History of science and technology

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ISSN / EISSN : 2415-7422 / 2415-7430
Total articles ≅ 142
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Oleh Pylypchuk, Oleh Strelko, Yulia Berdnychenko
History of science and technology, Volume 10; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-160-162

Abstract:
The year 2020, verging to a close, is one of the most difficult and hardest years in the life of mankind over the last century. Unfortunately, it is in the 20th year of each century for the last several hundred years that human civilization has been suffering from another global pandemic (to say nothing of local and regional pandemics)… Several pandemics of plague killed at least 300 million people, and the highest incidence in Europe occurred in 1720‒1722. In 1817‒1824, the First Cholera Pandemic spread across the world. One hundred years later, in 1918‒1920, fifty million lives worldwide were claimed by the Spanish flu (H1N1). For a year now, starting in December 2019 and throughout 2020, the entire world is fighting the 21st century pandemic – the global COVID-19 outbreak caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Despite all the difficulties that humanity faces today, life goes on, and the world scientific community is persistently looking for ways to get out of the latest pandemic trap. The world has learned the lessons of pandemics and learned to use the acquired knowledge and scientific legacy of past generations. This led to a quick response to the challenges that life presents us. In December 2020, at this writing, several pharmaceutical companies have already announced the invention of vaccines and the final stages of their trials. We hope that our esteemed authors and readership will witness yet another victory of science over the world's evil. 10 years ago to the day, creation of the History of Science and Technology journal began. Therefore, we would like to summarize some of the work undertaken over the years. The first issue of History of Science and Technology was published in 2011. The founder of the journal was the State Economy and Technology University of Transport. State Economy and Technology University of Transport was one of the three universities in Ukraine that mainly trained specialists for the railway industry. It is the teachers, students and staff of the State Economy and Technology University of Transport who became the primary authors of the first journal issues. Therefore, in the first years after the journal was created, its focus on the study of the history of the development of railway transport and related areas was apparent. Back then the journal was titled History of Science and Technology: Collection of scientific papers of the State Economic and Technological University of Transport. Printed versions of the journal were regularly distributed in libraries of higher educational institutions and research institutions of Ukraine. The electronic version of the full-text issue of the journal (without division into separate articles) was posted on the University library website. Gradually, the journal began to gain popularity, and as far back as in 2013‒2015 it received a large audience of readers and authors across regions and organizations from all over Ukraine. Accordingly, the themes of the articles changed, being no longer limited to rail transport, but extended to the study of the history of all branches of science and various technologies instead. In 2016, the journal History of Science and Technology replaced its founder. It was the State University of Infrastructure and Technologies which was established through the decree of Ukrainian government dated February 29, 2016 by way of merger of two metropolitan higher educational institutions – Kyiv State Maritime Academy named after hetman Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachnyi and State Economy and Technology University of Transport. Accordingly, the name of the journal has changed into History of Science and Technology: Collection of scientific papers of State University of Infrastructure and Technologies. The next stage in the life of the journal was the creation of its separate website in March 2018. Since then, work has begun on a deeper reform of the journal, which continues to this day. History of Science and Technology journal is constantly changing. Thus, steps have been taken to improve the design of the journal and bring it into line with internationally recognized standards. The composition of the journal's editorial board has undergone significant personnel changes. In April 2019, it underwent state re-registration of the print media and acquired its current name – History of Science and Technology journal. However, fundamental steps have been taken towards filling the journal with original and high-qualty scientific content that would be of interest not only to the Ukrainian reader but also to foreign reader. Strict analysis in the selection of articles, strict plagiarism policy, independent double-blind peer review, as well as numerous other steps and innovations, have affected the number of published articles. If in 2019 approximately 25% of submitted articles were rejected, in 2020 this figure reaches almost 60%. Although hopefully, a change in quality of articles for the better followed the change in their number. They have really become interesting to the international world community, as evidenced by statistics on daily visits to the journal's website by representatives from around the world. The journal generated interest among authors from different countries and continents. In the first issue of History of Science and Technology for the year 2020, articles by authors representing universities and research organizations from Ghana, Canada, USA, Spain, Russia and Ukraine were published. Thus, in the second issue of 2020, History of Science and Technology journal introduces its readers to articles by authors from around the world, namely Azerbaijan, India, Indonesia, Italy, Spain and Ukraine. While summing up our 10 years’ work, we would like not to be limited to bare figures. Thus, History of Science and Technology has published 10 volumes and 17 issues over the years, which include more than 400 articles by various authors. And of...
Sneha Bakshi, Manager Rajdeo Singh
History of science and technology, Volume 10; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-163-184

