Journal of Zoological Research

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EISSN : 2630-5100
Published by: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 62
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Pauline Mbakaan Akombo, John Iornyiman Atile, Judith Nguvan Shima
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i3.3408

Abstract:
The growth parameters and mortalities of five species of Synodontis in the lower river Benue at Makurdi, Benue State were studied from January,2016 to December, 2018. The asymptotic length (L∞) calculated for the five species ranged from 18.80cm in S.clarias females to 37.04cm in S.membranaceus females. The t0 values were all negative in the combined sexes of S.clarias, S.omias, S.gambiensis and S.membranaceus. In both combined sexes of S.membranaceus and S.schall, the t0 values were positive. The growth rate (K) was low in S.clarias and S.omias (0.301- 0.497, 0.171 - 0.310) respectively and higher in S.membranaceus (0.310 - 0.640), S.schall females (0.430 - 0.580); S.schall males (0.573),S.gambiensis (0.500 - 0.571). Growth performance index (Ø’) was 2.212 in S.gambiensis and 2.946 in S.schall combined. Natural Mortality (M) ranged from 0.5422 in S.omias females to 1.3340 in S.membranaceus males. Fishing Mortality (F) was 0.8214 in S.omias combined and 3.0934 in S.membranaceus females. Total mortality (Z) ranged from 1.52 in S.omias combined to 4.078 in S.membranaceus combined. Mean Exploitation (E) ratios was 0.61 in S.clarias, 0.64 in S.omias, 0.53 in S.gambiences, 0.70 in S.membranaceus, and 0.66 in S.schall. The rate at which these species survived in the River was low (from 0.147, in S.omias combined, to 1.482 in S.membranaceus combined).
Yue Ma, Tiantian Guo, Yihe Wang, Xinna Li, Jingyu Zhang
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i3.3337

Abstract:
In order to adapt to the low temperature environment, organisms transmitexcitement to the central system through the thermal sensing system, whichis a classic reflex reaction. The cold receptor GLR-3 perceives cold and produces cold avoidance behavior through peripheral sensory neurons ASER.In order to further understand the gene encoding of the cold sensing glr-3gene and the evolution of its homologous gene group function and proteinfunction, the nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence of the glr-3gene and its homologous gene in 24 species were obtained and compared.By clustering with the GRIK2 gene sequence of Rana chensinensis, the bioinformatics method was used to predict and sequence analyze the change ofgene, evolution rate, physical and chemical properties of protein, glycosylation sites, phosphorylation sites, secondary structure and tertiary structureof protein. The analysis results show that the glr-3 gene and its homologousgene have obvious positive selection effect. The protein prediction analysisshowed that the glr-3 gene and its homologous genes encoded proteinsin these 25 species were hydrophilic proteins, and the proportion of sidechains of aliphatic amino acids was high. The transmembrane helix waswidespread and there were more N-glycosylation sites and O-glycosylationsites. The protein phosphorylation sites encoded were serine, threonine andtyrosine phosphorylation sites. Secondary structure prediction showed thatthe secondary structure units of the encoded protein were α-helix, β-turn,random coil and extended chain, and the proportion of α-helix was the largest. This study provides useful information on the evolution and function ofthe cold sensing gene glr-3 and its homologous genes.
Abdul Haleem, Orus Ilyas
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i3.3544

