Journal of Atmospheric Science Research
EISSN : 2630-5119
Current Publisher: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 53
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2703
As a developing country in Africa, the effect of climate change is one of the sufferings of Ghana. The effect is much felt in rainfall variability because of the country over reliance on rainfall for agriculture. Over the past forty years, historical analyses of the cropping systems in Ghana indicated that there has been a shift from cocoa based to maize based cropping system. The shift was as a result of decline in the yield of cocoa due to changing rainfall pattern, lack of agricultural diversification and reliance on the production of crops that are sensitive to climate change. Also, an area suitability analysis of cash crops shows that climate change also creates an avenue for the cultivation of crops in certain areas that are formerly not grown there. For instance, cashew cultivation will become more suitable in parts of the north and east. To ascertain the variability in the rainfall pattern due to climate change, rainfall time series from 1981 to 2018 from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite for seven meteorological stations selected from the ecological zones of Ghana were analyzed. There are decreasing rate of rainfall in some months and increasing rate in others as estimated by the Sen’s Test which clearly depicts variability in the rainfall pattern. As an agrobased country, to adapt to the current climatic condition, cashew agroforestry is suggested by this study because its growth will be suitable in the current and future condition because larger portion of the country has been justified to be suitable for its cultivation.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2488
In past few decades, climate has manifested numerous shifts in its trend. Various natural and anthropogenic factors have influenced the dynamics and the trends of climate change at longer time scale. To understand the long term climate fluctuations, we have analyzed forty years (1978 - 2018) data of ten climatic parameters that are responsible to influence the climate dynamics. The parameters involved in the present study are total solar irradiance (TSI), ultra violet (UV) index, cloud cover, carbon dioxide (CO2) abundances, multivariate (ENSO) index, volcanic explosivity index (VEI), global surface temperature (GST) anomaly, global sea ice extent, global mean sea level and global precipitation anomaly. Using the above mentioned climate entities; we have constructed a proxy index to study the quantitative measure of the climate change. In this process these indicators were aggregated to a single proxy index as global climate index (GCI) that has measured the strength of present climate change in semblance with the past natural variability. To construct GCI, the principal component analysis (PCA) has been used on yearly based data for the period 1978 - 2018. Actually PCA is a statistical tool with which we can reduce the dimensionality of the data and it retains most of the variation in the new data set. Further, we have confined our study to natural climate drivers and anthropogenic climate drivers. Our result has indicated that the strongest climate change has been occurred globally by the end of the year 2018 in comparison to late 1970’s natural variability.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2704
In the terrain following coordinate, Gal-Chen and Somerville (1975) and other proposed a vertical coordinate z*=(z-zb)/(zt-zb) and constant spatial intervals of dx* and dy*along the other directions. Because the variation of and was ignored, their coordinate does not really follow the terrain. It fails to reproduce the divergence and curl over a complex terrain. Aligning the coordinate with real terrain, the divergence and curl we obtained from the curvilinear coordinate are consistent with the Cartesian coordinate. With a modification, the simulated total mass, energy, and momentum from the Navier-Stokes equations are conserved and in agreement with those calculated from Cartesian coordinate.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2521
The bioclimatic regularities between the average annual precipitation, average annual temperatures and the density of organic carbon in the soil layer of 0-30 cm of the steppes in the regions of the world are given. They are distinguished by a high certainty of quantization by asymmetric wave equations. It turned out that, due to the vibrational adaptation of organic carbon, precipitation and temperature are dependent on each other. For example, the model of the influence of precipitation on temperature includes the first term in the form of Laplace's law (in mathematics), Mandelbrot's law (in physics), Zipf-Perl (in biology), and Pareto (in econometrics). The second term is the biotechnical law of the author of the article, which gives the maximum change in the indicator. Both