Journal of Atmospheric Science Research
EISSN : 2630-5119
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 63
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i4.3723
The changing climate is unequivocal, and it is generally recognised as a threat to the terrestrial environment due to its cross-sectoral and irreversible impacts. Since the inception of industrial revolution (1750), the concentration of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) in the atmosphere has been compromised. Until the past two centuries, the quantity of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere had never surpassed about 280 part per million (ppm) and 790 part per billion (ppb), respectively. Rise in greenhouse gases (GHGs) has impacted almost every biotic component on the surface of the earth, and regions which have low adaptive capacity and greatly depend on agriculture and biodiversity for livelihood are hard hit. This phenomenon has resulted in global warming, extinction of some fora and fauna species, precipitation variability, extreme weather conditions, migration of biotic creatures from one geographical area to another, melting of icecap, sea level rise, coral breach and so on during the last century. The contribution of emission of greenhouse gases of Africa is insignificant, however, the repercussion of the changing climate is crucial in the region due to the presence of other stressors such as poverty, corruption, diseases, geographical position of the continent, low adaptive capacity, rain-fed agriculture etc., and this has led to conflict over resources usage, food insecurity, forced migration, ill-health and many more.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i4.3603
The goal was to perform the filling, consistency and processing of the rainfall time series data from 1943 to 2013 in five regions of the state. Data were obtained from several sources (ANA, CPRM, INMET, SERLA and LIGHT), totaling 23 stations. The time series (raw data) showed failures that were filled with data from TRMM satellite via 3B43 product, and with the climatological normal from INMET. The 3B43 product was used from 1998 to 2013 and the climatological normal over the 1947- 1997 period. Data were submitted to descriptive and exploratory analysis, parametric tests (Shapiro-Wilks and Bartlett), cluster analysis (CA), and data processing (Box Cox) in the 23 stations. Descriptive analysis of the raw data consistency showed a probability of occurrence above 75% (high time variability). Through the CA, two homogeneous rainfall groups (G1 and G2) were defined. The group G1 and G2 represent 77.01% and 22.99% of the rainfall occurring in SRJ, respectively. Box Cox Processing was effective in stabilizing the normality of the residuals and homogeneity of variance of the monthly rainfall time series of the five regions of the state. Data from 3B43 product and the climatological normal can be used as an alternative source of quality data for gap filling.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i4.3758
Transport sector is cited among the key emitted sector. In Burkina Faso, road transport occupies more than 60% of the emissions of the entire transport sector. However, there is no model equation for greenhouse gases modelling in transport sector. A methodology combining literature review and survey has been adopted to develop the simplified model equation in transport sector. The vehicle type survey allowed the identification of the type of vehicle and the literature review allowed the identification of the key parameters used for greenhouses gases modelling. The results revealed 10 vehicle types for road transport in Burkina Faso such as: Private cars, Public Transport/Buses, Special Vehicle (Ambulances, Fire bus, Funeral vehicles), other vehicle, Motorcycles, Wheeler, Rail, Van, Lorries and Truck Tractor. The keys parameters for greenhouse gases modelling are Fleet availability, Average annual distance travelled, Fuel Economy and Fuel emission factor. For all vehicle type identified simplified model equation was developed to support Burkina Faso, assessing greenhouse gases emission in the sector of transport. This approach could be replicated in other countries in the sub-Saharan Region.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3475
A comprehensive analysis of climate data (1958-2018) is carried out at the national scale in India to assess spatiotemporal variation in aridity. The aridity is analyzed using UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) Aridity Index (AI), which is the ratio between Precipitation (P) and Potential Evapotranspiration (PET). Freely available Terra-Climate database, P and PET variables, offered an unprecedented opportunity for monitoring variations in AI and aridity index anomalies (AIA) at interseasonal and inter-decadal basis. The study also assesses longer term patterns of P and AI anomalies with vegetation anomalies. The results indicate that significant clustered areas with maximum dryness are located at west-central part of India, the state of Maharashtra. Overall, there is a gradual increase in the extent of arid zone during 60-year period and spatially maximum extent of percentage change in aridity area is observed. The change patterns of AI in India are largely driven by the changing patterns of precipitation. The maximum impact of decline in precipitation on AIA was observed during Kharif season frequently, for every 4-5 years during 1972-1992. The pattern repeated in the last few recent years (2013- 2018), the decline in precipitation resulted increased aridity. The study also reveals that the availability and usage of irrigation sources have increased from 2014 to 2018. Thus, despite of less precipitation positive vegetation has been resulted in this period. The findings are important to understand the impacts of climate change on land use pattern, and land and water resource management.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3556
Himalayan glaciers‒ the store house of fresh water outside the polar region contributes ~45% of the total river flow by glacial melt in the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra watersheds which supports the livelihood of ~500 million people . The sustainability of these rivers is being questioned because of the growing evidences of accelerated glacier retreat in the recent decades, which is expected to have cascading effects on the mountainous areas and their surrounding lowlands. The rapid melting of Himalayan glaciers reveals their sensitivity to ongoing changes in climate dynamics, and if the current trend continues, rivers that rely heavily on snow/ice melt are expected to suffer hydrological disruptions to the point where some of the most populous areas may ‘run out of water’ during the dry season. Therefore, efforts are being made to study the glacier mass balance trends in order to understand the patterns and causes of recent recessional trend. Despite their importance, the absence of long-term mass-balance and remote sensing data restricts our knowledge of the Himalayan glaciers’ sensitivity/ response to climate change. Furthermore, such studies may be insufficient unless are compared to long-term glacier fluctuations (millennial and multi-millennial time scales), which aid in better understanding the natural trends of and human impacts on climate change, as well as assessing the causes and possible future of contemporary shrinking glaciers. This will also improve our understanding of past glacier behaviour in the context of primary causes of glacier change, which is critical for water resource management and understanding climate variability in high alpine areas where alternative proxy climate archives are typically scarce. Therefore, it is pertinent to pool our scientific resources and energy (i) towards understanding the Himalayan glaciers’ feeders (precipitation sources) and how they changed over time (geological and historical), as well as the causes of glaciers recession, one of which has been identified as (ii) black soot (carbon) in aerosol pollution.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3465