Abstract:
The habitats for the wild animals are shrinking due to the clearance of forests for agriculture and industrialization. The idea of wildlife conservation begins with the identification of their acceptable habitat. Since this crucial information helps in the development and maintenance of the protected areas. The requirement of habitat varies with different landscapes.The bluebull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) is Asia’s largest antelope,widespread throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. Peter Simon Pallasin (1766) described it as the only member of the genus Boselaphus.The Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972 lists it as a Schedule III animal, while the IUCN lists it as Least Concern (LC). Our goal was to design a habitat appropriateness model for blue bull so that it could reduce the conflict with farming community due to crop damage. Model will be develop using RS & GIS technique to protect the species inside the Pench Tiger Reserve (77° 55’ W to 79° 35’ E and 21° 08’ S to 22° 00’ N) the central highlands of India. The satellite data from LANDSAT-8 of 4th April 2015, Path- 144,Row- 45, with a ground resolution of 30 meters, were collected from the USGS website. This satellite image was then transferred in image format to ERDAS IMAGINE 2013 for further analysis. The data from satellites were gathered and analysed. The purpose of the field survey was to gather information about the presence of various ungulates. A ground truthing exercise was also carried out. For data processing and GIS analysis,ERDAS IMAGINE 13 and Arc GIS 10 were used. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used Factors were identified who were influencing the spatial distribution of the species for conservation planning. The linear additive model was used for HSI. The results show that 242 km2 (29.48 percent) of Pench Tiger Reserve forest was recognized to be highly suitable for bluebull, while 196 km2 (23.87 percent) was moderately suitable,231 km2 (28.14 percent) was suitable, 109 km2 (13.28 percent) was least suitable, and about 43 km2 (5.249 percent) of PTR was completely avoided by bluebull.
, Adrielly Julien Silva Lopes, Lilja Fromme, André Luís Quagliatto Santos
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i3.3448

Abstract:
Brazil has six species of crocodiles belonging to the subfamily Caimaninae,one of them being Paleosuchus palpebrosus (Cuvier, 1807) (dwarf caiman).It is considered one of the smallest crocodilian species, and is sensitive toenvironmental changes. The anatomical and histological descriptions ofthe reproductive tract of reptiles are scarce, so it is important to study themorphology of the genital tract of caimans for a better understanding of thereproduction of these species. We performed the histological analysis of thetestis, epididymis, and deferent duct of the dwarf caiman Paleosuchus palpebrosus. Structures of the genital tract were collected from euthanized animals. Testes, epididymis, and deferent ducts were separated and preparedaccording to routine histological techniques for morphological characterization. The testis is covered by a capsule of fibromuscular connective tissue.Spermatogonia are observed as spherical cells with round nuclei and loosechromatin, and primary spermatocytes show dark cytoplasm, round nuclei,and pale chromatin. Spermatids are seen as cylindrical or filamentous cellswith nuclei that may be highly condensed, ranging from round to oval. Theepididymis is observed as a coiled duct lined by a tall cuboidal epitheliumwith stereocilia; the deferent duct shows ciliated pseudostratified cylindrical epithelium. The adrenal gland is found in the dorsomedial portion of thetestis. The histological structure of the reproductive tract of Paleosuchuspalpebrosus is similar to that of other reptiles’species.
Song Sun, Hongliang Dou, Shichao Wei, Yani Fang, Zexu Long, Jiao Wang, Fuyu An, Jinqian Xu, Tingting Xue, Huangjie Qiu, et al.
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i3.3102

Abstract:
Ecosystem engineers are organisms that alter the distribution of resources in the environment by creating, modifying, maintaining and/or destroying the habitat. They can affect the structure and function of the whole ecosystem furthermore. Burrowing engineers are an important group in ecosystem engineers as they play a critical role in soil translocation and habitat creation in various types of environment.However, few researchers have systematically summarized and analyzed the studies of burrowing engineers. We reviewing the existing ecological studies of burrowing engineer about their interaction with habitat through five directions: (1) soil turnover; (2)changing soil physicochemical properties; (3) changing plant community structure; (4) providing limited resources for commensal animals;and/or (5) affecting animal communities. The Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) is a typical example of burrowing mammals, in part (5), we focus on the interspecific relationships among burrow commensal species of Chinese pangolin. The engineering effects vary with environmental gradient, literature indicates that burrowing engineer play a stronger role in habitat transformation in the tropical and subtropical areas.The most common experiment method is comparative measurements (include different spatial and temporal scale),manipulative experiment is relatively few. We found that most of the engineering effects had positive feedback to the local ecosystem, increased plant abundance and resilience, increased biodiversity and consequently improved ecosystem functioning. With the global background of dramatic climate change and biodiversity loss in recent decades, we recommend future studies should improving knowledge of long-term engineering effects on population scale and landscape scale, exploring ecological cascades through trophic and engineering pathways, to better understand the attribute of the burrowing behavior of engineers to restore ecosystems and habitat creation. The review is presented as an aid to systematically expound the engineering effect of burrowing animals in the ecosystem, and provided new ideas and advice for planning and implementing conservation management.
, André Luís Quagliatto Santos, , Maurício Foschini, Caroline Silva Vieira
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i2.3106

