Agrarian science

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ISSN / EISSN : 0869-8155 / 2686-701X
Published by: Agrarian Science (10.32634)
Total articles ≅ 736
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, G. A. Svazlyan, N. M. Naumov
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. In modern research, the topic of metabiotics is considered as one of the current directions in the development of probiotics, in the future — as a new class of metabiotics. The article presents the results of studies during the cultivation of the probiotic microorganism B. subtilis in a grain nutrient medium from naked oats, and a scientific and practical substantiation of an experimental probiotic suspension during the formation of microbiocenosis and metabolism of the gastrointestinal tract in early weaning piglets.Methods. As the basis of nutrient media for obtaining metabolites of the probiotic culture of Bacillus subtilis, sprouted and non-sprouted oat grains of the naked variety Nemchinovsky were used at the rate of 100 g of crushed raw material per 3 l of water. The mass fraction of proteinogenic amino acids in experimental probiotic suspensions (EPS) was studied by capillary electrophoresis. The scientific and economic experiment was carried out according to the method of A.I. Ovsyanikov, 1976.Results. In nutrient media based on oats (O, OP), the number of CFU of probiotic microorganisms has a certain variability. The increase in the abundance of B. subtilis CFU continued up to 6 days, in the OP sample it reached 5.8·107 CFU/cm, after what it decreased until 8th day down to 15.5·106 CFU/cm3. At the same time, the synthesis of amino acids is higher compared to control (germinated grain): lysine — in the range of 7.85–10.53 g/l, methionine — 2.03–2.35 g/l, leucine + isoleucine — in the range 5.79– 9.7 g/l. Indicators of protein metabolism are within the physiological norm in piglets of experimental groups. In piglets that received an experimental probiotic suspension, a more pronounced antagonistic effect, during the formation of microbiocenosis, was manifested to conditionally pathogenic bacteriaif they were given B. subtilis, obtained on a medium based on sprouted oats.
E. A. Lakota, O. A. Vorontsova, S. N. Zamygin
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Purposeful selection contributes to obtaining the optimal type of sheep of the Stavropol breed with improved exterior and productive parameters in the steppe conditions of the Volga region.Methods. The experiment took place in the CJSC “New Life” of the Novouzensky district of the Saratov region. The research material is purebred sheep of the Stavropol breed. Formation of experimental groups of queens (3): during selection into constitutionally productive types, an eye-dimensional assessment of external forms was used, which was specified by the measurements of body articles, live weight. In the first group were selected queens with a deviation to the strong type of constitution, in the second — to the gentle, in the third — to the loose. They mated with strong-type tups.Results. The offspring were formed: group I — from strong queens, II — tender, III — loose types. At birth, group III ewes had an advantage over I by 1.70%, over II — by 7.47%. Group I was superior in live weight to group II by 5.67%. In 4.5 months, “loose x strong” offspring exceeded “strong x strong” by 2.43%, “tender x strong” — by 12.27%. “Strong x strong” had an advantage over “gentle x strong” by 9.61%. According to the exterior at birth, the descendants of “loose x strong” surpassed “strong x strong”, “tender x strong” in chest width by 19.52; 5.78%; chest circumference — by 6.08; 10.99%, “strong x strong” prevailed over “gentle x strong” in chest width by 32%; chest circumference — by 4.62%. The trend of changing body measurements was observed at 4.5 monthsas well. According to the downness index at birth, “tender x strong” exceeded “strong x strong”, “loose x strong” by 8.03; 9.12%, at 4.5 months “strong x strong” had superiority over “tender x strong”, “loose x strong” by 3.77; 4.77%. All the young animals inherited the constitutional and productive characteristics of their parents, which is important in the inbreeding selection of sheep of the Stavropol breed in the Volga region.