Abstract:
This paper reports the mineralogical composition of western India's 16-17th century Mughal plasters of Quila-I-Ark, Aurangabad to prepare compatible repair mortar and document ancient Indian lime technology. Analytical studies were undertaken for aggregate grain size distribution, thin section analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and chemical composition of the plasters by x-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis). The analysis revealed the inclusion of large size basaltic aggregate grains mostly sourced from the water channel of nearby Harsullake. Some of the plaster works show prominent inclusion of small size grains pointing different periods of construction. Creamy white zeolites were found specifically added in the mortar mix to maintain a certain level of humidity during the dry season. The zeolite is highly porous and breaks easily both in dry and wet conditions. The calcite rich limestone with traces of magnesium was sourced as raw material for the plasters. Based on mineralogical composition and binder/aggregate ratio, three phases of historical constructions were documented. FTIR and thin section analysis showed the mixing of some proteinaceous adhesive juice in the lime for improvement in rheological and waterproof properties. The high quantity of large size aggregate grains ensured better carbonation of lime and the source of aggregates remained the same for all phases of historical constructions. The cementation index (C.I.) and hydraulicity index (H.I.) vary between 0.10 to 0.96 and 0.20 to 3.43, respectively showing the plaster is aerial lime with traces of magnesium. The plaster is feebly hydraulic as the hydraulic component calculated varies between 0.88 to 6.10 percent in different samples. A moderate strength plaster with a lime/silica ratio close to 0.33 was prepared for most phases of construction except a few isolated locations. The analytical data will now help to prepare compatible mortar with identical additives for a major repair.
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 315-338; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-315-338

Abstract:
Physics, biology, chemistry, for example, do not already only study programs in many universities but are at the forefront of the development of science, and that is science itself. The development of the basic foundation becomes the mother of science, such as mathematics, as a suspicion of the birth of new sciences. The interests related to the life and welfare of humans always invites the possibility of the birth of science in concepts, but mathematics confirms it. In certain cases, as an application, or it gives birth to answers in technology form, which is distorted according to the social demands of society. Every science has its methodology, which is based on the logic that helps to reason. A natural model is an approach to generating methods, as well as the principles that develop in artificial intelligence based on mathematics. This principle not only changes the way of perceiving data, but it also establishes new definitions of data, and changes statistics, optimization, and other fields. Each science also has implications for other sciences but also has applications that are also related to other sciences. Every science supports technology to improve social welfare. Historically, century by century, many new scientific fields were born, and it has evidence from the publication of scientific works to books as scientific standards. Then, the teaching curricula supported its initial dissemination and its development through research with evidence of scientific publications either through papers in proceedings of scientific meetings or articles in the journals. A study program about science in the related faculty is mandatory, and it is as the spearhead in further scientific and technological development. So everything starts and ends at one point, namely the birth of new science, as the birth of data science. This paper describes the birth of science by involving historical traces. The reflection of scientific development is starting from the foundation to become a scientific field, namely data science. It also illustrates the roadmap of a scientific indirectly.
Ángel Calvo
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 185-216; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-185-216