components form a trend that makes it possible to divide the precipitation interval into three stages: 1) with an increase in precipitation from 0 to 60 mm, the temperature decreases according to Mandelbrot's law from 23.25 to 0.5 0С; 2) from 60 to 2100 mm, the temperature rises to 24 ° C; 3) with a further increase in precipitation over 2100 mm, a slow decrease in temperature occurs. The third term is an asymmetric wavelet with a constant half-period of 367.8 mm. A positive sign shows that in the steppes there is a positive oscillatory adaptation of temperature to changes in precipitation. In the interval of precipitation 0-350 mm, an oscillatory decrease in temperature occurs. It turns out that the first oscillation at 0 mm precipitation begins with a very high temperature gradient of thermal energy. The first interval includes Mongolia and Inner Mongolia. In the second interval of 350-750 mm, an oscillatory increase in temperature occurs. Then, in the third interval 750-1050 mm, the temperature drops again. The second oscillation with a correlation coefficient of 0.9685 has clear precipitation boundaries in the range of 200-2000 mm. Due to the negative sign, the fluctuation is a crisis, inhibiting the rise in temperature. And the third fluctuation has a positive effect on the temperature. The mechanism of oscillatory adaptation in the steppe soil is so perfect that it changes for itself the conditions of the place where the grass grows. An amplitude-frequency analysis of each oscillation will make it possible to determine the specific particular effects of precipitation and temperature on each other and on the density of organic carbon. It was found that two-factor modeling of the change in the soil organic carbon density makes it possible to achieve an identification error even less than the absolute measurement error.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 4; doi:10.30564/jasr.v4i1.2539
The height profile of atmospheric temperature data between 12 km and 100 km was obtained from SABER/TIMED satellite instruments during the year 2016 and used to characterize the three atmospheric pauses temporal variability of height and temperature over Bahir Dar, Ethiopia ( N, E). The daily, monthly, and frequency distributions of tropopause-stratopause-mesopause height and temperature are investigated. From the frequency distribution, we had found that of the tropopause-stratopause-mesopause height 17 km, 48 km, and 98 km with the corresponding temperature 192 k, 268 k, and 148 k. The decrement (cooling) trend lines of tropopause height 0.7 and its corresponding tropopause increment temperature has been ~1.5 . The stratopause and mesopause trend lines of height are insignificant and the corresponding decrement (cooling) temperatures are ~3 and ~13 respectively. The mean monthly maximum heights of tropopause 19 km in May with a corresponding maximum temperature of 201 k in September. The maximum stratopause height 49.5 km in February and July and its temperature 268 k and 267 k in February and April respectively. The maximum mesopause height 98 km, 95 km, 97 km in March, Jun, and November respectively, and its maximum temperature 196 k and 198 k in January and July respectively.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2342
The paper presents research data on positive and negative coronas in atmospheric pressure air in a highly inhomogeneous electric field. The data show that irrespective of the polarity of pointed electrodes placed in a high electric field (>200 kV/cm), this type of discharge develops via spherical streamers even if the gap voltage rises slowly (£0.2 kV/ms). The start voltage of first positive streamers, compared to negative ones, is higher and the amplitude and the frequency of their current pulses are much lower: about two times and more than two orders of magnitude, respectively. The higher frequency of current pulses from negative spherical streamers provides higher average currents and larger luminous regions of negative coronas compared to positive ones. Positive and negative cylindrical streamers from a pointed to a plane electrode are detected and successive discharge transitions at both polarities are identified.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2231
In 2016 WHO reported that Kolkata is the second most polluted city in India behind Delhi. Albeit the number of registered vehicles in Kolkata is much less compare to Delhi. Kolkata has encountered a decade long battle against change of old vehicles and fuel types. So, this paper made an attempt to explore the dynamics of air pollution in the city specially pre and post period of vehicle and fuel change in the city. The objectives of the paper include looking at spatiotemporal change of air pollution the city. Besides, the paper additionally illuminates on the role of land use functions and pollution in the city. The analysis shows that after the implementation of regulatory measures air pollution in the city reduced to some extent but effects of the measure gradually diminished. It is found that land use function as well as dynamics of metropolitan area plays crucial role in the air pollution of the city.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2275
