Journal of Zoological Research
EISSN : 2630-5100
Current Publisher: Bilingual Publishing Co. (10.30564)
Total articles ≅ 52
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i2.2897
Identifying suitable habitats of species is essential knowledge to conserve them successfully. Human activities causes the reduction of population size and habitat suitability of many species. Red-backed Shrike is a widespread in western Palearctic. However, the population of this specie has declined in its geographical range due to the loss of suitable habitats. Therefore, it is necessary to identify its suitable habitats and factors affecting species habitat suitability and to protect its reduction population size. The aim of the present study was to identify the suitable habitat of the Red-backed Shrike and determine the most important predictors of its suitable habitat in Irano-Anatolian biodiversity hotspot. To achieve this goal, species presence points were first collected and seven environmental variables related to climate, topography and anthropogenic activities, were used to construct the species habitat suitable model. Models were built using five distribution modeling methods: Maxent, GAP, GLM, RF and GBM in sdm package. Then the models were Ensemble from 5 different models and the final model was constructed. The results of this study showed that the most suitable habitats of this species are in the western and northern parts of the area of study. The mean annual temperature with 41% contribution was the most important variable in constructing the habitat suitability model for this specie. In addition, climate variables with 75% contribution were identified as the most important habitat suitability factor for this specie. Also in relation to conservation of the Red-backed Shrike species in the Irano-Anatolian region, it can be stated that the extent of distribution and presence of this specie has been extended to the northern latitudes due to climate change. As a result, the temperature and climate factor should be given special attention in the management of bird habitats in this area.
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i2.3106
Cervids show a high degree of abnormalities in their sperm cells. Thus, this study aimed to select high-quality spermatozoa using magnetic-activated sperm sorting (MASS) compared to density gradient centrifugation (DGC) by assessing the post-selection cell quality. Semen from six Mazama deer was collected by electroejaculation after chemical restraint. The semen was analyzed in four samples: Fresh, DGC, SEMgood - non-apoptotic fraction, and SEMpoor - apoptotic fraction. The material was analyzed for motility and vigor (light microscopy), concentration (Neubauer chamber), semen morphology (phase contrast), and supravital staining test (eosin/ nigrosine). The DGC method used 20 x 106 cells in 90% and 45% percoll® gradient. The MASS used 10 x 106 cells with 20 μl of iron nanoparticles attached to Annexin V and filtration in a magnetic separation column. Both processing methods (DGC and MASS) were effective in producing high-quality sperm samples, with a marked reduction in abnormalities from 41.83 ± 10.25 (fresh) to 14.83 ± 3.17(DGC) and 12 ± 3.01(SEMgood), with 80.3% ± 2.06 livings cells. These findings suggest that this nanotechnological method, using nanoparticles, effectively produces high-quality semen samples in cervids for use in assisted reproduction.
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i2.3101
This article considers the natural regulators of blood-sucking Simuliidae subzone of mixed forests on the territory of Belarus and Ukraine. In the mixed forests, the major regulators of preimaginal phases of bloodsucking blackflies are microsporidia (Polidyspirenia simulii, Polidyspirenia sp., Thelohania fibrata, Amblyospora bracteata, A. varians), fungi and mermithides (Gastromermis boophthorae). Caddisfly larvae (Hydropsyche angustipennis, Neureclipsis bimaculata, Polycentropus flavomaculatus, Cyrnus flavidus, Oligostomis reticulata, Brachycentrus subnubilus and Rhyacophila nubila) and fishes (Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio) significantly reduce the number of blackflies larvae and pupae. Adult blackflies are eaten by spiders (Araneus diadematus) dragonflies, robberflies, wasps, frogs (Rana temporaria and Rana terrestris), and insectivorous birds (Delichon urbicum, Hirundo rustica, Apus apus). Bactolarvicid and BLP-2477 are among the most effective biological products.
