History of science and technology

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ISSN / EISSN : 2415-7422 / 2415-7430
Total articles ≅ 128
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History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 100-109; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-100-109

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of dedicated contribution of academician Mariia Vasylivna Pavlova (Gortynskaya) in the development of Paleozoology Science. It is noted that her research was carried out in several directions including studying the causes of extinction of animals in the past geological epochs, investigating the remains of fossil elephants, rhinos, tapirs, notartiodactyls and artiodactyls, describing the remains of mammals in Tiraspol gravel. M. V. Pavlova described hipparions and horses, found mainly in the southern regions of Ukraine and the Crimea. By this new material she proved that horses had originated from American protogippus. The idea of a single trunk development of horses both the Old and New World caused objections, especially in America, as in Europe, there were no finds of ancient forms of horse series – anchitheriinae and protogippus. M. V. Pavlova consistently sought them in Eurasia, and in 1903 she discovered the remains of the bones of the limbs of these ancient horses. Analysis of the scientific heritage of Academician M. V. Pavlova, an outstanding national paleoscientist, a specialist in evolutionary theory, an organizer of Paleozoology science and a teacher, makes it possible to understand the processes of development of national biological science. She takes one of the places of honor in the world of paleontological science. Her name is associated with the development of Paleozoology science of late XIX – the first third of the twentieth century and the scientific outlook on the development of various Paleozoology concepts, laws and ideas. It suggests the urgency and necessity of this research. Its relevance is also caused by significant civil and scientific value of a person M. V. Pavlova in Paleozoology science, the lack of special comprehensive study of her life, scientific, organizational and administrative activities in the history of science, the need to create the most objective biography of M. V. Pavlova, the analysis of creative works and the importance of the introduction of solid scientific use of new sources and facts. Scientific activities of Pavlova as the scientific leader and founder of scientific school and her contribution in Paleozoology science has been marginally disclosed yet.
Maryna Gutnyk, Serhii Radohuz
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 50-61; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-50-61

Abstract:
The activity of the mining industry in the South of the Russian Empire, of which Ukraine was part at that time, is analyzed. It is noted that the rapid development of industry in the Russian Empire after the abolition of serfdom in 1861 opened up opportunities for investors to raise capital. Information is given about why Kharkiv became the center of investment life of mine owners, namely its good geographical location. Data on the number of inhabitants of the city and the number of trading institutions are provided. The stages in the formation of the mining industry of the South of the Russian Empire as a driving force for economic development in Ukraine are highlighted.The causes of weak coal sales from the Donbas and the development of the factory industry of Ukraine in the 1860s are analyzed. It is shown how these issues were resolved. In particular, mining congresses were organized to discuss and resolve these issues.It is shown how the decisions of mining congresses influenced the development of the country's economy at the end of the nineteenth century. Examples of issues discussed at these congresses are given. In particular, the congresses discussed – workers, higher and secondary specialized education, mining credit, insurance, the ratio of the mining industry to zemstvos and land taxation of enterprises of the mining industry, taxes, land relations, postal, telegraph and telephone traffic, passenger traffic in the Southern Russia area, duties, ports, marinas, navigable rivers and canals, shipbuilding and merchant shipping, export of mineral fuel abroad, construction of new railways, etc. It should be noted that the central issue discussed at almost all mining congresses was the question of tariffs, and this was not a coincidence, since it directly concerned the markets for industrialists without whom production could not be developed, and with it the intensification of the industrial revolution. Therefore, this problem, in one form or another, has arisen constantly.Information is provided on the number of such congresses, as well as on the creation of a permanent body, the Council of Miners of the South of the Russian Empire. It analyzes the so-called “coal crisis” and the role of major mining companies in the collusion. The monopolization of the market is considered. Emphasis is placed on the customs policy of the tsarist government. Speculation on temporary fuel difficulties is illustrated. It is noted that at the end of the 1890s, there were especially high rates of development of the Donbas coal industry. Special tariffs for the export of Donetsk coal abroad were introduced. Thus, in the last quarter of the 19th century, the mining and monopolization of the mining industry of the south of the Russian Empire were enlarged and monopolized.
Oksana Hrytsiuta
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 127-137; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-127-137

