA indices are predictors of unfavorable prognosis of myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve in dogs.
D. V. Frejuk,
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 12-15; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.03

Abstract:
Cattle fasciolosis is quite widespread in the world, including in Ukraine. Animal blood proteins, being in close functional connection with proteins of various tissues, reflect the changes that occur in the tissues and organs of the body during disorders of their metabolic processes caused by pathological factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of total protein and its fractions in the blood of cows in experimental fasciolosis. 12 cows of 4–5 years of age, black-spotted breed, were selected for experiment, out of which 2 groups were formed, six animals in each. Animals in the control group were clinically healthy. Animals of the experimental group were experimentally infected with adolescents. During the research, the rules of compulsory experiments were followed - selection and keeping of analogue animals in groups. The cows' diet was balanced in terms of nutrients and minerals. In the study of protein-sensitizing function of the liver of cows, it was found that during fasciolosis invasion, the content of total protein decreased by 13.8 %. These changes were due to a decrease in albumin and an increase in globulins. Thus, in fasciological invasion of cows, the level of albumin in the serum decreased by 24.4 %, and the level of globulins increased by 7.9 %. The value of the albumin / globulin ratio in the blood of infested cows with the causative agent of fasciolosis is quite indicative. It was found that the albumin-globulin ratio in the blood of cows of the experimental group was probably lower compared to the control group of animals. This value of the coefficient, of course, indicates the suppression of protein-synthesizing function of the liver in these periods of research. In the future it is planned to investigate the functional state of the liver of cows with experimental fasciolosis.
L. P. Goralskyi, N. M. Glukhova, I. M. Sokulskyi, N. V. Demus
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 39-44; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.08

Abstract:
The macro- and microscopic structure of the lungs of mature rabbits – Oryctolagus cuniculus L., 1758 – European rabbit was studied. This work was performed using comprehensive research methods: anatomical, organometric, histological and histometric. The research was carried out in the conditions of the laboratory of pathomorphology in the Department of Anatomy and Histology. The scientific work was performed on the subject of research work of the Department of Anatomy and Histology of Polissya National University on the theme: “Development, morphology and histochemistry of animal organs in normal and pathological”, according to the state registration number – № 0113V000900. The morphological studies followed the basic rules of Good Laboratory Practice GLP (1981), the provisions of the “General Ethical Principles of Animal Experiments”, adopted by the First National Congress of Bioethics (Kyiv, 2001) and the requirements for the “Rules for carrying out work with experimental animals”, approved by the order of the Ministry of Health № 281 of November 1, 2000 “On measures to further improve the organizational forms of work with the use of experimental animals”. The material for histomorphological studies were pieces of lungs selected from clinically healthy adult rabbits (n = 5). Slices were made from paraffin blocks on a sled microtome MS–2. The thickness of histological sections did not exceed 8–12 μm, which were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Van Gizon to study the morphofunctional activity of cells and tissues of the respiratory tract. Histometric studies of histological specimens were performed using a microscope “Micros” with a digital camera at a magnification of × 100–1000. Studies have shown that macroscopically the lungs of mature rabbits have a reflection of the shape of the thoracic cavity, and gradually expands ventrally. The right and left lungs are surrounded by pleural right and left sacs. The pleural cavities of both lungs in the test animals are not interconnected. Organometry showed that the absolute lung mass of rabbits is 18.05 ± 1.32 g, relative to 0.624 ± 0.013 %. The histoarchitectonics of the lungs is formed by the lung lobes. The respiratory department of the lungs is represented by a set of acinuses. The latter are represented by respiratory bronchioles, alveolar passages, alveolar sacs and alveoli that form the alveolar tree. The results of morphometric studies showed that the respiratory (respiratory) part of the lungs of rabbits occupies 39.6 ± 0.62 %, and the connective tissue base, respectively, 58.5 ± 1.27 %. The average volume of alveoli, which are divided into small, medium and large, is 42.3 ± 4.35 thousand μm3. Thus, studies of the macro- and microscopic structure of the lungs of experimental animals are of great general biological importance, as they are an important criterion for objective assessment for the differential diagnosis of diseases of various origins.
S. V. Girin, K. A. Skoryk, K. Yu. Palishnyuk
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 45-50; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.09

Abstract:
Due to the existing methods of diagnosing diseases of domestic animals are ineffective and imperfect, our goal was to develop a technology for assessing the state of the body of dogs to be able to diagnose the occurrence of diseases at an early stage. The article provides data on the development of technology to assess the state of the body, as well as to check its functioning in practice by determining the presence of such typical pathological processes (TPP) as inflammation and endogenous intoxication of the German Shepherd dogs. Clinical, laboratory, and statistical methods were used for the study. As a result of the study, an effective method of assessing the condition of the dog's body was developed and based on two algorithms for determining the intensity of the inflammatory process and endogenous intoxication. This method is effective, sensitive, and fully reproducible in practice, which allows the veterinarian to correctly diagnose and effectively carry out therapy and rehabilitation of sick animals.
Ping Xu, , Tetiana Fotina, Sanhu Wang
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 24-28; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.05

Abstract:
Dairy cow mastitis is one of most seriously diseases affecting dairy herds. The prevention and treatment of this pathology is especially done through antimicrobials, but the increasing antimicrobial resistance of pathogens to this disease may affect the efficiency of conventional drugs. Plant extracts are increasingly being valued by livestock producers because of their wide sources, low toxic and side effects, and high environmental affinity. Thereby, a lot of research has been conducted on the control of dairy cow mastitis by plant-derived drugs in recent years. This review summarizes the current of the plant types, main active ingredients, and the mechanism of action of plant extracts for preventing and treating dairy cow mastitis. Finally, a review was carried out to prospect the future development of plant extracts in the treatment of dairy cow mastitis.
M. Fedorchenko
Ukrainian Journal of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, Volume 4, pp 3-6; doi:10.32718/ujvas4-1.01

Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to study the influence of different vitamin-mineral supplement “Tekro” doses on biochemical parameters in blood plasma and liver of rabbits of New Zealand breed. The research methodology is based on research according to generally accepted research methods. Biochemical parameters were studied in rabbits’ organisms at 45, 60, 75 and 90 days of rearing with feeding of different doses of vitamin-mineral supplement “Tekro”, namely 3 %, 3.5 %, 4 %. The academic novelty is that nowadays the problem of the effect of different vitamin-mineral supplement “Tekro” doses on biochemical parameters in the blood and liver of rabbits has not been studied. Analyzing the indicators of the total protein content in the blood plasma of rabbits of the experimental groups and the control one for 90 days, it was noted that there was no significant difference in the indicators. In the liver of rabbits of the age from 45 to 90 days there was a tendency to increase the protein content due to the effects on the body of various doses of vitamin and mineral supplement “Tekro”. It has been established the positive effect of vitamin-mineral supplement “Tekro” on ALT activity of rabbits in experimental groups. At the age of 75 days, significantly higher ALT activity was recorded in rabbits of the 3rd experimental group by 35.8 % compared to animals in the control group.
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