Journal of Geographical Research
EISSN : 2630-5070
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 67
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i3.3415
The world population will grow up to 9.8 billion by 2050. The intensification in urban growth will occur on all continents and in all sizes of cities, especially in developing countries, experiencing a greater rising in urban agglomerations of 300,000 to 500,000 people, those of 500,000 to 1 million and those of 1 to 5 million, by 2035. In this way, the demand of soil to host human activities (land take) will increase, mainly affecting soils with greater agricultural potential close to cities, at the same time as the need for food will increase. Land rehabilitation can contribute to human food security, to enhance ecosystem services and, if made by waste Technosols, those are viable as substrate for urban agroforestry systems.Although the references for brownfield reclamation for urban agriculture,adding constructed Technosols and de-sealed soils can recover its ecosystem functions even food supply services and would be the solution in urban areas.
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i3.3466
This study examined the spatial heterogeneity association of HIV incidence and socio-economic factors including poverty severity index,permanently employed females and males, unemployed females, percentage of poor households i.e., poverty prevalence, night lights index, literacy rate,household food security, and Gini index at district level in Zimbabwe.A mix of spatial analysis methods including Poisson model based on original log likelihood ratios (LLR), global Moran’s I, local indicator of spatial association - LISA were employed to determine the HIV hotspots.Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) and semi-parametric GWPR (s-GWPR) were used to determine the spatial association between HIV incidence and socio-economic factors. HIV incidence (number of cases per 1000) ranged from 0.6 (Buhera district) to 13.30 (Mangwe district). Spatial clustering of HIV incidence was observed (Global Moran’s I = - 0.150; Z score 3.038; p-value 0.002). Significant clusters of HIV were observed at district level. HIV incidence and its association with socioeconomic factors varied across the districts except percentage of females unemployed. Intervention programmes to reduce HIV incidence should address the identified socio-economic factors at district level.
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i3.3173
Given the ample evidences from present studies on national-level innovation policies evolution and mechanisms, this paper contributes to a city-level understanding towards innovation-related state restructuring,the consequent innovation policy change and its relational performance with urban development in post-reform Shanghai, China from an inputoutput perspective. It unfolds that state restructuring relinquishing state power to the market has revived non-government innovation activities and a synchronous, though a bit backward, firms-oriented transition towards innovation development in Shanghai throughout 1990s has been observed.Though scholars are reluctant to label the party-state in post-reform China as a developmental state due to dysfunctionality of state intervention in corporate sectors, in the field of technological upgrading, such topdown, elite driven and state-sponsored mode giving priority to innovation competitiveness well captures the developmental state model at local level, thus exhibits elements of local developmental state. Impacts of this restructuring and policy change are substantial, which can be observed in the soaring increase of science and technology expenditures and patents applications in Shanghai. Additional analysis further unveils that in most circumstances, innovation growth kept paces with urban development, yet its synergy with economic development and permanent residents is more significant than with other aspects.
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i3.3223
This study is an attempt to point out the different types of natural hazards in Sudur Paschim province of Nepal where environmental degradation processes such as deforestation, desertification, biodiversity loss, soil crisp and watershed degradation are rising trends. Using participatory method multi hazard prone areas were identified with type and intensity. Multi criteria evaluation method was applied to prioritize replicable actions with location -specific innovative practices and their legitimization for integrating local and indigenous knowledge into mainstream education,science and policy with a view to incorporate local and indigenous knowledge as live science in disaster and climate change education.Findings of the study reveal that varieties of natural hazards in combination with social factors such as poverty, conflict and inequality have resulted frequent disasters and social vulnerabilities in many parts of the province.Traditionally, indigenous and local people have responded threats of multi hazards by using their traditional knowledge and skills which has evolved over generations, and continue to adapt to future changes. These traditional,often faith-based, beliefs and practices were found to use as the key to their resilience in the face of natural hazards. However, many communities have been lost their knowledge as the elderly die without transferring it to younger members. Behind this proper educational policy and strategic development plans have not been implemented to cope local/indigenous knowledge into practices. Findings of the study indicate that indigenous and local knowledge is a precious province resource that can support the process of disaster prevention, preparedness and response in cost-effective disaster risk reduction. Therefore, policy framework has to prime focus to integrate indigenous and local knowledge, wisdom and skills into mainstream educational programs in order to transfer science into policy and education (words) into practice.
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i3.3204
An extensive search has been carried out to find all major flood and very heavy rainfall events in Victoria since 1876 when Southern Oscillation (SOI) data became available. The synoptic weather patterns were analysed and of the 319 events studied,121 events were found to be East Coast Lows (ECLs) and 82 were other types of low-pressure systems. Tropical influences also played a large role with 105 events being associated with tropical air advecting down to Victoria into weather systems. Examples are presented of all the major synoptic patterns identified. The SOI was found to be an important climate driver with positive SOIs being associated with many events over the 144 years studied. The 1976 Climate Shift and its influence on significant Victorian rainfall events is studied and negative SOI monthly values were shown to dominate following the Shift.However,one of the most active periods in 144 years of Victorian heavy rain occurred after the shift with a sustained period of positive SOI events from 2007 to 2014. Therefore, it is critical for forecasting future Victorian heavy rainfall is to understand if sequences of these positive SOI events continue like those preceding the Shift. Possible relationships between the Shift and Global Temperature rises are also explored. Upper wind data available from some of the heaviest rainfall events showed the presence of anticyclonic turning of the winds between 850hPa and 500hPa levels which has been found to be linked with extreme rainfall around the Globe.