Abstract:
In the history of Ukrainian archeology there are many names of outstanding researchers who have devoted their lives to the study of our antiquity. Among them – Yulian Kulakovskyi, a well-known domestic historian and archeologist. For many years of his life he devoted to the scientific and pedagogical activity at the Kyiv University of St. Vladimir, where he had worked at the Faculty of History and Philology. After moving to Kyiv, Yu. A. Kulakovskyi began interesting in the late Ancient Christian archeology of the Crimea. In 1883 Yu. A. Kulakovskyi had joined the Nestor Chronicler Historical Society. Since that time, his life and career have been closely linked to this scientific union. For many years he represented the Nestor Chronicler Society at the All-Russian Archaeological Congresses. In 1905, for his extraordinary merits, Yu. A. Kulakovskyi was admitted to the Honorary Members of the Society, and from 1907 to 1911 performed the duties of its President. Kulakovskyi's presidency was one of the most productive periods of the Society's activity, meetings and public lectures were held during which scientific reports were read. The fascination of Yu. A. Kulakovskyi with archeology began after his move to Kyiv. For many years he was an active participant in archaeological research in the outskirts of Kerch, near Mithridat mountain. The results of these studies have been dedicated to a series of reports published on the pages of “Readings in the Nestor Chronicler Historical Society”. It is possible to consider that he initiated the direction of research in the field of Late Antique archeology of the Crimea in the Society. For the first time in the history of Bosporan archeology, the researcher not only conducted excavations of the most valuable early Christian funeral sites, but he also explored much of the necropolis, discovered unique burial sites, some of them are known for their wall paintings. Thanks to the efforts of the scientist it was possible to solve important questions of the borders of the ancient necropolis, chronology and cultural identity of the ancient population of Crimea. The researches of Yu. A. Kulakovskyi made it possible to begin systematic excavations of the ancient Panticapeus, which allowed to preserve the unique archaeological materials, which later became the subject of careful study of modern scientists.
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 88-99; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-88-99

Abstract:
The article reviews the factors of the scientific views’ formation of Mykola Pavlovych Petrov – formidable Russian scientist and engineer in relation to his administrative efforts of development of the native scientific and technical community XIX–XX. The special focus was made on the biographical component, especially his study in Petersburg institutions. The crucial impact on the scientific destiny of M. P. Petrov was made by his studying in the Engineer Academy. In that time the intellectual basement for the future activities was formed. As a matter of fact, later M.P. Petrov became the formidable engineer and scientist. M. P. Petrov was the student of the formidable mathematician, academician of the Petersburg Academy of Science Mykhailo Vasylovych Ostrohradskyi (1801–1862). M. P. Petrov gained a lot of useful skills and knowledge from his teacher. Among those the following: high mathematical culture, abstract thinking, knowledge of the theoretical and practical problems in various areas of science, especially the ones that were related to railway transport. Work as the lecturer in the Technological Institute, communication with I. A. Vyshniehradskyi, A. P. Borodin and other scientists and specialists played a role of some kind of push for M. P. Petrov to study applied disciplines, mainly related to the friction of lubricated materials. Among the teachers of M. P. Petrov in the Academy was Herman Yehorovych Pauker (1822–1889). M. P. Petrov always recalled him as the wonderful engineer and teacher, who was the creator of the school for the engineers-teachers. The main goal of the school was the harmonious connection between engineer work and science. In the Academy M. P. Petrov met the lecturer of mechanics of the Institute of the communication paths engineer corps Stanislav Valerianovych Kerbedz. During the studying in the Academy M. P. Petrov was formed as the future scientist and specialist, who had the character which helped him to communicate easily with people. He had humane views and always acted alone and fairly. These features of his character in conjunction with his great mind helped him to achieve all his goals while solving the complicated engineer and administrative tasks. Aspiration to knowledge, original and brave thinking were among the main features of M. P. Petrov`s nature.
М. Ю. Рубан
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 72-87; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-72-87

Abstract:
In the article an attempt to investigate in a chronological order the historical circumstances of the formation and development of the mainline electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk diesel locomotives engeneering plant (1957–2014) has been made. The circumstances of the activity of the electric locomotives workshop of the Luhansk plant (1957–1967), within which the production of crew parts and units of the legendary locomotives VL8 and VL10 for Novocherkask and Tbilisi factories have been analyzed. In the late 1980s, due to the absence of a solid convertible currency for the import of traction rolling stock from Czechoslovakia in the wake of the economic crisis of the USSR, the Luhansk plant received orders for the development and production of self-propelled electric locomotives. However, with the proclamation of the Independence of Ukraine, due to the lobbying of the new government, promising projects of Luhansk electric locomotives were rejected, and the Dnipro electric locomotives engineering plant was defined the basic enterprise for the creation of mainline electric locomotives for the Ukrainian railways. Due to the unstable economic situation in the country and the lack of targeted financing, the Dnipro plant was unable to start mass production of a number of types of locomotives, HC «Luhanskteplovoz» together with the Novocherkask plant began production of freight electric locomotives on the technological basis of Russian locomotives. Further development and prospects of serial electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk plant were interrupted by the aggravation of the military-political situation in the region. However, it is clear that the historical experience of becoming a domestic scientific-production base of the mainline electrical production needs its proper understanding in the context of current tendencies of import of traction rolling stock with an attempt to localize its production in Ukraine.
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 110-126; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-110-126

