Agrarian science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0869-8155 / 2686-701X
Published by: Agrarian Science (10.32634)
Total articles ≅ 618
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N. A. Zhizhin
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
The article discusses the effect of the b-galactosidase enzyme on the storage capacity of milk with hydrolyzed lactose. For this purpose, parallel studies of a sample of sterilized milk and low-lactose milk, produced on its basis, were carried out. The peptide profile was used as a criterion for assessing the storage capacity of milk that underwent enzymatic decomposition of lactose. Assessment of the state of the peptide profile during storage was recorded at three control points — 30, 60 and 90 days. Studies have shown that at the second checkpoint, peptides were identified that characterize the proteolytic activity in the product. The third checkpoint study revealed the presence of low molecular weight peptides responsible for the bitter taste in milk. Parallel studies of sterilized milk without the addition of the enzyme did not reveal any changes in the peptide profile. The studies carried out indicate that the b-galactosidase enzyme has a residual proteolytic activity, which negatively affects the storage capacity of low-lactose milk and, as a consequence, the products, produced on its basis.
T. A. Bazanov, I. V. Uschapovsky, N. N. Loginova, E. V. Smirnova, P. D. Mikhailova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is a geographically widespread oilseed crop characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids in seed oil and resistance to most stress abiotic and biotic factors. The prospect for the development of camelina culture in agriculture is associated with the production of biofuels and a wide range of technical oils. The creation of new specialized highly productive varieties of camelina is associated with the tasks of the chemical, medical and food industries. Increasing the efficiency of the breeding process needs development of methods for the assessing and selecting of genetic material (lines, cultivars etc.). The study of the genetic diversity of a culture using DNA marking, including the microsatellite SSR markers, is considered as an effective way of the pre-breeding stage of breeding work. The aim of this study was to study the polymorphism and phylogenetic relationships of camelina cultivars using SSR markers.Methods. The object of the study was 18 varieties of camelina of various breeding origin, included in the State Register of Varieties of the Russian Federation. Genetic analysis was carried out by PCR using a set of 8 SSR-markers, followed by detection of products on a genetic analyzer.Results. During the study, 40 alleles were identified, with rather high indicators of the level of polymorphism. A specific marker associated with the winter form of life of camelina was revealed. Cluster analysis with the construction of a dendrogram of genetic similarity showed significant differences in the studied samples. The varieties were divided into two separate clusters — winter and spring forms of camelina. In each of the clusters, varieties were grouped mainly by origin (originator). Further development and use of DNA-marking methods will contribute to increasing the efficiency of the breeding process and the formation of a system of genetic certification of oilseeds.
T. Kh. Bayramov, G. B. Mammadov
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Cylindrical coaxial heaters are increasingly used in agricultural production. However, their widespread use is restrained by the fact that it is still necessary to supplement the calculation methodology, which would make it possible to take into account its geometric dimensions, dielectric and magnetic permeability, surface effect and proximity effect, uneven distribution of electric and magnetic fields along the heater, and a number of other factors when choosing the parameters of the heater. Such a task is relevant in the design of electric heaters for the production needs of dairy farms, taking into account what the methodology presented below has been developed. This technique gave a positive effect in relation to the development of an experimental electric pasteurizer.
V. A. Gerasimchik, E. S. Eremeev
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. In the instructions for the use of vaccines for dogs, there is a clause prescribing mandatory anthelmintic treatment of the animal before vaccination. This is really a correct indication, since it is well known that helminthiasis affects the animal’s body, disrupting many metabolic processes and causing a number of pathological changes in the body. Helminthic infestations affect the level of immunity of the animal by changing the level of immunoglobulins, causing changes in the T- and B-systems of immunity. However, there is no data available in the literature describing how helminths affect the production of post-vaccination antibodies. This paper describes an experiment aimed at establishing how toxocara invasion affects the formation of post- vaccination immunity against canine distemper and parvovirus enteritis in dogs.Methods. The research was conducted in a shelter for neglected animals in Vitebsk. The object of research was two dogs aged 4 years and seven puppies aged 1–2 months. The animals were divided into two groups. The first group included one adult dog and four puppies. The second group included an adult dog and three puppies. Animals of both groups were vaccinated against carnivorous plague and parvovirus enteritis, but only animals of the second group were dewormed.Results. By evaluating the results of the study, it was found that helminthic invasion really hinders the development of post-vaccination immunity.
