Journal of Geographical Research

Journal Information
EISSN : 2630-5070
Current Publisher: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 55
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Michael U. Didia, P. N. Ede
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3041

Abstract:
The study examined the impact of land Reclamation activities on vegetal cover in Bayelsa State. Land Reclamation is the procedure involved in the acquirement of land from the sea or coastal wetland or the re-establishment of vulnerable lands to a better state. For the purpose of this study, both quantitative and qualitative research method were adopted. Field observations, questionnaire survey and landsat imagery of land cover changes of the year 1986 and 2018 were generated from the study area. The time series study design and the supervised classification in image analysis was adopted to determine the impact of land reclamation activities of the environment. The research revealed the extent of reclaimed land in the study area and its impact on vegetal cover. It was therefore recommended that recovery of land will make strategic urban planning initiatives sustainable in overcrowded areas and institutions should also put in place laws and strategies to regulate reclamation activities across the region and also geo-spatial skills should be put in place to help quantify the dynamics, trends and rate of reclamation induced land cover change in the environment. Educational institute should inculcate environmental knowledge in the local environment.
Kedar Dahal, Krishna P. Timilsina
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3024

Abstract:
The Rapid transformation of rural settlements into municipalities in Nepal has brought significant changes in land use and urban expansion patterns mostly through the conversion of agricultural land into the built-up area. The issue is studied taking a case of rapidly growing town Barahathawa Municipality of Sarlahi District. After the declaration of the municipality, several new roads have been opened and upgraded; and the municipality has well-connected to the national transportation network. After promulgated the Constitution of Nepal 2015 and elected local bodies, the municipality budget has been increased significantly as a result of increasing municipal investment in socio-economic and physical infrastructure development and environmental protection which have attracted people, goods, and services creating the zone of influence. One of the changes found in the municipality is the increasing built-up area and expansion of urban growth through the decreasing agricultural land. Urban growth has been observed taking place around the Barahathawa Bazaar and main roadsides. The built-up area in Barahathawa municipality has remarkably increased by 184% with the decrease of shrub and agricultural land within 10 years. Implications of such spatial and temporal dynamics have been a core issue of urban planning in most of the newly declared municipalities in Nepal
Eteh Desmond Rowland, Okechukwu Okpobiri
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i2.3014

Abstract:
Residents along the shoreline of the Orashi River have yearly been displaced and recorded loss of lives, farmland, and infrastructures. The Government’s approach has been the provision of relief materials to the victims instead of implementing adequate control measures. This research employs Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission and Google Earth imagery in developing a 3D floodplain map in ArcGIS 10.4. The result indicates the drainage system in the study area is observe to be dendritic with catchment of 79 subbasin with 76 pour point indicating the area is floodplain including 3D slope > 8 contain 1.15% and < 8 has 98.85% indicating floodplain area, aspect indicate west-facing slope are dark blue,3D hillshade indicate yellow is very low area and high area is pink and also the buffer analysis result reveals waterbodies reflecting blue with estimated area of 1.88 km2, yellow indicate 0.79 km2 of the shoreline, red indicate 0.81 km2 of the minor floodplain and pink contain 0.82 km2 with length of 32.82km. The result from google earth image in 2007 indicate absent of settlement ,2013 indicate minimal settlement and 2020 indicate major settlement in the study area when correlated with 3D Floodplain mapping before and during the flood in other to analyze and manage flooding for further purpose and majority of the area are under seize with flood like in 2020. Therefore, Remote Sensing and GIS techniques is useful for Floodplain mapping, risk analysis for control measures for better flood management.
Krishna Prasad Timalsina
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i1.2449

Abstract:
Increasing population and densification of the cities lead to increasing land value by the high demand of land for housing and other infrastructure developments are the reasons that tend to decreasing open spaces in Kathmandu Valley in general, and Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) in particular. Urban open space has been considered as a place that is accessible to all residents and is important in the urban context as such space provides an opportunity as a place for social interaction, networking, recreation, and various physical health exercises. However, different social and economic contexts of the society reflect different patterns of its uses. Two different urban settings (core urban area having indigenous dominant population and fringe urban areas having migrants’ dominant population) have been taken as a basis for analysis in this paper to look at how different urban societies use open spaces differently. Open spaces are not only important for maintaining urban greenery and beauty but are valued for accumulating social capital and enhancing physical well-being to the urban communities. These issues are analyzed through the interpretative research methodology by collecting the data through in-depth interviews, key informants’ interviews, informal conversational interviews, and non-participatory observation from two different urban settings of KMC.
Bryan J. Pesta, John G. R. Fuerst, Emil Kirkegaard
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i1.2765

Abstract:
Using a sample of ~3,100 U.S. counties, we tested geoclimatic explanations for why cognitive ability varies across geography. These models posit that geoclimatic factors will strongly predict cognitive ability across geography, even when a variety of common controls appear in the regression equations. Our results generally do not support UV radiation (UVR) based or other geoclimatic models. Specifically, although UVR alone predicted cognitive ability at the U.S. county-level (β = -.33), its validity was markedly reduced in the presence of climatic and demographic covariates (β = -.16), and was reduced even further with a spatial lag (β = -.10). For climate models, average temperature remained a significant predictor in the regression equation containing a spatial lag (β = .35). However, the effect was in the wrong direction relative to typical cold weather hypotheses. Moreover, when we ran the analyses separately by race/ethnicity, no consistent pattern appeared in the models containing the spatial lag. Analyses of gap sizes across counties were also generally inconsistent with predictions from the UVR model. Instead, results seemed to provide support for compositional models.
John Manyimadin Kusimi, Bertha Ansaah Kusimi, Barnabas A. Amisigo
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i1.2596

