Open Journal of Cell and Protein Science
Articles in this journal
Published: 6 May 2022
Increased proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) expression is observed in various diseases related to inflammation. However, the expression of PAR2 in odontoblasts in response to dental caries has not been investigated. Therefore, to explore the functions of odontoblasts during the progression of carious infection, we measured PAR2 and NF-κB expression using immunofluorescence techniques in the odontoblast layer and pulpocytes in the sub-odontoblast region of 44 teeth extracted from children undergoing dental treatment (eight sound samples, 13 early carious samples, 16 advanced carious samples, and eight exposed pulp samples). PAR2 and NF-κB were expressed at moderate levels in sound teeth with non-carious pulp, and the expression levels changed as caries progressed. PAR2 was significantly upregulated in the odontoblast layer during early-stage and advanced-stage caries, and reduced below healthy levels in teeth with exposed pulp. NF-κB was significantly upregulated in early-stage caries and significantly downregulated in advanced-stage and late-stage caries. Moreover, in the sub-odontoblast region, NF-κB expression increased with the progression of caries. Overall, this study suggests PAR2 may represent a crucial cell signalling receptor in the dentine-pulp complex during dental inflammation, and that NF-κB may be one of the key pathways that regulate inflammatory immune responses in the dental pulp.
Published: 27 May 2020
The free energy surfaces of duplex dinucleotide steps were mapped in a principal conformational subspace derived from crystal structure data on DNA duplex oligomers. The three dimensional subspace, spanned by collective degrees of freedom representing linear combinations of the Cartesian coordinates of the backbone and sugar atoms of both strands accounted for 77% of the total variance of the observed structural distribution. The features of the subspace free energy surface correspond well to the distribution of observed structures exhibiting a clear separation of A- and B-family classes. The sequence dependence of the relative A / B-form conformational equilibria was derived from the corresponding subspace free energy surfaces at physiological conditions. A B-philicity scale representing the mole fraction of the BI-form vs the A-family for the 10 unique dinucleotide steps revealed three classes of sequences: highly B-philic (GC/GC & CG/CG), B-philic (AC/GT, AA/TT, AT/AT, CA/TG, AG/CT & GG/CC) and A-philic (GA/TC & TA/TA). The high propensity of the TA/TA step to adopt the A-form conformation is in accord with single crystal X-ray diffraction data and has biological significance in view of the frequent presence of the TATA sequence motif in transcriptional promoter regions.
Published: 27 May 2020