O. V. Skripka, A. P. Samofalov, С. В. Подгорный, S. N. Gromova, V. L. Chernova,
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Introduction and methodology. Wheat bread belongs to the greatest inventions of the mankind. Therefore, the study aimed at solving the issues of improving its productivity and quality, stabilizing the gross yield of wheat grain have always arisen a great interest of researchers and specialists in agricultural production. The most accessible source of improving yields and gross harvests is a variety.The purpose of the current study was to characterize the winter bread wheat variety ‘Donskaya Step’ according to the main economically valuable traits and properties. The study was carried out by the FSBSI “ARC “Donskoy”” from 2016 to 2020 on the experimental plots of crop rotation belonging to the winter wheat department. The object of the study was the winter bread wheat variety ‘Donskaya Step’. The variety ‘Ermak’ was used as a standard variety. There were used four forecrops: maize for grain, peas, sunflower and green fallow. The trials were conducted in sixfold replications. The accounting area of the plot was 10 m2.Results. The variety was sent to the State Variety Testing in 2016. In 2020 it was introduced into the State List for the North Caucasus and Low Volga regions of the Russian Federation. This variety has a high potential for grain productivity. The maximum yield of 11.83 t/ha was obtained in 2017 when sown in weedfree fallow. The average yield through four years of the competitive variety testing (2016–2020) was 9.77 t/ha, which is on 0.96 t/ha higher than that of the standard variety ‘Ermak’. The variety ‘Donskaya Step’ is a middle-maturing variety that forms ears and ripens as the standard variety ‘Ermak’. The variety forms high and stable yields due to increased frost resistance, drought resistance and resistance to the main wheat leaf diseases.
L. V. Kireicheva, V. A. Shevchenko, I. F. Yurchenko
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The effective use of agricultural land is a fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation in the agro-industrial complex of the task of providing the population with food, and production with raw materials. At the same time, the issues of methodological support of the procedures for determining the integral indicator for assessing the use of agricultural land, established on the basis of a theoretically grounded unified approach based on quantitative methods, have been developed with insufficient completeness. Actualization of the issues of improving the theory and practice of assessing the effectiveness of the use of agricultural land in agricultural production is becoming one of the priority tasks of land reclamation science. The purpose of this work is to create a methodological basis for the process of assessing the use of agricultural land, which guarantees the comparability of the considered options for agroproduction in different natural and economic conditions.Methods. The research is based on the method of point assessments for indicators of agricultural land exploitation and the formation on their basis an integral criterion of land use efficiency. The proposed procedure includes: analysis of statistical data characterizing the dynamics of the values of indicators of used land resources, calculation of local assessments of the feasibility of their exploitation and assessment of the efficiency of land use according to a generalizing criterion represented by the sum of these local assessments.Results. A methodology has been developed and a method has been created for determining the efficiency of the use of agricultural land, based on a generalized integral assessment of the operation of agricultural land, which allows to identify bottlenecks in agricultural production and outline rational directions for the development of land use. The testing of the algorithm of the methodology and capabilities of the scale for the integral assessment of the efficiency of the use of land resources was carried out on the example of the Non-Black Earth Zone of the Russian Federation. Shown is an unsatisfactory (below the national average) contribution of agricultural production to the gross regional product. On the whole, positive dynamics of agricultural production in the Non-Black Earth Zone was established, which is achieved due to the development of animal husbandry, which is an effective factor in the formation of modern efficient agriculture of the territory, with the orientation of the crop production system on the raw material basis of feed production or the sector of the economy of the agro-industrial complex of the territory.
N. N. Doguzova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Alfalfa occupies a leading position among the crops used for obtaining renewable sources of protein and energy-saturated feed, as well as a mean of biological reclamation of agricultural land, preservation and improvement of soil fertility. The aim of the research is to study the economically valuable characteristics of various varieties of alfalfa to local soil and climatic conditions in terms of seed productivity and feed value. Promising varieties that combine high feed and seed productivity have been identified. According to the indicators of seed productivity, the alfalfa variety Lada was distinguished. In this variety, the indicators of green mass, dry matter and seed productivity are most successfully combined. The Lada variety surpassed the other varieties in seed productivity, the formation of beans with a large number of seeds by 7–9%. In the average of three years, the number of stems per 1 m2 was distinguished by the varieties Lada and Vega 87 — 110–120 pcs/m2. In these varieties, the number of internodes was 18 pieces, and in the standard Nakhodka — 14 pieces. In terms of the number of stems, 2 samples significantly exceeded the standard: Lada and Pastbischnaya 88. According to the yield of green mass and leafiness, the varieties of alfalfa Lada and Ve-ga 87 outperformed other varieties by 5–7%. In the future of our research, the selected varieties will be used to form new varieties.