Abstract:
This paper reviews the studies on human genetics, carried out by Russian women in the 1920s and 1930s. Its main objective is to determine the contribution of women scientists to the development of different fields of human genetics. Particular attention is given to reconstructing women geneticists’ research work, reviewing the content of their publications, and analysing the theoretical and methodological approaches they employed to tackle different scientific problems. The biographies of the pioneers in Russian “anthropogenetics” (knowledge of human heredity), R. I. Serebrovskaya, G. V. Soboleva, and N. N. Malkova, were restored on the basis of archival sources. The first women geneticists received their higher education at the Higher Women’s Courses, as, in the Russian Empire, it was prohibited for women to study at the universities. These women came into genetics from traditional biological sciences or medicine at the time when human genetics as a discipline began to emerge in Russia in the 1920s. The first works in the field of anthropogenetics, conducted by these women on their own, began to appear in 1923. By the mid ‒ 1920s, women geneticists began to use genealogical and twin methods for studying human heredity extensively. The number of women’s publications peaked in the late 1920s. Studies in the field of population genetics and medical genetics gained popularity and new biochemical and cytological methods of analysis were added to the repertoire of analytical techniques. In the 1930s, with the beginning of attacks on eugenics, studies in human genetics were rapidly wound down to be completely arrested by the 1940s. The results of the studies carried out by the Russian women anthropogeneticists in the 1920s ‒ 1930s included demonstrating hereditary nature of premature graying (R. I. Serebrovskaya), hemorrhagic diathesis and inguinal hernia (N. N. Malkova), deaf-mutism and stutter (G. V. Soboleva); determining the incidence of different genes in the populations; organizing large-scale twin studies to elucidate the role of heredity and environment in the manifestation of psychological traits; and introducing new methods for hereditary disease diagnostics and the effective practices for teaching preschool and school age children.
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 138-150; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-138-150

Abstract:
This article involves a critical examination of XIXth century military interventions, as the basic cause of the international contagion. Challenges arising and choices made in a critical reading of the International Sanitary Conferences (ISC) proceedings, reveal case histories and early statistical techniques at use with epidemiological purposes. These episodes in the history of the diseases suggest that relevant military information was circulated among health professionals through the ISCs. Although the evolution of the epidemic process during the latter half of the XIXth century made the Conferences fail to cure the diseases that the Western medicine own expansion engendered. By discussing the ways that prophylactic measures and international interventions were used by medical scientists and diplomats alike, from the detailed records of troop mortality to such ubiquitous terms as "contagion" and "quarantine", the article seriously reflect on what happened when action taken by military forces was a mass phenomenon. As evidenced from the study of the proceedings when comparing different populations, in the pathologies associated with the mass-transport era the rationale of interaction outlined the challenges involved in the train transport of troops. Also, the existence of an environmental risk factor can answer the question on the action taken by military forces as a mass phenomenon with huge impacts on hospitals, harbors and prisons. Materials intended for these international epidemics studies and commissions were prepared by experimented military and civil medical doctors who believed that evidence and common sense proved epidemic diseases capable of being prevented, treated, and controlled by a military approach. This essay demonstrates that Army forces' capability to take control over their host governing apparatus, emphasizes the importance of their aim to follow and accompany the control of the disease in the imperialist competition for land. It grows out of its specific historical context, which due to its origin could become uniform and international, but constituted the principal obstacle on the road to an international health office.
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 10-33; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-10-33

Abstract:
The literature on the history of electricity production have studied the evolution of electricity in both developed and developing countries and its impact on their economies. Some have laid foundations upon which other works are carried out. A close examination of the historiography on electricity production in Ghana shows that more efforts are required to improve the electric power landscape in Ghana. From the colonial era, the increasing demand for electricity has been the biggest challenge plaguing the energy sector. Respective governments have made significant strides in ensuring reliable and universal access to electricity throughout Ghana, yet such efforts have been accompanied by different levels of challenges. The study uses a qualitative and exploratory research approach to trace the activities that helped, in many other ways to the creation of a sustainable electric power provision to household and industry in Ghana, particularly in two of Ghana’s cities; Accra and Kumasi, within the period 1900 to the1960s. The work focused mainly on archival sources in its quest to arrive at how indigenous Ghanaians provided power for industrial activities and for household purposes. Results from the study show that local and cottage industries relied predominantly on wood, fuel, and biomass for their operations even before the introduction of the more sophisticated means of power generation. Also, the study revealed that in finding solutions to the challenges of electricity production, policymakers have focused more on current issues with little or no effort to trace the historical foundation of electricity production. Notwithstanding, the little efforts that have been made examine the history of energy production, with a limited focus on the immediate post-independence era.
Oleh Pylypchuk, Oleh Strelko, Yulia Berdnychenko
History of science and technology, Volume 10, pp 7-9; doi:10.32703/2415-7422-2020-10-1(16)-7-9