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i2.3087
This study aims to determine the morphometric characteristics and reproductive performance of Pasundan cows which are extensively reared on smallholder farms in the coastal areas of the south (Garut, Cianjur, and Sukabumi) and North Priangan (Bogor, Purwakarta, and Sumedang). This research is descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Production characterization was carried out using a simple method, namely by measuring the body surface including shoulder height, chest circumference, body length, and bodyweight of Pasundan cattle. Meanwhile, the reproductive characteristics discuss puberty, service per conception (S / C), conception rate (CR), calving rate, postpartum estrus, postpartum mating, days open (DO), calving interval (CI), calving birth weight, and calving rate. calves weight growth. Data were collected by survey, the location was determined by purposive sampling in the area of the seed source with the largest population and the random sampling of livestock was determined purposively as many as 30 Pasundan cows from each region. Data were analyzed using quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that the morphometric characteristics of Pasundan cattle included mean shoulder height of 123.0 0 ± 3.06a cm VS 121.34 ± 2.82a in males and 110.34 ± 2.78 vs 108.00 ± 2.14a in females. Body length 115.74 ± 3.30 cm VS 115.34 ± 2.97acm in males and 112.67 ± 2.97cm VS 109.67 ± 1.82 cm in females. Chest circumference 145.67 ± 2.97cm VS 142.67 ± 2.67cm bulls and 136.00 ± 2.95cm VS 131.00 ± 2.92cm in females, Bodyweight 268.0 ± 17.00 kg VS 246.00 ± 7.00a for males and 215.0 ± 15.00 kg VS 194.00 ± 54.00kg in females. As for reproductive characteristics, it shows puberty of 20-24 months., S / C 1.4 - 1.6, Conception rate 65-70%, calving rate 62.5-65%, Postpartum Estrus 50-60 days, postpartum mating 72-104 days, day -open 94-126 days and a calving interval of 12-14 months. Calves' birth weight was 18.0 - 18.5 kg and daily body weight gain ranged from 0.48 to 0.50 kg. It was concluded that the morphometric characteristics and reproductive performance of Pasundan cattle in the Pesisir Selatan area were better than North Priangan.
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i2.3048
In order to explore the influence of the polymorphism in the 20 intron region of the Sansui duck ATP2A2 gene on the eggshell quality, this study used Primer Premier 5 software to design and synthesize a pair of primers in the 20 intron region, two-way direct sequencing and sequence alignment to mine SNPs Sites, SPSS 18.0 software was used to analyze the relationship between SNP sites and eggshell quality of Sansui duck. Results Three SNP sites were found in the 20 intron region of the ATP2A2 gene: g.40874 T>C, g.40920 G>A and g.40990 T=C, all of which were moderately polymorphic, at the site g.40874 T ＞C and g.40920 G＞A both deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05), position g.40990 T=C accords with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P<0.05), and position g.40874 T＞C There is a strong linkage disequilibrium between g.40990 T=C; a total of 4 haplotypes and 9 double types were detected at 3 SNP loci; the results of association analysis show that g.40874 T＞C mutation has an effect on eggshell strength The eggshell strength of CC genotype was significantly higher than that of TC and TT genotypes (P<0.05), and the eggshell weight of CC genotype was significantly higher than that of TC genotype (P<0.05), g. The 40990 T=C mutation has a significant effect on the eggshell strength, and the eggshell strength of the TC genotype is significantly higher than that of the TT genotype (PC and g.40990 T=C found in the 20th intron region of the Sansui duck ATP2A2 gene may be the marker sites that affect the quality of the eggshell.
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i1.2771
Stable flies (Stomoxys spp.) are common pests of livestock in the peri-urban rangelands of Vina Division of the Adamawa Plateau. No documented information is available on their diurnal dynamics in relation to physiological age and landscape. The main aim of this study was to determine the trap apparent density (ADT) of Stomoxys and associate it to their diurnal activity rhythm and landscape. Vavoua traps (n=12) were used for Stomoxys collection. Trapping was carried out for seven days i.e. three days consecutively in August and four days consecutively in October, 2016. Three traps were pitched in each of the three biotopes (river, cattle corral and gallery forest) of the four study sites (Galim, Mbidjoro, Velambai and Soukourwo). All female Stomoxys captured underwent ovarian dissection for the determination of their physiological ages (parous or nulliparous). A total of 218 Stomoxys were caught and identified into four species (S. niger niger, S. omega, S. calcitrans, and S. xanthomelas) with an overall ADT of 2.59 flies per trap per day and Stomoxys niger niger (1.13 s.n.n. per trap per day) recorded the highest ADT. Species richness was study site dependent. Higher catches of females 113 (51.83%) were made than that of their male 105 (48.17%) counterparts. Galim recorded the highest Stomoxys apparent density (4.90) as compared to other sites with a statistically significant difference (P
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i1.2880
The present study is based on some analytical studies of diversity, population status, Threats and conservation status of the black pond freshwater turtle, Geoclemys hamiltonii of Pakistan. Illegal international trade of the Black Spotted Turtle has escalated in the past few years which are indicated by seizure data in South and South-east Asian countries. Bangkok is one of the major destined for illegal trade in East Asia. International smuggling occurs predominantly by passengers using commercial airlines concealing animals in their baggage. Black Spotted Turtle smuggling could be part of this overall pattern of demand. Although some of the seizures resulted in arrests, few successful prosecutions of smugglers have been reported. Efforts supporting enforcement and prosecution are recommended to raise awareness of this issue and address poaching and illegal export of Black Spotted Turtles, with specific priority in Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Formal Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) are strongly encouraged between governments of countries and territories along the trade route of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Hong Kong and Taiwan to improve cross border enforcement.