Abstract:
This article deals with the opening of telecommunications to competition and its determinants in Spain, a country seriously committed to the monopoly. It is framed in the general scenario of an accelerated technological change driven by new materials, components and transmission systems, a sharp regulatory change and an extension of the value chain with new products and services, in particular data, mobile telephony and cable. Such properties fit perfectly with the time axis chosen which comprises the two last decades of the 20th century and coincide with a phase in which the protagonist company is facing the challenge not only of liberalisation but also of a profound change in the parameters of the market. The study focuses on Telefónica's response to new regulatory and market requirements. Methodologically, it revolves around the multidisciplinary nature, which integrates the approach of the history of technology understood as a system (Thomas P. Hugues and Melvin Kranzberg) and the economic and business history (Nathan Rosenberg). The text is structured in four sections that examine the persistence of the monopoly of Telefonica and liberalisation, the axes of Telefónica's transformation through global and strategic plans and the broadening of the value chain, focussed on the cable market. Some preliminary historical and technical issues and key elements in the evolution of the sector are addressed. The text attends to the relations between the market structure inherited from the monopoly and the process, from which the advantages of Telefónica with the rest of the companies emanate. The research rests mainly on primary sources of the company studied, twice as valuable because they are difficult to access by researchers and perfectly determined to grasp the company's strategy, as well as on reports from major international institutions and secondary literature. The conclusion deals with the methodological consideration of the close link between supply and demand-related factors.
Liubov Soloviova, Svitlana Hurinchuk, Yuliia Berdnychenko, Oleh Strelko
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 368-382; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-368-382

Abstract:
The name of Vsevolod Timonov, an outstanding scientist-engineer, teacher, public figure, and popularizer of science, doctor of technical sciences, Honored worker of science and technology of the RSFSR, professor, is well known to a wide range of domestic and foreign scientists and technicians. Nowadays, the creative worky of the extraordinary personality of the scientist is particularly interesting to researchers for its inexhaustibility and versatility. In his activity, V. Ye. Timonov showed the features of a talented researcher, experimenter, organizer of science, an innovator in solving important theoretical and applied problems of hydraulic engineering. The article covers his early life and activities. This period of life of V. Ye. Timonov allows us to understand and reflect the conditions of the formation of the scientists’ worldview, the factors that influenced the formation of his creative personality, and to analyze the main directions of his activity. And let us note that his 60 years of scientific, pedagogical, and social activity is characterized by exceptional versatility and depth. The outstanding scientist boundlessly devoted to science until the last day, V. Ye. Timonov is the author of more than 700 scientific papers. Among his works are a number of textbooks, manuals, and monographs, which have received wide recognition of scientists of our country and foreign researchers. Several finely written books showcase his multifaceted talent as a memoirist. For more than 50 years V. Ye. Timonov was engaged in pedagogical work at high school. His lectures (at institutes, universities, and in the general public) have always been a huge success. He brought up a whole galaxy of scientists. Vsevolod Yevhenovych devoted a lot of effort and time to the promotion of science, active, purposeful struggle with anti-scientific concepts in hydrobiology, hydrography, hydraulic engineering. Timonov's scientific and organizational activity was also fruitful. A man of great and versatile culture, an eager admirer, and a deep connoisseur of poetry and literature, V. Ye. Timonov himself was a gifted promoter of scientific knowledge.
Ihor Dvorkin, Artem Kharchenko, Svitlana Telukha
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 266-280; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-266-280