Abstract:
Fluvial sediment transport data is a very important data for effective water resource management. However, acquiring this data is expensive and tedious hence sediment yield modeling has become an alternative approach in estimating river sediment yields. In Ghana, several sediment yield predicting models have been developed to estimate the sediment yields of ungauged rivers including the Pra River Basin. In this paper, 10 months sediment yield data of the Pra River Basin was used to evaluate the existing sediment yield predicting models of Ghana. A regression analysis between predicted sediment yield data derived from the models and the observed suspended sediment yields of the Pra Basin was done to determine the extent of estimation of observed sediment yields. The prediction of suspended sediment yield was done for 4 out of 5 existing sediment yield predicting models in Ghana. There were variations in sediment yield between observed and predicted suspended sediments. All predicted sediment yields were lower than observed data except for equation 3 where the results were mixed. All models were found to be good estimators of fluvial sediments with the best model being equation 4. Sediment yield tends to increase with drainage basin area.
Ajiere S
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i1.2531

Abstract:
Rainfall and Temperature are important factors in agriculture especially in Nigeria where rain-fed agriculture is practiced extensively and agriculture contributes to food security and provides employment for urban and rural dwellers. Therefore, climate variability poses a big threat to agriculture by altering the growing season rainfall and temperature, thereby resulting to serious danger in the sustainability of food. This is why all nations of the world are concerned about the effects of climate variability on agriculture. This work therefore, examined the impact of climate variability on growing season rainfall and temperature in Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. The rainfall and temperature data were obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for a period of 30 years which was analyzed using descriptive statistics, decadal distribution, trend graph anomalies and 5 year moving average. The analysis showed increasing trend in annual mean maximum, minimum temperature and decrease in mean rainfall, The third order polynomial trend shows a decrease in the anomaly of annual mean rainfall (y = -0.0002x4) and a persistent increase in the mean temperature anomaly especially in the second decade (1996-2007).The findings show that there is a notable variability in the pattern of rainfall and temperature which revealed an increase in temperature and decrease in growing season rainfall. This calls for serious attention as people in this part of Nigeria critically depend on rainfall for agricultural practices. It is recommended that government should support the agricultural sector by providing mechanized farming systems such as irrigation and drilling of water borehole in farm sites for agriculture, especially for the rural farmers and create awareness to the farmers on recent trends in climate issues to achieve sustainability of food.
Owoeye J. O., R. O. Olasemojo
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i1.2576

Abstract:
This study examines the implication of household income composition on infrastructure maintenance in the residential core of Akure, Nigeria with a view to providing suggestive recommendations that will remedy identified problems in the research locale. With regards to this, an estimated of 1% research population were served questionnaire, amounting to 425, using systematic random sampling technique with replacement. Findings revealed that residents in the study area are low income earners with larger population influenced by market proximity, low prices of staple food items and affordable but tumbledown housing. Likewise, essential facilities are in poor state owing to poor maintenance. Besides, household income induced variables considered in the study, which accounted for 75.6% of the challenges limiting routine facilities maintenance in the study area. The study recommends skill acquisition training, resource collaborative efforts and soft loans scheme to boost the income generation of residents in this locale.
Marwan Ghaleb Ghanem
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i1.2686

Abstract:
This study aims at determining the types of pollutants and their sources for the springs in the Natuf catchment / Palestine in addition to evaluating the socio-economic environmental impact on water utilization from residential people. Twelve spring water samples were collected for hydrochemical qualitative analyses of major and trace elements as well as microbiological analyses in the summer of 2017. Plotted spring water samples on the Piper Diagram indicated the water type of Mg-Ca-HCO3- and eleven samples could be classified as fresh water. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to the farmers and land owners in order to study the impact of socio-economic and environmental conditions for the spring water utilization. The study shows that 90% of local people are using the springs for agricultural purposes. The spring water chemical analysis indicates that they are free from industrial pollutants in regards that 84% of them are located away from the dumping sites. The study shows that respondents are not interested in rain water harvesting during winter season, because 44% of them have their own cisterns. The existence of the water network as well as the absence of the related authority role's contributes to the reduction of people’s dependence on spring water.
Masoomeh Dehkordi, Alamdar Alian
Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jgr.v4i1.2630

Abstract:
Humans are always lenders to their surroundings which makes it possible to create habitable environments and create habitat patterns that fit the surrounding environment. In this research, settlement patterns of Iron Age III sites in the west and northwest of Isfahan was studied via GIS. The area studied is one of the most important but unknown areas of archaeological research due to its location in the center of the Iranian plateau and a link between the north-west and the south-west of the country. The environmental characteristics of the studied area have attracted the attention of humans since ancient times. Therefore, it was considered necessary to conduct archaeological excavations. To achieve this goal, the area was first studied archaeologically. As a result of this survey, approximately 50 ancient sites were identified which included the statistical population used for analysis. The effect of environmental variables on the distribution of settlements in the study area was investigated including altitude, slope (percentage and direction), climate, geological structure, distances and proximity to water resources, distance to and land use, and the proximity to communication paths. Through analytical-descriptive method, the factors affecting the formation and distribution of the establishment patterns of the period in question was studied. After analyzing the information and maps, the results indicated that among all the factors, three environmental factors were the most important in the formation of ancient settlements of the Iron Age III era in the west and northwest of Isfahan: factors relating to water resources, proximity to communication paths, and slope percentage and direction.
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