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ISSN / EISSN : 2639-5274 / 2639-5274
Total articles ≅ 557
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Xuancheng Du, Mingzhen Zhang, Huiting Zhou, Weijie Wang, Chengmei Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yuanyuan Qu, , Xiangdong Liu, Mingwen Zhao, et al.
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-15;

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction characterized by severe systemic inflammatory response to infection. Effective treatment of bacterial sepsis remains a paramount clinical challenge, due to its astonishingly rapid progression and the prevalence of bacterial drug resistance. Here, we present a decoy nanozyme-enabled intervention strategy for multitarget blockade of proinflammatory cascades to treat multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacterial sepsis. The decoy nanozymes (named [email protected]Φ) consist mesoporous silica nanoparticle cores loaded with CeO2 nanocatalyst and Ce6 photosensitizer and biomimetic shells of macrophage membrane. By acting as macrophage decoys, [email protected]Φ allow targeted photodynamic eradication of MDR bacteria and realize simultaneous endotoxin/proinflammatory cytokine neutralization. Meanwhile, [email protected]Φ possess intriguing superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities as well as hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity and enable catalytic scavenging of multiple reactive oxygen species (ROS). These unique capabilities make [email protected]Φ to collaboratively address the issues of bacterial infection, endotoxin/proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and ROS burst, fully cutting off the path of proinflammatory cascades to reverse the progression of bacterial sepsis. In vivo experiments demonstrate that [email protected]Φ considerably attenuate systemic hyperinflammation and rapidly rescue organ damage within 1 day to confer higher survival rates (>75%) to mice with progressive MDR Escherichia coli bacteremia. The proposed decoy nanozyme-enabled multitarget collaborative intervention strategy offers a powerful modality for bacterial sepsis management and opens up possibilities for the treatment of cytokine storm in the COVID-19 pandemic and immune-mediated inflammation diseases.
, , Wei Li, Xuegong Yu, Xing’Ao Li
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-6;

As the key connecting points in the neuromorphic computing systems, synaptic devices have been investigated substantially in recent years. Developing optoelectronic synaptic devices with optical outputs is becoming attractive due to many benefits of optical signals in systems. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are potential luminescent materials for information displays. Light-emitting diodes based on CQDs have become appealing candidates for optoelectronic synaptic devices. Moreover, light-emitting transistors exhibit great application potential in these synaptic devices. From this perspective, light-emitting artificial synapses were discussed on the basis of these structures in the devices. Their mechanisms, performance, and future development were analysed and prospected in detail.
Chengjiao Wu, Yue Fan, Hongxin Wang, Juan Li, Yuxi Chen, Yingke Wang, Lin Liu, Lidan Zhou, Shilin Huang,
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-11;

Driven by the ever-increasing demand for fingerprint-resistant techniques in modern society, numerous researches have proposed to develop innovative antifingerprint coatings based on superhydrophobic/superoleophobic surface design. However, whether superhydrophobic/superoleophobic surfaces have favorable repellency to the microscopic fingerprint is in fact an open question. Here, we establish a reliable method that enables evaluating the antifingerprint capability of various surfaces in a quantitative way. We show that superhydrophobicity is irrelevant with fingerprint repellency. Regarding superoleophobic surfaces, two distinct wetting states of microscopic fingerprint residues, i.e., the “repellent” and the “collapsed” states, are revealed. Only in the “repellent” state, in which the fingerprint residues remain atop surface textures upon being pressed, superoleophobic surfaces can bring about favorable antifingerprint repellency, which correlates positively with their receding contact angles. A finger-deformation-dependent intrusion mechanism is proposed to account for the formation of different fingerprint wetting states. Our findings offer important insights into the mechanism of fingerprint repellency and will help the design of high-performance antifingerprint surfaces for diverse applications.
Wei Yang, Hua Yue, Guihong Lu, Wenjing Wang, Yuan Deng, Guanghui Ma,
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-24;