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Cervids show a high degree of abnormalities in their sperm cells. Thus, this study aimed to select high-quality spermatozoa using magnetic-activated sperm sorting (MASS) compared to density gradient centrifugation (DGC) by assessing the post-selection cell quality. Semen from six Mazama deer was collected by electroejaculation after chemical restraint. The semen was analyzed in four samples: Fresh, DGC, SEMgood - non-apoptotic fraction, and SEMpoor - apoptotic fraction. The material was analyzed for motility and vigor (light microscopy), concentration (Neubauer chamber), semen morphology (phase contrast), and supravital staining test (eosin/ nigrosine). The DGC method used 20 x 106 cells in 90% and 45% percoll® gradient. The MASS used 10 x 106 cells with 20 μl of iron nanoparticles attached to Annexin V and filtration in a magnetic separation column. Both processing methods (DGC and MASS) were effective in producing high-quality sperm samples, with a marked reduction in abnormalities from 41.83 ± 10.25 (fresh) to 14.83 ± 3.17(DGC) and 12 ± 3.01(SEMgood), with 80.3% ± 2.06 livings cells. These findings suggest that this nanotechnological method, using nanoparticles, effectively produces high-quality semen samples in cervids for use in assisted reproduction.
Sayyad Sheykhi Ilanloo, Sohrab Ashrafi, Afshin Alizadeh Shabani
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i2.2897

Abstract:
Identifying suitable habitats of species is essential knowledge to conserve them successfully. Human activities causes the reduction of population size and habitat suitability of many species. Red-backed Shrike is a widespread in western Palearctic. However, the population of this specie has declined in its geographical range due to the loss of suitable habitats. Therefore, it is necessary to identify its suitable habitats and factors affecting species habitat suitability and to protect its reduction population size. The aim of the present study was to identify the suitable habitat of the Red-backed Shrike and determine the most important predictors of its suitable habitat in Irano-Anatolian biodiversity hotspot. To achieve this goal, species presence points were first collected and seven environmental variables related to climate, topography and anthropogenic activities, were used to construct the species habitat suitable model. Models were built using five distribution modeling methods: Maxent, GAP, GLM, RF and GBM in sdm package. Then the models were Ensemble from 5 different models and the final model was constructed. The results of this study showed that the most suitable habitats of this species are in the western and northern parts of the area of study. The mean annual temperature with 41% contribution was the most important variable in constructing the habitat suitability model for this specie. In addition, climate variables with 75% contribution were identified as the most important habitat suitability factor for this specie. Also in relation to conservation of the Red-backed Shrike species in the Irano-Anatolian region, it can be stated that the extent of distribution and presence of this specie has been extended to the northern latitudes due to climate change. As a result, the temperature and climate factor should be given special attention in the management of bird habitats in this area.
V. M. Kaplich, E. B. Sukhomlin, O. P. Zinchenko
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i2.3101

Abstract:
This article considers the natural regulators of blood-sucking Simuliidae subzone of mixed forests on the territory of Belarus and Ukraine. In the mixed forests, the major regulators of preimaginal phases of bloodsucking blackflies are microsporidia (Polidyspirenia simulii, Polidyspirenia sp., Thelohania fibrata, Amblyospora bracteata, A. varians), fungi and mermithides (Gastromermis boophthorae). Caddisfly larvae (Hydropsyche angustipennis, Neureclipsis bimaculata, Polycentropus flavomaculatus, Cyrnus flavidus, Oligostomis reticulata, Brachycentrus subnubilus and Rhyacophila nubila) and fishes (Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio) significantly reduce the number of blackflies larvae and pupae. Adult blackflies are eaten by spiders (Araneus diadematus) dragonflies, robberflies, wasps, frogs (Rana temporaria and Rana terrestris), and insectivorous birds (Delichon urbicum, Hirundo rustica, Apus apus). Bactolarvicid and BLP-2477 are among the most effective biological products.
Mas Yedi Sumaryadi, Euis Nia Setiawati, Agus Triyanto, Vony Armelia
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i2.3087