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3041
The study examined the impact of land Reclamation activities on vegetal cover in Bayelsa State. Land Reclamation is the procedure involved in the acquirement of land from the sea or coastal wetland or the re-establishment of vulnerable lands to a better state. For the purpose of this study, both quantitative and qualitative research method were adopted. Field observations, questionnaire survey and landsat imagery of land cover changes of the year 1986 and 2018 were generated from the study area. The time series study design and the supervised classification in image analysis was adopted to determine the impact of land reclamation activities of the environment. The research revealed the extent of reclaimed land in the study area and its impact on vegetal cover. It was therefore recommended that recovery of land will make strategic urban planning initiatives sustainable in overcrowded areas and institutions should also put in place laws and strategies to regulate reclamation activities across the region and also geo-spatial skills should be put in place to help quantify the dynamics, trends and rate of reclamation induced land cover change in the environment. Educational institute should inculcate environmental knowledge in the local environment.
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3100
Incessant monitoring of water is essential in terms of heavy metals and toxic substances as it provides detailed information on aquatic resources. Majority of lagoons receive freshwater from their catchment areas containing industrial and domestic waste. The paper analysed seasonal variations in the distribution and concentrations of Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), and Manganese (Mn) in the Fosu lagoon in Ghana to ascertain the quality of the lagoon. Water was sampled from eighteen (18) different points on the lagoon and was analysed at the Water Research Institute (WRI) of the Center for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and the results were interpolated using kriging. The results obtained were compared with the World Health Organisation water quality index. Statistical analysis of heavy metal concentrations using Pearson’s two-tailed significance correlation showed positive correlations for both seasons; between Pb and Cu (0.297; sig. = 0.232, and 0.196; sig. = 0.436), and Cd and Mn (0.119; sig. = 0.643 and 0.191; sig. = 0.447) for the wet and dry seasons respectively. A paired sample t-test on concentrations also showed statistical differences between wet and dry seasons’ concentrations for Pb (t = 1.324; sig. = 0.203), Cu (t = 2.759; sig. = 0.013), and Cd (t = 3.056; sig. = 0.007), and Mn (t = -4.014; sig. = 0.001). Pb and Cd showed higher concentrations above the World Health Organisation's permissible limits. Heavy metal concentrations of water samples analysed varied widely in terms of seasons and sampling points.
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3024
The Rapid transformation of rural settlements into municipalities in Nepal has brought significant changes in land use and urban expansion patterns mostly through the conversion of agricultural land into the built-up area. The issue is studied taking a case of rapidly growing town Barahathawa Municipality of Sarlahi District. After the declaration of the municipality, several new roads have been opened and upgraded; and the municipality has well-connected to the national transportation network. After promulgated the Constitution of Nepal 2015 and elected local bodies, the municipality budget has been increased significantly as a result of increasing municipal investment in socio-economic and physical infrastructure development and environmental protection which have attracted people, goods, and services creating the zone of influence. One of the changes found in the municipality is the increasing built-up area and expansion of urban growth through the decreasing agricultural land. Urban growth has been observed taking place around the Barahathawa Bazaar and main roadsides. The built-up area in Barahathawa municipality has remarkably increased by 184% with the decrease of shrub and agricultural land within 10 years. Implications of such spatial and temporal dynamics have been a core issue of urban planning in most of the newly declared municipalities in Nepal
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3059
Deforestation leads to habitat loss while preservation and conservation of the natural forest increase biological diversity. Multiple factors have been reported to be responsible for deforestation and habitat loss, which could either be of human or natural origin. Natural causes of deforestation could be as result of forest fires, droughts, exotic animals, floods, overpopulation of foreign animals and climate change. That notwithstanding, human activities are among the principal causes of global deforestation with agricultural expansion, cattle breeding, timber extraction, mining, oil extraction, dam construction and infrastructure development as some examples of human influences. This study identifies agricultural activities and urbanization as the chief causes of human induced deforestation and habitat loss on a large scale. The simple and more practicable approach to curb the already alarming effects of deforestation and habitat loss is through environmental education of everyone still surviving on our planet. Environmental education is the key to reversing continuous and deliberate human actions through the protection of every natural forest and afforestattion where necessary.
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3014
Residents along the shoreline of the Orashi River have yearly been displaced and recorded loss of lives, farmland, and infrastructures. The Government’s approach has been the provision of relief materials to the victims instead of implementing adequate control measures. This research employs Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission and Google Earth imagery in developing a 3D floodplain map in ArcGIS 10.4. The result indicates the drainage system in the study area is observe to be dendritic with catchment of 79 subbasin with 76 pour point indicating the area is floodplain including 3D slope > 8 contain 1.15% and < 8 has 98.85% indicating floodplain area, aspect indicate west-facing slope are dark blue,3D hillshade indicate yellow is very low area and high area is pink and also the buffer analysis result reveals waterbodies reflecting blue with estimated area of 1.88 km2, yellow indicate 0.79 km2 of the shoreline, red indicate 0.81 km2 of the minor floodplain and pink contain 0.82 km2 with length of 32.82km. The result from google earth image in 2007 indicate absent of settlement ,2013 indicate minimal settlement and 2020 indicate major settlement in the study area when correlated with 3D Floodplain mapping before and during the flood in other to analyze and manage flooding for further purpose and majority of the area are under seize with flood like in 2020. Therefore, Remote Sensing and GIS techniques is useful for Floodplain mapping, risk analysis for control measures for better flood management.