Climatic changes and its impact are increasingly evident in Pakistan, especially in the mountainous regions. Mountain ecosystems are considered to be sensitive indicators of global warming; even slight variations in temperature can lead to significant shifts in local climate, which can in turn drastically affect the natural environment, subsequently altering people’s lifestyle and wildlife habitats. The targeted area for the present research was Lower Dir District, Pakistan. The study gathered the required information from primary and secondary sources. Secondary data on temperature and precipitation was obtained from various sources, i.e., local CBO, including WWF Pakistan. On the basis of information gathered on climate change and wildlife, a detailed questionnaire was designed. The data analysis procedure involved preliminary coding and sorting of data, mostly through data reduction and data reconstruction. The data was presented in a narrative report of findings with descriptive and interpretative details. Results showed that no regular pattern of increase was found in temperature from 2010 to 2018; the same was noticed in the case of rainfall decrease pattern. Results also showed that the main causes behind climatic changes are an increase in greenhouse gases due to pollution by industries, vehicles, crushing plants, deforestation as well as some natural phenomena such as floods. The study showed that more than 80% of the respondents agreed that climatic effects have a great impact on wildlife, i.e., the existence of wildlife falls in danger due to climatic changes as it may lead to habitat change making it difficult for the survival and adaptation of the wildlife. Hence, in consequence, it leads to migration, low growth rate, increase in morbidity and mortality rate, and finally leading to extinction of the species or population. It is concluded from the study that climatic change is being severely noticed by people and its main causes are greenhouse gases and deforestation. It is also concluded that there is no or less conservation tool applied in the targeted area; also there is a low budget for forest safety and wildlife conservation. To control climatic changes and wildlife extinction, we need an appropriate policy for forest conservation, wildlife conservation, prevent hunting, industrial pollution control, vehicle pollution control, increase in plantation, awareness of policy for control of climatic changes, and so on.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2255
Due to global climate change it is important to constantly monitor the current climate state, observed trends and timely detection of their changes. The change in the hydrothermal regime has to result into changes in natural ecosystems. The analysis of long-term changes of mean annual temperatures and annual precipitation in warm and cold seasons over 1955-2017 years was carried out using data of the Davsha meteorological station , 54, 35˚N., 109,5˚E. Significant warming in the Northern Baikal region has been observed since 1990 and continues to the present. The climate is subcontinental with cool and short summers, frosty and long winters. In the last decade, there has been a shift of the beginning some phenology seasons. This had an effect on the increase in the warm season of the year and the duration of the frost-free period (by 5 days from the long-term average date). Spring comes earlier - for 3 days, summer and the last frost - for 5 days, autumn comes later - for 2 days.
Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jasr.v3i4.2269
Thestudy attempts to estimateand predict climate impact on crop yieldsusing future temperature projections under two climate emissions scenarios of RCP 4.5 and 8.5 for threedifferent time periods (2030s, 2050s and 2080s) across Agro-climatic zones (ACZ) of India.During the period 1966-2011, a significant rise was observed in both the annual mean maximum and minimum temperature across ACZs. Rainfall recorded an annual decline in Himalayan Regions and Gangetic Plains and a rise in Coastal Regions, Plateau & Hills and Western Dry Region.Our results showedhigh heterogeneity in climate impact onkharif and rabi crop yields (with both negative and positive estimates) across ACZs.It was found that rainfall had a positive effect on most of crop yields, but was not sufficient enough to counterbalance the impact of temperature.Changes in crop yield were more pronounced forhigheremission scenario of RCP 8.5. Thus, it was evident that the relative impacts of climate change and the associated vulnerability varyby ACZs, hence comprehensive crop and region-specific adaptation measures should be emphasized that helps in enhancing resilience of agricultural system in short to medium term.