Journal of Geographical Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 2630-5070
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 63
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Kabi Prasad Pokhrel, Shambhu Prasad Khatiwada, Narayan Prasad Paudel, Keshav Raj Dhakal, Chhabilal Lal Chidi, Narayan Prasad Timilsena, Dhana Krishna Mahat
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i3.3223

Abstract:
This study is an attempt to point out the different types of natural hazards in Sudur Paschim province of Nepal where environmental degradation processes such as deforestation, desertification, biodiversity loss, soil crisp and watershed degradation are rising trends. Using participatory method multi hazard prone areas were identified with type and intensity. Multi criteria evaluation method was applied to prioritize replicable actions with location -specific innovative practices and their legitimization for integrating local and indigenous knowledge into mainstream education,science and policy with a view to incorporate local and indigenous knowledge as live science in disaster and climate change education.Findings of the study reveal that varieties of natural hazards in combination with social factors such as poverty, conflict and inequality have resulted frequent disasters and social vulnerabilities in many parts of the province.Traditionally, indigenous and local people have responded threats of multi hazards by using their traditional knowledge and skills which has evolved over generations, and continue to adapt to future changes. These traditional,often faith-based, beliefs and practices were found to use as the key to their resilience in the face of natural hazards. However, many communities have been lost their knowledge as the elderly die without transferring it to younger members. Behind this proper educational policy and strategic development plans have not been implemented to cope local/indigenous knowledge into practices. Findings of the study indicate that indigenous and local knowledge is a precious province resource that can support the process of disaster prevention, preparedness and response in cost-effective disaster risk reduction. Therefore, policy framework has to prime focus to integrate indigenous and local knowledge, wisdom and skills into mainstream educational programs in order to transfer science into policy and education (words) into practice.
Jeff Callaghan
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i3.3204

Abstract:
An extensive search has been carried out to find all major flood and very heavy rainfall events in Victoria since 1876 when Southern Oscillation (SOI) data became available. The synoptic weather patterns were analysed and of the 319 events studied,121 events were found to be East Coast Lows (ECLs) and 82 were other types of low-pressure systems. Tropical influences also played a large role with 105 events being associated with tropical air advecting down to Victoria into weather systems. Examples are presented of all the major synoptic patterns identified. The SOI was found to be an important climate driver with positive SOIs being associated with many events over the 144 years studied. The 1976 Climate Shift and its influence on significant Victorian rainfall events is studied and negative SOI monthly values were shown to dominate following the Shift.However,one of the most active periods in 144 years of Victorian heavy rain occurred after the shift with a sustained period of positive SOI events from 2007 to 2014. Therefore, it is critical for forecasting future Victorian heavy rainfall is to understand if sequences of these positive SOI events continue like those preceding the Shift. Possible relationships between the Shift and Global Temperature rises are also explored. Upper wind data available from some of the heaviest rainfall events showed the presence of anticyclonic turning of the winds between 850hPa and 500hPa levels which has been found to be linked with extreme rainfall around the Globe.
, Huizhi Geng, Xiaohu Zhang
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i3.3173

Abstract:
Given the ample evidences from present studies on national-level innovation policies evolution and mechanisms, this paper contributes to a city-level understanding towards innovation-related state restructuring,the consequent innovation policy change and its relational performance with urban development in post-reform Shanghai, China from an inputoutput perspective. It unfolds that state restructuring relinquishing state power to the market has revived non-government innovation activities and a synchronous, though a bit backward, firms-oriented transition towards innovation development in Shanghai throughout 1990s has been observed.Though scholars are reluctant to label the party-state in post-reform China as a developmental state due to dysfunctionality of state intervention in corporate sectors, in the field of technological upgrading, such topdown, elite driven and state-sponsored mode giving priority to innovation competitiveness well captures the developmental state model at local level, thus exhibits elements of local developmental state. Impacts of this restructuring and policy change are substantial, which can be observed in the soaring increase of science and technology expenditures and patents applications in Shanghai. Additional analysis further unveils that in most circumstances, innovation growth kept paces with urban development, yet its synergy with economic development and permanent residents is more significant than with other aspects.
Eteh Desmond Rowland, Okechukwu Okpobiri
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3014