L. P. Chebannaya
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The biological features were studied, the average dates of the beginning, end and duration of the phenological phases of growth and development of species, forms and varieties of the genus Clematis (Clematis L.) were established. The assortment of small-flowered clematis for cultivation in the soil and climatic conditions of the Stavropol upland, characterized by high decorative properties, resistance to drought, pests and diseases, is highlighted.Methods. The object of research is small-flowered species, forms and varieties of the genus Clematis L., cultivated in the collection of the Stavropol Botanical Garden. The studies were conducted in 2012–2021 according to the methods of variety study and evaluation of the decorative qualities of clematis species and varieties.Results. The dates of the beginning and end of the growth of shoots are determined. According to the duration of shoot growth, all taxa are divided into groups: with a short growth period (38–51 days), medium (60–79 days); long (90–126 days). According to the timing of the beginning of flowering, the studied taxa are classified into five groups, most of them are included in the groups of early summer and summer flowering. According to the duration of flowering, three groups are distinguished — with short flowering, up to 30 days (C. jubata Bsch., C. recta L., C. recta f. atropurpurea, C. terniflora DC.); medium, from 41 to 60 days (С. fusca Turcz., C. ‘Bryzgi Morja’, C. integrifolia L., C. orientalis L., C. serratifolia Rehder, C. tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh., C. virginiana L., C. viticella L., C. viticella f. rosea); long-lasting, more than 60 days (C. ‘Fargesioides’, C. heracleifolia DC., C. hexapetala DC.).
G. H. Asadov, V. Kh. Mahmudova
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Based on satellite remote sensing data, it has been suggested that there is a linear relationship between NDVI and FPAR. However, the significant influence of seasonal factors of a particular ecosystem on this relationship creates uncertainty in the assessment of plant productivity by remote sensing. This uncertainty in the estimates of total grown products (GPP) by the indicator calculated as the ratio of GPP to photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation can be explained by daily changes in incoming optical radiation both in composition and magnitude. It is shown that the GPP indicator can be determined indirectly by calculating the extremum of the heat flow of the soil coming from the outside.Methods. A new approach to the synthesis of the optimal radiation regime of plant growth based on the methodology of optimization of isomorphic-holonomic systems is proposed. The basis of the proposed method for the synthesis of the radiation regime of plant growth is taking into account the total radiation coming from above to the crown of the plant, the peculiarity of this approach is to find a minimum of that part of the externally incoming photosynthetically active radiation that reaches the soil and is not spent on photosynthesis, provided that the production of the initially specified product is guaranteed. The optimization problem of achieving an extreme value of the total radiation coming from outside into the soil is formulated in the form of an unconditional variational optimization problem with a common target optimization functional. An approximate solution of the optimization problem is given, in which the target functional reaches a minimum, i.e. the maximum amount of external radiation is spent on the photosynthesis process.Results. A solution is obtained at which the target functional reaches a minimum, i.e. the maximum amount of external radiation is spent on the photosynthesis process. It is shown that the application of the known method of unconditional variational optimization with a guaranteed given value of GPP allows us to determine the optimal radiation regime of plant growth.
E. A. Lemesh, L. N. Gamko, A. N. Gulakov, S. E. Yakovleva
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Lactating cows, especially at the beginning of lactation, consume a higher proportion of minerals received from the diet, and as a rule there is a lack of them. Therefore, the composition of feed mixtures for lactating cows includes premixes, natural mineral additives with a known chemical composition, sapropel, marl, and others that contribute to replenishing the mineral part of the rations.Materials and methods. The objects of research were lactating cows at the third lactation and a recipe for a feed mixture with marl; clay-carbonate rock contains from 50 to 70% CaCO3. Accounting of milk productivity was carried out according to the results of control milkings. The mass fraction of fat and protein in milk was determined on the Clover-1M milk quality analyzer, the calculation of economic efficiency was carried out taking into account the cost of feed and the cost of production and its value.Results. Feeding dairy cows a feed mixture with the addition of marl in the amount of 40 g per day per head contributed to an increase in productivity by 8.2% and a reduction in the cost of energy feed units by 1 kg of milk by 7.7% compared to the control group. The amount of milk fat and protein in milk in the experimental group was increased by 14.5 and 11.7%, respectively. When evaluating the effectiveness of feeding lactating cows feed mixtures with mineral additive in the summer, it turned out that the level of profitability of milk production in the experimental group was greater by 2.77% compared with the control group, which was fed feed mixture without a mineral additive.