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the morphometric characteristics and reproductive performance of Pasundan cows which are extensively reared on smallholder farms in the coastal areas of the south (Garut, Cianjur, and Sukabumi) and North Priangan (Bogor, Purwakarta, and Sumedang). This research is descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Production characterization was carried out using a simple method, namely by measuring the body surface including shoulder height, chest circumference, body length, and bodyweight of Pasundan cattle. Meanwhile, the reproductive characteristics discuss puberty, service per conception (S / C), conception rate (CR), calving rate, postpartum estrus, postpartum mating, days open (DO), calving interval (CI), calving birth weight, and calving rate. calves weight growth. Data were collected by survey, the location was determined by purposive sampling in the area of the seed source with the largest population and the random sampling of livestock was determined purposively as many as 30 Pasundan cows from each region. Data were analyzed using quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that the morphometric characteristics of Pasundan cattle included mean shoulder height of 123.0 0 ± 3.06a cm VS 121.34 ± 2.82a in males and 110.34 ± 2.78 vs 108.00 ± 2.14a in females. Body length 115.74 ± 3.30 cm VS 115.34 ± 2.97acm in males and 112.67 ± 2.97cm VS 109.67 ± 1.82 cm in females. Chest circumference 145.67 ± 2.97cm VS 142.67 ± 2.67cm bulls and 136.00 ± 2.95cm VS 131.00 ± 2.92cm in females, Bodyweight 268.0 ± 17.00 kg VS 246.00 ± 7.00a for males and 215.0 ± 15.00 kg VS 194.00 ± 54.00kg in females. As for reproductive characteristics, it shows puberty of 20-24 months., S / C 1.4 - 1.6, Conception rate 65-70%, calving rate 62.5-65%, Postpartum Estrus 50-60 days, postpartum mating 72-104 days, day -open 94-126 days and a calving interval of 12-14 months. Calves' birth weight was 18.0 - 18.5 kg and daily body weight gain ranged from 0.48 to 0.50 kg. It was concluded that the morphometric characteristics and reproductive performance of Pasundan cattle in the Pesisir Selatan area were better than North Priangan.
Junhan Mei, Yiyu Zhang, Minfang You, Chaomei Liao, Guanghui Tan, Jiezhang Li
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.30564/jzr.v3i2.3048

Abstract:
In order to explore the influence of the polymorphism in the 20 intron region of the Sansui duck ATP2A2 gene on the eggshell quality, this study used Primer Premier 5 software to design and synthesize a pair of primers in the 20 intron region, two-way direct sequencing and sequence alignment to mine SNPs Sites, SPSS 18.0 software was used to analyze the relationship between SNP sites and eggshell quality of Sansui duck. Results Three SNP sites were found in the 20 intron region of the ATP2A2 gene: g.40874 T>C, g.40920 G>A and g.40990 T=C, all of which were moderately polymorphic, at the site g.40874 T >C and g.40920 G>A both deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05), position g.40990 T=C accords with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P<0.05), and position g.40874 T>C There is a strong linkage disequilibrium between g.40990 T=C; a total of 4 haplotypes and 9 double types were detected at 3 SNP loci; the results of association analysis show that g.40874 T>C mutation has an effect on eggshell strength The eggshell strength of CC genotype was significantly higher than that of TC and TT genotypes (P<0.05), and the eggshell weight of CC genotype was significantly higher than that of TC genotype (P<0.05), g. The 40990 T=C mutation has a significant effect on the eggshell strength, and the eggshell strength of the TC genotype is significantly higher than that of the TT genotype (PC and g.40990 T=C found in the 20th intron region of the Sansui duck ATP2A2 gene may be the marker sites that affect the quality of the eggshell.
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