Oxidation modulators regarding antioxidants and reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducers have been used for the treatment of many diseases. However, a systematic review that refers to delivery system for divergent modulation of oxidative level within the biomedical scope is lacking. To provide a comprehensive summarization and analysis, we review pilot designs for delivering the oxidative modulators and the main applications for inflammatory treatment and tumor therapy. On the one hand, the antioxidants based delivery system can be employed to downregulate ROS levels at inflammatory sites to treat inflammatory diseases (e.g., skin repair, bone-related diseases, organ dysfunction, and neurodegenerative diseases). On the other hand, the ROS inducers based delivery system can be employed to upregulate ROS levels at the tumor site to kill tumor cells (e.g., disrupt the endogenous oxidative balance and induce lethal levels of ROS). Besides the current designs of delivery systems for oxidative modulators and the main application cases, prospects for future research are also provided to identify intelligent strategies and inspire new concepts for delivering oxidative modulators.
Kewei Ma, Qingfeng Gui, Cihui Liu, Yunyi Yang, Fangjian Xing, Yunsong Di, XiaoMing Wen, Baohua Jia,
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-11;

Multicolor fluorescence of mixed halide perovskites enormously enables their applications in photonics and optoelectronics. However, it remains an arduous task to obtain multicolor emissions from perovskites containing single halogen to avoid phase segregation. Herein, a fluorescent composite containing Eu-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), 0D Cs4PbBr6, and 3D CsPbBr3 is synthesized. Under excitations at 365 nm and 254 nm, the pristine composite emits blue (B) and red (R) fluorescence, which are ascribed to radiative defects within Cs4PbBr6 and 5D07FJ transitions of Eu3+, respectively. Interestingly, after light soaking in the ambient environment, the blue fluorescence gradually converts into green (G) emission due to the defect repairing and 0D-3D phase conversion. This permanent and unique photochromic effect enables anticounterfeiting and microsteganography with increased security through a micropatterning technique. Moreover, the RGB luminescence is highly stable after encapsulation by a transparent polymer layer. Thus, trichromatic light-emitting modules are fabricated by using the fluorescent composites as color-converting layers, which almost fully cover the standard color gamut. Therefore, this work innovates a strategy for construction of tunable multicolor luminescence by manipulating the radiative defects and structural dimensionality.
Zongzhuan Shen, Linda S. Thomashow, Yannan Ou, Chengyuan Tao, Jiabao Wang, Wu Xiong, Hongjun Liu, Rong Li, , George A. Kowalchuk
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-15;

Microbial contributions to natural soil suppressiveness have been reported for a range of plant pathogens and cropping systems. To disentangle the mechanisms underlying suppression of banana Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc4), we used amplicon sequencing to analyze the composition of the soil microbiome from six separate locations, each comprised of paired orchards, one potentially suppressive and one conducive to the disease. Functional potentials of the microbiomes from one site were further examined by shotgun metagenomic sequencing after soil suppressiveness was confirmed by greenhouse experiments. Potential key antagonists involved in disease suppression were also isolated, and their activities were validated by a combination of microcosm and pot experiments. We found that potentially suppressive soils shared a common core community with relatively low levels of F. oxysporum and relatively high proportions of Myxococcales, Pseudomonadales, and Xanthomonadales, with five genera, Anaeromyxobacter, Kofleria, Plesiocystis, Pseudomonas, and Rhodanobacter being significantly enriched. Further, Pseudomonas was identified as a potential key taxon linked to pathogen suppression. Metagenomic analysis showed that, compared to the conducive soil, the microbiome in the disease suppressive soil displayed a significantly greater incidence of genes related to quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and synthesis of antimicrobial compounds potentially active against Foc4. We also recovered a higher frequency of antagonistic Pseudomonas isolates from disease suppressive experimental field sites, and their protective effects against banana Fusarium wilt disease were demonstrated under greenhouse conditions. Despite differences in location and soil conditions, separately located suppressive soils shared common characteristics, including enrichment of Myxococcales, Pseudomonadales, and Xanthomonadales, and enrichment of specific Pseudomonas populations with antagonistic activity against the pathogen. Moreover, changes in functional capacity toward an increase in quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial compound synthesizing involve in disease suppression.
Runjiang Shen, Yanghua Lu, Xutao Yu, Qi Ge, Huiming Zhong,
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-8;