Abstract:
The article examines the history of establishment of the Kharkiv Practical Technological Institute in the broad context of modernization processes. The history of the Practical Technological Institute in Kharkiv is considered in the context of socio-economic changes in the South of the Russian Empire, primarily in the "Ukrainian provinces", in the last third of XIX – early XX centuries. The methodological basis of the article is the modernization approach. Changes that took place in the Russian Empire in the last third of the XIX – early XX century are considered as a modernization movement. Modernization is understood as a complex number of transformations that society is undergoing on the path of development from traditional agricultural to urban and industrial. We proceed from the fact that modern society of that time was aware of the speed of industrial production, the need for qualified engineering personnel. The training of such personnel required the opening of local higher education institutions. The processes of industrialization, migration and urbanization, due to the modernization theory, were the main components of social development in the XIX century. The approach chosen by the authors allowed to analyze the formation of higher technical institutions in the Russian Empire, on the example of the Kharkiv Practical Institute of Technology, within these changes. The approach within the new imperial history enabled us to take into account the socio-political subtext of the situation and the decisions that contributed to the establishment of technical universities in the south of the empire. An important aspect of our article is the European context. We investigated the general tendencies of opening similar to Kharkiv educational institutions. We can see certain commonalities, which allows us to explore the problem more deeply. We came to the conclusion that, the emergence of a higher technical educational institution ‒ Kharkiv Practical Technological Institute, in Kharkiv was due to the demand of local elites, which was met by the highest bureaucracy of St. Petersburg, as well as the situation in the city itself. This compromise did not cancel the rivalry, both at the highest bureaucratic level – the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of National Education, and at the regional level, in particular Kharkiv university elite and the inspirers of the idea of a separate technical institution.
Maryam Seyidbeyli
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 353-367; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-353-367

Abstract:
At the beginning of the VII century in the political life of the Near and Middle East, fundamental changes have taken place. The Arabs conquered a colossal territory, which included the lands of Iran, North Africa, North-West India, the Asian provinces of Byzantium, most of the former Roman Empire. In the conquered cities of the caliphate, observatories, madaris, libraries were built. At the end of VII century, the first scientific center, an academy, the House of Wisdom, was founded in Baghdad, in which scholars who spoke different languages were assembled. Here the translation and commentary activity were very developed, the main works of ancient thought, such as the writings of Aristotle, Ptolemy were published in the 9th century in the Arabic-speaking world. For two centuries from 750 to 950 years, the works of ancient authors on philosophy, mathematics, medicine, alchemy, and astronomy were translated into Arabic, which indicates the high scientific potential of that time in the East. At the same time, in the XII century, Ibn Rushd composed 38 commentaries on the works of Aristotle, the “Republic” of Plato, the treatise “On the Mind” of Alexander of Aphrodisias, which subsequently had an important influence on the work of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. Thus, this period in the history of Eastern scientific thought is marked by high intellectual potential. To this day, historians of medieval Arabic literature face a sufficient number of difficulties, since the vast majority of manuscripts remain inaccessible to them. The works of many renowned Arab authors of the middle Ages are more than 1000 years old, so it seems obvious that the manuscripts of the vast majority of authors have not survived to this day. The researchers of the history of Azerbaijan and neighboring countries in the middle Ages, with all the variety of available sources on which they rely, still attract little factual material related to the Arabic-language works of the historical and scientific genre. Undoubtedly, a comprehensive study of the entire complex of information of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi on the history of science in Azerbaijan is of great importance.
Hryhorii Luparenko
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 250-265; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-250-265

Abstract:
Based on the source and comparative analysis of the history of creation, design, and production of the Kyiv Motorcycle Works’ motorcycles, the value of the MT10-36 motorcycle as the landmark of science and technology has been determined. It has been shown that the development of a new engine and MT10-36 motorcycle was, first of all, the initiative of the plant’s engineers. Ovcharenko M. completed the development of a 650 cubic capacity boxer engine. The design of new units and a vehicle outpaced the technological capabilities of the plant. This led to a delay in introducing new technology into production. The involvement of the Foundry Department of the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute under the leadership of K. Vashchenko made it possible to improve the production technology of the motorcycle engine. The reliability of the engine has increased. The design of the engine of the Kyiv Motorcycle Works was in line with the tendencies of the world motorcycle industry. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the MT10-36 motorcycle design and the Ural motorcycle of the Irbit plant (Russian Federation), the strengths and weaknesses of the vehicle design have been determined. Selected episodes of sales of the Kyiv Motorcycle Plant’s motorcycles within the country and abroad have been highlighted. It has been highlighted that the motorcycle was operated in conditions that did not reveal its speed and transport capabilities. The motorcycle’s design outpaced the pace of development of transport infrastructure (highways). The basic principles of museification of motor vehicles have been considered. It has been noted that one of the valuable qualities of the landmark of technology is the reflection of the peculiarities of the use of the object and its change after leaving the plants’ shop. Some aspects of the principles of technique restoration as a material historical source with the optimal preservation of the landmark and the information reflected in it have been considered. It has been concluded that the MT10-36 motorcycle meets the criteria of the landmark of science and technology in the broad sense of this concept. The motorcycle embodies the original technical solutions of native engineers, reflects the level of development of domestic technology and illustrates the practice of operating motorcycle technology.
, Valentyna Kuryliak, Oleg Podoliak
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 217-249; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-217-249