L. P. Kudryavtseva
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. The pathogenic complex of seed infection causes large crop losses and reduced quality characteristics of flax products. The purpose of the research is to identify the species composition of pathogens that pose a threat to the crop crop by their harmfulness or are potentially dangerous.Methods. The object of research was the seeds of 21 flax varieties included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation for 2015–2021. The research was carried out at the All-Russian Flax Research Institute, as well as at the Laboratory of Breeding Technologies of the Federal Research Center for Bast Crops in 2015–2021 using modern mycological and phytopathological methods, as well as VNIIL techniques.Results. Analysis of the phytosanitary condition of the seed material of 21 flax varieties for 6 years (2015–2021) revealed a high degree of infection of seeds with parasitic and saprophytic infections, including 17 species of fungi and 3 species of bacteria. The saprophytic complex was mainly represented by species of the genera Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Rhizopus sp., Trichothecium roseum, Trichoderma lignorum, etc. The lowest infectious load on flax seeds was noted in the Kostroma region (0–13.0%) and in the Kuban (5.0–19.8%). The following varieties had group resistance to seed infections of fusarium, anthracnose and aureobasidiosis: Diplomat, Caesar, Alexandrite, Alexim, Tonus, Nadezhda. The minimal infectious load of pathogenic microflora from the entire set of varieties was noted on the Tverskoy variety (14.7%).
S. A. Bardakova
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Conducting research on the resistance of hybrid tea roses to phytopathogenic harmful organisms and determining the species composition of pathogens and factors affecting their developmen.Methods. The objects of the study were the causative agents of fungal diseases of varieties of hybrid tea roses from the collection of the Stavropol Botanical Garden. The research was carried out using the Methodology of state variety testing of agricultural crops.Results. The results of studying the species composition of mycosis pathogens on varieties of roses of the tea-hybrid garden group of the collection of the Stavropol Botanical Garden are presented. The nature and degree of damage to plants is described, the causes are established and methods of containment of diseases are developed. The most harmful and common diseases on hybrid tea roses in growing conditions are: powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa Lew. var. rosae Voron.); downy mildew (Peronoplasmopara sparsa (Berk.) Uljan.); rust (is caused by 2 pathogens — Phragmidium mucronatum (Pers.) Schltdl., Phragmidium tuberculatum Mϋll. Hal.); gray rot (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) and leaf spotting of different types: black spot (Diplocarpon rosae F.A. Wolf. = Marssonina rosae (Lib.) Diet.); septoria (Septoria rosae Desm.); cercosporiasis (Cercospora rosiola Pass.), the development of which was facilitated by meteorological conditions over the years of research. Evaluation of hybrid tea cultivaris of roses for resistance to fungal diseases was carried out in 2019-2021 in the collection of the Stavropol botanical garden on a natural infectious background on a 5-point scale during the period of mass spread of diseases. Despite the fact that all cultivaris of hybrid tea roses are affected by fungal diseases, it has been found that different cultivaris are affected differently. According to the degree of resistance to the complex of diseases, 4 cultivaris received 1 point (practically resistant), 52 cultivaris received 2 points (weakly affected), 74 cultivaris received 3 points (mediumly affected), 33 cultivaris received 4 points (strongly affected). Regular monitoring of the phytosanitary state of the studied cultivaris, biological and chemical protection measures made it possible to reduce the massive spread of fungal diseases and preserve the decorative effect of plants.