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i1.2869
A study was conducted on the histological structure, morphology of gonads and spermatogenesis of testes of the striped piggy fish, Pomadasys stridens from Karachi coast of Pakistan. The reproductive biology of grunt fishes, and the Pomadasys stridens in particular, is not well understood with respect to functional morphology and histology of the gonads in relation to sexual maturity. In the course of an investigation of the genetic variability of Pomadasys stridens, differences in morphology were observed between the right and left gonad of male and female fish and the size of the fat body associated with the gonads. Histological examinations were made to determine the relationship between these morphological differences and the reproductive state of the gonads. Findings made from this paper are gonad morphology, histology, and spermatogenesis and relate them to the reproductive biology of this species.
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i1.2619
A Cross-sectional Study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (G.I.) helminths parasites in slaughtered cattle at Azare abattoir, Katagum Local Government Area, Bauchi State, North-Eastern Nigeria. One hundred and twenty faecal samples were examined using the floatation and sedimentation method. Out of the total samples tested, G.I. helminths infections were detected in 62samples tested, giving an overall prevalence of 51.6%. Class nematodes are the most diverse class (56.5%) and then followed by trematodes (35.5%), while cestodes are the least prevalent (8.1%). There was a statistically significant difference in P-value >0.05. The sex revealed that males (52.6%) are more susceptible to G.I. helminths infection than females (50.0%) even though there is no statistical difference at P-value >0.05. However, the prevalence of G.I. helminths to age revealed a statistical difference at P-value >0.05, where the young have the highest prevalence of 59.5%. The Red Bororo breeds had the highest prevalence of 75%, while the least was recorded in White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali, 40% each. There was a statistically significant difference at P-value >0.05. This study revealed that Fasciola spp (15%) is the most prevalent G.I. helminths parasites detected, followed by Oesophagostomum spp (11.7%); Haemonchus spp (9.2%); Strongyloides spp (8.3%), Schistosoma spp (3.3%); and Moniezia spp (1.67%). Our findings from the present study revealed a high prevalence of G.I. helminths species affecting cattle in Azare and Nigeria as a whole. Therefore, there is a great need for proper advocacy on the need for appropriate management, regular deworming practices, and improved cattle hygiene to boost animal production. This will help in curbing great lost to Nigeria's economy and the world in general.
Journal of Zoological Research, Volume 3; doi:10.30564/jzr.v3i1.2781
There are several reports on the utilisation of Moringa oleifera in poultry nutrition due to its essential bioactive compounds yet, little is known about its influence on Japanese quail eggs and meat qualities. Hence, this study was aimed at examining the performance, eggs and meat qualities of Japanese quail hens fed M. oleifera leaf. To achieve this, 240 Japanese quail chicks were allocated to three dietary treatments: D1: control, 0.0% (without M. oleifera leaf meal), D2: (0.5% M. oleifera leaf meal) and D3: (1% M. oleifera leaf meal). Data on performance, carcass, organs, eggs and meat qualities were collected and subjected to ANOVA at 0.05. Results revealed that feed consumption was lowest (2,701g) in D1 and highest (2,800g) in D2, carcass weight varied from 100 – 100.67g, thigh weight (12.66 – 13.58g) and breast weight was highest (40.41g) in D3. Liver weight was lowest (3.25g) in D1, kidney was largest (0.91g) in D3 whereas, the heart, gizzard and spleen weights ranged from 1.00 – 1.16g, 3.08 – 3.50g and 0.04 – 0.08g, respectively. In the eggs, crude protein (10.94%), crude fat (6.71%), ash (1.36%), high-density lipoprotein (96.12mg/100g) and low-density lipoprotein (120.67mg/100g) were highest in D1. Total cholesterol (364.08mg/100g) and triglycerides (147.27mg/100g) were least in D1 and the caloric value varied from 1.46 – 1.47kcal/g. In the meat, crude protein (17.14%) and energy value (1.96kcal/g) were best in D2 but, crude fat (12.62%), ash (2.85%) and carbohydrates (1.31%) were superior in D3. In both eggs and meat, no crude fibre (0.0%) was detected. In any case, all the parameter values were within the normal ranges given in healthy Japanese quails at similar age. Consequently, inclusion of M. oleifera leaf meal at 1.0% in Japanese quail diets might not depress performance, affect carcass quality, cause organs dysfunctions but may improve nutritional quality of the eggs and meat.