Hydrogen sulfide is an important acid rain precursor and this led us to investigate the kinetics of its oxidation in aqueous phase by atmospheric oxygen. The kinetics was followed by measuring the depletion of oxygen in a reactor. The reaction was studied under pseudo order conditions with [H2S] in excess. The kinetics followed the rate law: -d[O2]/dt = k[S][O2]t (A) Where [S] represents the total concentration of hydrogen sulfide, [O2]t is the concentration of oxygen at time t and k is the second order rate constant. The equilibria (B - C) govern the dissolution of H2S; the sulfide ion in water forms different species: H2S K1 HS- + H+ (B) HS- K2 S2- + H+ (C) Where K1 and K2 are first and second dissociation constants of H2S. Although, H2S is present as undissociated H2S, HS- and S2- ions, nature of [H+ ] dependence of reaction rate required only HS- to be reactive and dominant. The rate law (A) on including [H+ ] dependence became Equation (D). -d[O2]/dt = k1K1[H+ ][S][O2]t / ([H+ ] 2 + K1[H+ ] + K1K2) (D) Our results indicate anthropogenic VOCs such as acetanilide, benzene, ethanol, aniline, toluene, benzamide, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene and anisole to have no significant effect on the reaction rate and any observed small effect is within the uncertainty of the rate measurements.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3430
Atmospheric aerosol concentrations have been found to change constantly due to the influence of source, winds and human activities over short time periods. This has proved to be a constraint to the study of varied aerosol concentrations in urban atmosphere alongside changing relative humidity and how it affects visibility and aerosol particle size distribution. In this research simulation was carried out using Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC 4.0) average concentration setup for relative humidity (RH) 0-99% at visible wavelength 0.4-0.8 μm to vary the concentrations of three aerosol components: WASO (Water-soluble), INSO (Insoluble) and SOOT. The Angstrom exponents (α), the curvatures (α2) and atmospheric turbidities (β) were obtained from the regression analysis of Kaufman’s first and second order polynomial equations for visibility. The research determined the mean exponent of the aerosol size growth curve (µ) from the effective hygroscopic growth (geff) and the humidification factors (γ) from visibility enhancement f (RH, λ). The mean exponent of aerosol size distributions (υ) was determined from µ and γ. The results showed that with varied WASO, INSO and SOOT concentrations respectively at different RH, aerosol particle size distributions showed bimodal characteristics with dominance of fine mode particles. Hazy atmospheric conditions prevailed with increasing turbidity.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i3.3256
Using the 2015-2018 Hangzhou city PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2 and O3 mass concentration data, ERA5 reanalysis data and ground observation data, through the PCT classification method, the objective analysis of the winter air pollution weather situation in Hangzhou was obtained. The results showed that the winter air quality concentration in Hangzhou continued to be high from 2015 to 2018, and the air pollution was the most significant. Through objective classification, it is concluded that the main weather conditions affecting the region in winter are divided into 6 types, namely high pressure control, high pressure bottom control equalizing field, L-shaped high pressure control, high pressure front control equalizing field, low pressure control, low pressure front control Equalizing field. Among them, when high pressure control, high pressure bottom control equalizing field, L high pressure control, low pressure control are affected by local sources, the impact of external sources has a greater impact on the air quality in Hangzhou, and air pollution is prone to occur; before low pressure When the pressure equalization field is controlled by the Ministry and the pressure equalization field is controlled by the high pressure front, the local wind and precipitation in Hangzhou are relatively high, which is not conducive to the accumulation of air pollutants. The probability of occurrence of air pollution is small, and air pollution is not easy to occur.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i2.2916
With the development of the times and the progress of economy, great changes have taken place in the environment. In recent years, it is common to see bad weather, such as hurricane, drought, lightning and so on. The emergence of these weather has the greatest impact on farmers and crops, especially the lightning weather, not only that, but also sometimes cause personal injury. In the face of the frequent occurrence of bad weather in recent years and its harm and threat to China's agriculture, rural areas, personnel, etc., the author makes a detailed study on the causes of rural lightning weather, analyzes the lightning protection measures in rural areas and their shortcomings, and summarizes the relevant improvement measures.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.30564/jasr.v4i2.3165
Haboob occurrence strongly impacts the annual variability of airborne desert dust in North Africa with more dust raised from erodible surfaces in the early summer (monsoon) season when deep convective storms are common but soil moisture and vegetation cover are low. On 27 June 2018, a large dust storm is initiated in North Africa associated with an intensive westward dust transport. Far away from emission sources, dust is transported over the Atlantic for the long distance. Dust plume is emitted by a strong surface wind and becomes a type of haboob when it merges with the southeastward deep convective system in central Mali at 0200 UTC (27 June). We use satellite observations to describe and estimate the dust mass concentration during the event. Approximately 93% of emitted dust is removed from the atmosphere between sources (10°N–25°N; 1°W–8°E) and the African coast (6°N–21°N; 16°W–10°W). The convective cold pool has induced large economic and healthy damages, and death of animals in the northeastern side of Senegal. ERA5 reanalysis have shown that the convective mesoscale impacts strongly the climatological location of the Saharan heat low (SHL).