N. A. Ryabtseva
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. Because of difficult economic conditions, sanctions applied to Russian Federation, the issue of resource conservation is becoming more and more urgent. Finding ways to reduce costs in the tillage system is a top priority, which determines the relevance of our research. Empirical studies are aimed at studying the influence of methods of basic tillage on the yield of spring barley.Methods. Object of research: spring barley plants of the Prairie variety. Mеthods of tillage for spring barley: 1. Plowing (control) — 20 cm (POM–4/7); 2. Combined — 14 cm (AKSO-4); 3. Combined — 8 cm (AKM-4). 4. Without tillage. The total area under the experiments is 4 hectares, the area of each variant is 1 hectare, according to the main observations, the repetition is 3 times. The link of the crop rotation is sunflower — spring barley. The soils of the experimental site are ordinary chernozem.Results. The greatest compaction of the arable layer during the growing season was with the absence of tillage — from 1,26 g/cm3 to 1,29 g/cm3. During the growing season, the porosity of the arable soil layer decreased in all variants, the greatest trend was in the variant with plowing by 15%. The effectiveness of combined mulching treatments is undoubtedly positive: the reserves of productive moisture in the spring in the meter layer were higher than after plowing. In the variant without tillage, the moisture reserves before sowing were 15 mm higher compared to the control. The method of basic tillage affected the abundance of weeds in barley crops. The smallest number of weeds in the tillering phase of spring barley was against the background of plowing — 36 pcs./m2. By harvesting, the contamination of crops increased in all variants, as well as their mass by 3,1–3,5 times. A significant increase in yield was on the variants with combined processing to a depth of 8 cm and without tillage, as well as a high profitability of 110–117%.
, R. A. Popov
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. As a result of the prohibition of technical hemp cultivation due to the fight against narcotic plants in 1980, the development of technologies and the production of technical means for the cultivation of hemp, the acreage of the crop was sharply reduced. One of the ways to ensure greater efficiency and competitiveness of drugsfree hemp products is to increase the level of technical equipment of the industry, the use of science-based intensive technologies and systems of high-performance energysaturated machines.Methods. The methodological approaches of leading scientists involved in the cultivation of technical hemp, the development of innovative technologies and systems of promising machines for the hemp growing industry together with machine-building plants were applied.Results. A scientifically based system of machines for harvesting technical hemp using high-performance energy-saturated technical means has been formed: combine harvesters and hemp harvesters, innovative stripping headers, rotary cutters with wearresistant cutting elements, modern tractors, balers, loaders, transporters. Production tests in hemp farms have shown that the use of a new system of machines not only increases the intensity of hemp harvesting, but also completely eliminates manual labor, reduces the agrotechnical harvesting time, improves the quality of hemp seed threshing up to 95% and reduces seed losses, increases the yield of stems with 2.2 to 4 t/ha and the quality of hemp trust — per 1 variety. It is scientifically substantiated that the use of new technical solutions increases the productivity of harvesting equipment by 50% or more compared to the previous one, while reducing the cost of growing and processing hemp, and increasing the quality and competitiveness of hemp products.
S. S. Alatyrev, I. S. Kruchinkina
Published: 17 June 2022
Abstract:
Relevance. In recent years, in many countries of the world, in particular, in Denmark, Belgium, Canada, China, Japan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, as well as in our country, an increased interest in the mechanization of the cabbage harvesting process was shown. Harvesting using machines reduces labor costs by more than 3 times. At the same time, due to the introduction of traditional mechanized technologies for harvesting cabbage, there was a problem associated with maintaining the original quality of products, since when the heads are shipped to the body of the vehicle in bulk, as well as in the process of laying for storage, their mechanical damage occurs.Methods. In this regard, the machine cleaning of cabbages with manual careful laying of cabbages in containers installed in the body of the accompanying vehicle using a belt conveying device is proposed and justified. The process of mechanized harvesting of cabbage according to the proposed technology will be stable while ensuring the necessary intensity of shifting the heads from the web of the belt conveying device into containers. In this regard, in order to optimize the technological parameters, the workflow of the proposed cabbage harvesting method is modeled using elements of the queuing theory.Results. As a result, the number of maintenance personnel necessary for the smooth execution of the cabbage harvesting workflow according to the described technology has been established.
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