Abstract:
In the article there are presented the stages of improvement of the process of continuous casting. It is revealed, that at the each stage of technological improvement of the process of continuous casting, the damage parameters of billets were reduced. Improvement of the process of continuous casting leads to the improvement of the mechanical properties of the billets and the performance of continuous casting machines. The first stage is shown as the process of transition of the number of experimental developments into quality, during which the casting of billets passed from an unstable process to a stable one. The second stage is characterized by the creation of new improved continuous casting processes. So, besides the existing machines of the vertical type, radial, curvilinear and horizontal casting machines were invented. By the end of the twentieth century, this technological process reached the limit of the possibilities for increasing the quality of performs, and the productivity of continuous casting machines. It is shown that the third stage is intended for continuous casting of copper alloys and is based on the influence of the frequency of the movement of the billets and the reverse movement of the perform during overcoming the static friction force. It was determined that for the frequency of movement of billets made of copper alloys, which are in the range of 2.5...7.5 min-1, the direction of its movement during overcoming the static friction affects the mechanical properties of the billet. The fourth stage - causes an increase in the mechanical properties of the billet due to the use of inertia forces in the alternating movement of the billet. It was revealed that at the fourth stage the mechanical properties of the billets increased most effectively, and the linear performance increased from 0.4...0.8 to 2.5...4.0 m/min, and in some cases to 5.0...7.0 m/min.
, Giancarlo Barraco, Paolo Zampetti
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 281-292; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-2-281-292

Abstract:
Objectives: the name of Jan Evangelista Purkyně (Purkinje in German), born in Bohemia in 1787 and died in Prague in 1869, is mainly associated with discoveries in histology and specialist fields of Medicine like embriology, histological techniques, ophthalmology, cardiology and neurophysiology. This short article presents a brief account of his life, commemorates his achievements in biology and medicine but also in in the politics and literature of his Country (he was elected to the Diet of Bohemia but also he composed poems and important translations from German, French and Italian languages into Czech) and examines in depth his contribution to Dentistry. Materials and Methods: Purkyně’s major contributions to Dentistry, which focused on embryology and dental histology, endodontics and periodontology, are traced to two dissertations in Latin which were discussed by his pupils (Meyer Fraenkel and Isaac Raschkow), at Breslau University in 1835: we present a brief summary of each, with the major innovative findings highlighted. Results: the two dissertations contain remarkable, though often overlooked, contributions to Dentistry. Among these we can indicate the individuation of: the dental cement (substantia ostoidea), the acquired dental pellicle, the nature of optical illusion of Hunter-Schreger lines, the “enamel pulp” from which the enamel would evolve, the sub-odontoblastic nervous plexus which is the cause of tooth sensitivity, the predentine, the organic nature of the process of enamel formation, the dentine and enamel formation in opposing directions, the presence of alveolus membrane (id est: the periodontium). Conclusions: after reviewing the main innovations these two dissertations made to Dentistry, Purkyně’s personal share in both is very clear. Both the two his pupils acknowledged their debt to Purkyně and also famous contemporary Purkinje scientists such as Alexander Nasmyth, Sir Richard Owen, Sir James Paget had no doubt he is had generated the ideas expressed in the two little treatises.
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