Abstract:
Residents along the shoreline of the Orashi River have yearly been displaced and recorded loss of lives, farmland, and infrastructures. The Government’s approach has been the provision of relief materials to the victims instead of implementing adequate control measures. This research employs Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission and Google Earth imagery in developing a 3D floodplain map in ArcGIS 10.4. The result indicates the drainage system in the study area is observe to be dendritic with catchment of 79 subbasin with 76 pour point indicating the area is floodplain including 3D slope > 8 contain 1.15% and < 8 has 98.85% indicating floodplain area, aspect indicate west-facing slope are dark blue,3D hillshade indicate yellow is very low area and high area is pink and also the buffer analysis result reveals waterbodies reflecting blue with estimated area of 1.88 km2, yellow indicate 0.79 km2 of the shoreline, red indicate 0.81 km2 of the minor floodplain and pink contain 0.82 km2 with length of 32.82km. The result from google earth image in 2007 indicate absent of settlement ,2013 indicate minimal settlement and 2020 indicate major settlement in the study area when correlated with 3D Floodplain mapping before and during the flood in other to analyze and manage flooding for further purpose and majority of the area are under seize with flood like in 2020. Therefore, Remote Sensing and GIS techniques is useful for Floodplain mapping, risk analysis for control measures for better flood management.
Tombari Bodo, Batombari Gbidum Gimah, Kemetonye Joy Seomoni
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3059

Abstract:
Deforestation leads to habitat loss while preservation and conservation of the natural forest increase biological diversity. Multiple factors have been reported to be responsible for deforestation and habitat loss, which could either be of human or natural origin. Natural causes of deforestation could be as result of forest fires, droughts, exotic animals, floods, overpopulation of foreign animals and climate change. That notwithstanding, human activities are among the principal causes of global deforestation with agricultural expansion, cattle breeding, timber extraction, mining, oil extraction, dam construction and infrastructure development as some examples of human influences. This study identifies agricultural activities and urbanization as the chief causes of human induced deforestation and habitat loss on a large scale. The simple and more practicable approach to curb the already alarming effects of deforestation and habitat loss is through environmental education of everyone still surviving on our planet. Environmental education is the key to reversing continuous and deliberate human actions through the protection of every natural forest and afforestattion where necessary.
Kedar Dahal, Krishna P. Timilsina
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3024

Abstract:
The Rapid transformation of rural settlements into municipalities in Nepal has brought significant changes in land use and urban expansion patterns mostly through the conversion of agricultural land into the built-up area. The issue is studied taking a case of rapidly growing town Barahathawa Municipality of Sarlahi District. After the declaration of the municipality, several new roads have been opened and upgraded; and the municipality has well-connected to the national transportation network. After promulgated the Constitution of Nepal 2015 and elected local bodies, the municipality budget has been increased significantly as a result of increasing municipal investment in socio-economic and physical infrastructure development and environmental protection which have attracted people, goods, and services creating the zone of influence. One of the changes found in the municipality is the increasing built-up area and expansion of urban growth through the decreasing agricultural land. Urban growth has been observed taking place around the Barahathawa Bazaar and main roadsides. The built-up area in Barahathawa municipality has remarkably increased by 184% with the decrease of shrub and agricultural land within 10 years. Implications of such spatial and temporal dynamics have been a core issue of urban planning in most of the newly declared municipalities in Nepal
Kofi Adu-Boahen, Isaac. Boateng, Ishmael. Yaw. Dadson, Laud. Alfred. Dei, Kwabena. Barima. Antwi., Sender Kyeremeh
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3100