The excitation, rebound, and transport process of hot carriers (HCs) inside dynamic diode (DD) based on insulators has been rarely explored due to the original stereotyped in which it was thought that the insulators are nonconductive. However, the carrier dynamics of DD is totally different from the static diode, which may bring a subverting insight of insulators. Herein, we discovered insulators could be conductive under the framework of DD; the HC process inside the rebounding procedure caused by the disappearance and reestablishment of the built-in electric field at the interface of insulator/semiconductor heterostructure is the main generation mechanism. This type of DD can response fast up to 1 μs to mechanical excitation with an output of ~10 V, showing a wide band frequency response under different input frequencies from 0 to 40 kHz. It can work under extreme environments; various applications like underwater communication network, self-powered sensor/detector in the sea environment, and life health monitoring can be achieved.
, Brian M. Conley, Jinho Yoon, Christopher Rathnam, Thanapat Pongkulapa, Brandon Conklin, Yannan Hou,
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-15;

A systematic investigation of stem cell-derived neural interfaces can facilitate the discovery of the molecular mechanisms behind cell behavior in neurological disorders and accelerate the development of stem cell-based therapies. Nevertheless, high-throughput investigation of the cell-type-specific biophysical cues associated with stem cell-derived neural interfaces continues to be a significant obstacle to overcome. To this end, we developed a combinatorial nanoarray-based method for high-throughput investigation of neural interface micro-/nanostructures (physical cues comprising geometrical, topographical, and mechanical aspects) and the effects of these complex physical cues on stem cell fate decisions. Furthermore, by applying a machine learning (ML)-based analytical approach to a large number of stem cell-derived neural interfaces, we comprehensively mapped stem cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation, which allowed for the cell-type-specific design of biomaterials for neural interfacing, including both adult and human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) with varying genetic backgrounds. In short, we successfully demonstrated how an innovative combinatorial nanoarray and ML-based platform technology can aid with the rational design of stem cell-derived neural interfaces, potentially facilitating precision, and personalized tissue engineering applications.
, Zhiyi Chen, Elias Kaiser, Priscilla Malcolm Matamoros, ,
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-14;

Although it is well known that plants emit acoustic pulses under drought stress, the exact origin of the waveform of these ultrasound pulses has remained elusive. Here, we present evidence for a correlation between the characteristics of the waveform of these pulses and the dimensions of xylem conduits in plants. Using a model that relates the resonant vibrations of a vessel to its dimension and viscoelasticity, we extract the xylem radii from the waveforms of ultrasound pulses and show that these are correlated and in good agreement with optical microscopy. We demonstrate the versatility of the method by applying it to shoots of ten different vascular plant species. In particular, for Hydrangea quercifolia, we further extract vessel element lengths with our model and compare them with scanning electron cryomicroscopy. The ultrasonic, noninvasive characterization of internal conduit dimensions enables a breakthrough in speed and accuracy in plant phenotyping and stress detection.
, Yeke Wang, Jun He, , Ge Xue, Yan Zhao, Yanghui Peng, Carl Smith, Jia Zhang, Jun Chen, et al.
Research, Volume 2022, pp 1-17;

Despite the widespread recognition of adaptive radiation as a driver of speciation, the mechanisms by which natural selection generates new species are incompletely understood. The evolutionary radiation of endemic East Asian cyprinids has been proposed as evolving through a change in spawning habits, involving a transition from semibuoyant eggs to adhesive eggs in response to crosslinked river-lake system formation. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that underpin this radiation, associated with egg hydration and adhesiveness. We demonstrated that semibuoyant eggs enhance hydration by increasing the degradation of yolk protein and accumulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, while adhesive eggs improve adhesiveness and hardness of the egg envelope by producing an adhesive layer and a unique 4th layer to the egg envelope. Based on multiomics analyses and verification tests, we showed that during the process of adaptive radiation, adhesive eggs downregulated the “vitellogenin degradation pathway,” “zinc metalloprotease pathway,” and “ubiquitin-proteasome pathway” and the pathways of Ca2+ and Mg2+ active transport to reduce their hydration. At the same time, adhesive eggs upregulated the crosslinks of microfilament-associated proteins and adhesive-related proteins, the hardening-related proteins of the egg envelope, and the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan in the ovary to generate adhesiveness. These findings illustrate the novel molecular mechanisms associated with hydration and adhesiveness of freshwater fish eggs and identify critical molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptive radiation of endemic East Asian cyprinids. We propose that these key egg attributes may function as “magic traits” in this adaptive radiation.
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