Abstract:
This issue of the journal “History of Science and Technology” has been prepared in difficult conditions. In difficult conditions for authors… In difficult conditions for reviewers ... In difficult conditions for the editorial board… In difficult conditions for the whole world in general!!! This issue contains ten articles. The first of these articles came in late 2019, when the world did not know yet these terrible words: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19); severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)… COVID-19 was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread worldwide, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. As on May 29, 2020, when these lines were written, more than 5 800 000 cases were recorded in 188 countries, killing more than 359 000 people. We hope that humanity will invent a vaccine as soon as possible, and these horrific death statistics will first stop growing and then stop altogether. For this, many events and activities are important, as history shows. Including the history of the development of science and technology, that is the subject area of our publication. In many sources on the history of electric power production the evolution of electric power production was studied both in developed and developing countries and its impact on economy. The growing demand for electric power became the most problem that stood before the power sector of Ghana. This issue begins with an article examining activities that in many ways helped to create a sustainable electricity supply for households and industries in Ghana, especially in the cities of Accra and Kumasi, between 1900 and 1960. Scientific-technical borrowings are one of those types of scientific support for the work of industrial sectors, whose role in the conditions of exiting the crisis to acquiring the particular importance. Since the mid-1920s, they have become the main way of scientific support for the organization of the development of Ukrainian electric machine-building industry in the context of large-scale electrification of the country. That was due to the need for a quick withdrawal of this industry from the previous crisis in the absence in the Ukrainian SSR of its own scientific support system for the electric machine engineering. An example of this measure, which was considered in the study, was an attempt to achieve the fastest possible increase in productivity of the Kharkiv Electromechanical Plant at minimal financial cost. The next article analyzes the activities of the mining industry in the south of the Russian Empire, of which Ukraine was a part of that time. An analysis of the so-called “coal crisis” and the role of large miners in collusion has been made. Market monopolization has been considered. Emphasis is made on the customs policy of the tsarist government, speculation on temporary fuel difficulties. The study shows that in the last quarter of the nineteenth century there was a consolidation and monopolization of the mining industry in the south of the Russian Empire. In the 21st century, every reputable journal also has an online version, which makes the dissemination of scientific information almost instantaneous. We are so accustomed to the conveniences of the information age that it is difficult for us to imagine the difficulties that scientists faced a little over 150 years ago. The genesis of science launched the process of forming branch of scientific communities and demanded stable ways of communication for productive and effective development of the branch. Scientific journals have become an ideal means of disseminating information, and a scientific article has been transformed from an ordinary letter into a modern form and has taken on an ideal form. The importance of international communication between scientists, on the example of consideration of the activities of Valerian Mykolaiovych Lihin, is discussed in the following study. He became the first Russian-speaking member of one of the oldest Mathematical Societies in Europe - the French. V. Lihin broke the tradition of “isolated” science when discoveries in the Russian Empire (and later in the USSR) were made separately from the rest of the world. In the next article an attempt to investigate in a chronological order the historical circumstances on the formation and development of the mainline electric locomotives engineering at the Luhansk diesel locomotives engineering plant (1957–2014) has been made. Historical and biographical research is continued by the article, which considers the factors shaping the scientific worldview of Mykola Pavlovych Petrov - an outstanding scientist and engineer against the background of his initiative and organizational efforts to develop the domestic scientific and technical space of the late nineteenth - early twentieth The article devoted to highlighting the contribution of academician Mariia Vasylivna Pavlova (Gortynska) in the development of palaeozoology science at the end of the XIX – the first third of the XX centuries continues the cycle of historical and biographical researches. We hope that our readers will be interested in scientific work, examining the research of Russian women in the field of human genetics in 1920-1930. The main task of the article was to determine the contribution of women scientists to the development of different fields of human genetics. Particular attention was given to reconstructing women’s geneticists’ research work, reviewing the content of their publications, and analyzing the theoretical and methodological approaches they employed in solving various scientific problems. In the history of Ukrainian archeology, there are many names of outstanding researchers who have devoted their lives to the study of our antiquity. Among them is Yulian Kulakovskyi, a well-known domestic historian and archeologist. In 1883 Yu. A. Kulakovskyi joined the...
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