V. A. Sergeeva, I. S. Muravyova, A. V. Ignatova, S. Yu. Penskoy, M. N. Myrmyr
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. In the conditions of the Central Black Earth region in the farm “Yaroslav the Wise” of the Starooskolsky district of the Belgorod region, five soybean varieties (Belgorodskaya 48, Bara, Victoria, Opus and Kassidi) were studied on nutritional backgrounds — without seed inoculation and without biological treatment (control), using only inoculation and with the use of a biological product against the background of seed inoculation.Methods. The experimental conditions differed in rainfall patterns and the amount of heat, their distribution was especially uneven in 2020, that had a significant negative effect on the yield of all studied soybean varieties. The soil of the experimental plot is typical medium-thick chernozem, medium-humus, heavy loamy texture. The advantages of the soybean variety Opus, the plants of which formed a large height, air-dry mass, leaf area, a greater number and mass of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots, were revealed. Plants of this variety provided a higher yield level in all studied agro-backgrounds.Results. The yield varied from 32,5 centners per hectare (control) to 36,2 centners per hectare (when using the biological product Biogor, Zh). The content and collection of protein were also higher in the Opus cultivar in all the studied agrophones. In comparison with the control, the protein content was higher by 4% (background — control), by 4,9% — with inoculation of seeds and by 6,1% — when using a biological product. The same pattern is observed when assessing the oil content in seeds and collecting protein and oil per hectare of soybean sowing. Inoculation of seeds with soybean inoculant Nitragin, KM improved plant development and increased productivity, as well as the profitability of cultivation of the studied soybean varieties, which was higher when using a biological product against the background of seed inoculation by an average of 27%, while with only inoculation — by only 15,1%.
D. A. Korkots, Yu. A. Vatnikov, A. A. Rudenko
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. The study of the pathogenesis of obesity in domestic animals is an urgent problem in veterinary medicine, which is associated with the high prevalence of this pathological condition and a significant risk of complications from the cardiovascular system. The aim of the study was to present the pathophysiological characteristics of the development of arterial hypertension syndrome in obesity in Yorkshire Terrier dogs.Methods. In a comparative aspect, clinical, tonometric, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and biochemical parameters were studied in obese patients (n = 13) and clinically healthy dogs (n = 7).Results. Our study shows the negative role of obesity in the development of arterial hypertension syndrome in Yorkshire Terrier dogs. It was also found that obesity in dogs is accompanied by impaired lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, the development of arterial hypertension and a tendency to the development of concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium and hepatopathy.
M. T. Kargaeyeva, Yu. A. Yuldashbayev, K. Zh. Iskhan, O. Alikhanov, D. A. Baimukanov, V. A. Demin, I. A. Lukyanova
Published: 2 November 2021
Abstract:
Relevance. Herd horse breeding is the most ancient way of reproduction and maintenance of horses. The regularities of the growth and development of young animals largely depend on the genotype of the producers. Adai horses are bred in a herd way. Their well-being largely depends on natural and climatic conditions — the state of the weather, grass stand. The breeding zones of the Adai horse are the desert and semi-desert of the western region of Kazakhstan, characterized by a sharply continental climate.Methods. Experimental work was carried out at Taushyk LLP, Tupkaragan district, Mangistau region. The object of the study is pure-bred Kazakh horses of the Mangistau population and Adai offspring. According to scientific experience, two groups of 12 stallions were formed. Feeding qualities were assessed by the increase in live weight in young animals in the period from 24 to 30 months of age. Meat productivity was studied according to the methodology of the All-Russian Research Institute of Horse Breeding, in accordance with the technological instructions adopted in the meat industry.Results. It was found that the greatest increase in live weight in foals of Kazakh horses of the Adai offspring is observed from 3 days of age to 1 month and amounted to 42.9 kg with an average daily gain of 1530 g. For six months the increase in live weight was 84.1 kg, and average daily gain — 460 g. From 6 to 12 months of age the average daily gain in foals decreases to 126.9 g, due to the independent wintering of foals. From 18 to 24 months the minimum increase in live weight was recorded — 24.6 kg. From 24 to 30 months of age the average daily gains slightly increase — to 310 g. It has been established that the coefficient of increase in live weight in Kazakh horses in the conditions of the Mangyshlak Peninsula from birth to 24 months of age is 5.28–5.30, from 24 months. up to 30 months age — 0.51–0.52, from birth to 30 months of age — 8.54—8.56. It was found that the stallions of the Mangystau population exceeded their peers of the Adai offspring in terms of pre-slaughter live weight by 3.8 kg. In terms of slaughter yield stallions of the Adai offspring were inferior to their peers of the Mangistau population by 0.4%. The highest fat content in the meat of both groups is observed in the off-grade cut (kazy + sting) — from 16.0% to 16.4%. Comparatively little fat was contained in grade II meat — from 3.8% to 4.3% and grade III — from 2.3% to 2.7%.
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