Abstract:
Incessant monitoring of water is essential in terms of heavy metals and toxic substances as it provides detailed information on aquatic resources. Majority of lagoons receive freshwater from their catchment areas containing industrial and domestic waste. The paper analysed seasonal variations in the distribution and concentrations of Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), and Manganese (Mn) in the Fosu lagoon in Ghana to ascertain the quality of the lagoon. Water was sampled from eighteen (18) different points on the lagoon and was analysed at the Water Research Institute (WRI) of the Center for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and the results were interpolated using kriging. The results obtained were compared with the World Health Organisation water quality index. Statistical analysis of heavy metal concentrations using Pearson’s two-tailed significance correlation showed positive correlations for both seasons; between Pb and Cu (0.297; sig. = 0.232, and 0.196; sig. = 0.436), and Cd and Mn (0.119; sig. = 0.643 and 0.191; sig. = 0.447) for the wet and dry seasons respectively. A paired sample t-test on concentrations also showed statistical differences between wet and dry seasons’ concentrations for Pb (t = 1.324; sig. = 0.203), Cu (t = 2.759; sig. = 0.013), and Cd (t = 3.056; sig. = 0.007), and Mn (t = -4.014; sig. = 0.001). Pb and Cd showed higher concentrations above the World Health Organisation's permissible limits. Heavy metal concentrations of water samples analysed varied widely in terms of seasons and sampling points.
Michael U. Didia, P. N. Ede
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3041

Abstract:
The study examined the impact of land Reclamation activities on vegetal cover in Bayelsa State. Land Reclamation is the procedure involved in the acquirement of land from the sea or coastal wetland or the re-establishment of vulnerable lands to a better state. For the purpose of this study, both quantitative and qualitative research method were adopted. Field observations, questionnaire survey and landsat imagery of land cover changes of the year 1986 and 2018 were generated from the study area. The time series study design and the supervised classification in image analysis was adopted to determine the impact of land reclamation activities of the environment. The research revealed the extent of reclaimed land in the study area and its impact on vegetal cover. It was therefore recommended that recovery of land will make strategic urban planning initiatives sustainable in overcrowded areas and institutions should also put in place laws and strategies to regulate reclamation activities across the region and also geo-spatial skills should be put in place to help quantify the dynamics, trends and rate of reclamation induced land cover change in the environment. Educational institute should inculcate environmental knowledge in the local environment.
Diagi B. E., Edokpa D. O., Suzan Ajiere
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i1.2532

Abstract:
Climate change is already seen to be impacting on every aspect of life on earth especially in the agricultural sectors of developing nations. In Nigeria, and indeed the world over, seasons are shifting, temperatures are rising, landscapes are changing and sea levels are rising. Extreme event like drought and flood are becoming more frequent and pronounced. FAO in2009 further highlighted that Agriculture is expected to pay a significant cost of the damage caused by climate change. Nigeria as one of the African countries is highly vulnerable to the influence of climate change (IPCC, 2007), as this is already being experienced, in form of extreme events such as flooding, droughts in some Northern States, heat/cold waves, changes in weather patterns which have posed serious challenges to the sustainability of rice production.This will have implication for rice farming especially in Nigeria, where rain-fed agriculture is predominant, the onset and cessation of the rains ascertain the cultural practices of farmers, such as land preparation, crop variety selection and planting to harvesting (Odekunle, 2004; Umar, 2010). The implication of this will be interference with food security as rice is an essential food crop in Nigeria that is consumed by a large number of the population.The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 2018, has warned that hunger in Africa is being made worse by the impacts of climate change as itthreatens the capacity of vulnerable countries to guarantee food security, poverty elimination and actualize sustainable development. The increasing rate of food insecurity in the world leading to different form of malnutrition is worrisome and more needs to be done in the areas of agriculture in order to ensure food security and improve on nutrition if a world without hunger is to be achieved by 2030.
Marwan Ghaleb Ghanem
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i1.2686

Abstract:
This study aims at determining the types of pollutants and their sources for the springs in the Natuf catchment / Palestine in addition to evaluating the socio-economic environmental impact on water utilization from residential people. Twelve spring water samples were collected for hydrochemical qualitative analyses of major and trace elements as well as microbiological analyses in the summer of 2017. Plotted spring water samples on the Piper Diagram indicated the water type of Mg-Ca-HCO3- and eleven samples could be classified as fresh water. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to the farmers and land owners in order to study the impact of socio-economic and environmental conditions for the spring water utilization. The study shows that 90% of local people are using the springs for agricultural purposes. The spring water chemical analysis indicates that they are free from industrial pollutants in regards that 84% of them are located away from the dumping sites. The study shows that respondents are not interested in rain water harvesting during winter season, because 44% of them have their own cisterns. The existence of the water network as well as the absence of the related authority role's contributes to the reduction of people’s dependence on spring water.
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