Mineralogical Magazine

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ISSN / EISSN : 0026-461X / 1471-8022
Published by: Mineralogical Society (10.1180)
Total articles ≅ 7,691
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, Diana O. Nekrasova, Dmitry O. Charkin, Anatoly N. Zaitsev, Artem S. Borisov, Marie Colmont, Olivier Mentré, Darya V. Spiridonova
Published: 29 September 2021
Mineralogical Magazine pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.1180/mgm.2021.73

, Harald Müller, Matteo Leoni
Published: 17 September 2021
Mineralogical Magazine pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1180/mgm.2021.66

The synthesis and structure of the title compound, 1, is presented, refined using Rietveld against powder X-ray diffraction data. 1 crystallises dominantly in a pseudotetragonal C-centred orthorhombic lattice with dimensions a = 6.6791(6) Å, b = 15.5006(6) Å, c = 6.6811(6) Å and V = 691.70(10) Å3. The structural model proposed here refined by Rietveld is Sr0.928(8)Cu4(OH)8Cl2⋅3.60(21)H2O in space group Cmcm (63), with Z = 2. The chemistry and diffraction pattern of 1 are similar to that for the known Ca analogue, calumetite. The copper sites are arranged with square planar coordination at ¼ and ¾ height and are bonded to four (protonated) oxygens at an average of 1.966 Å (effective coordination of 3.82 Å). The more distant Cl sites (at Cu−Cl = 3.190(6) Å) complete the heavily Jahn–Teller distorted Cu[(OH)4,Cl2] polyhedra. The ½-occupied Sr sites are 8 coordinated to four protonated oxygens shared with the Cu-layer (at 2 × 2.438(8) Å, 2 × 2.566(15) Å) and by 4 bonds to the proposed water sites (Sr−Ow = 2.760(9) Å). The structure of 1 is predisposed towards defects, based on a notional tetragonal, P4/nmm, substructure with a sub ≈ a 1, csub = b ½ dimensions. Average diffraction models have been further elaborated in order to resolve additional peaks (and peak-shapes) using DIFFaX+.
, Nikita V. Chukanov, Erik Jonsson, Igor V. Pekov, Dmitry I. Belakovskiy, Marina F. Vigasina, Natalia V. Zubkova, Konstantin V. Van, Sergey N. Britvin
Published: 2 September 2021
Mineralogical Magazine pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1180/mgm.2021.70

The new wermlandite-group mineral erssonite, ideally CaMg7Fe3+ 2(OH)18(SO4)2⋅12H2O (or [Mg7Fe3+ 2(OH)18][Ca(SO4)2]⋅12H2O), was discovered in a late-stage, low-temperature assemblage in cavities of a magnetite-bearing dolomitic rock from the Långban deposit, Värmland county, Bergslagen ore province, Sweden. The associated minerals are dolomite, calcite, members of the magnetite–magnesioferrite solid-solution series, phlogopite, chrysotile, pyroaurite and norbergite. Erssonite has a vitreous lustre and forms colourless, platy hexagonal crystals flattened on [0001], up to 0.5 mm across and up to 10 μm thick, occurring mainly as aggregates in cavities of dolomitic rock. Erssonite is malleable; separate crystals are flexible and non-elastic, with a perfect, mica-like cleavage on {0001}. The calculated density is equal to 2.02 g⋅cm–3. Raman spectroscopy shows the presence of typical bands for S–O bonds attributed to intercalated SO4 2– anions and structural OH– anions together with the absence of C–O bonds, attributed to carbonate anions. The chemical composition is (wt.%, electron microprobe, H2O content is calculated from structure data): MgO 28.67, CaO 2.76, Al2O3 0.23, Cr2O3 0.23, Fe2O3 16.00, SiO2 0.48, SO3 14.80, H2O 35.58, total 98.75. The empirical formula based on 38 O atoms is H41.48Ca0.52Mg7.47Fe3+ 2.11Al0.05Cr0.03S1.94Si0.08O38. The ideal formula is CaMg7Fe3+ 2(OH)18(SO4)2⋅12H2O or {Mg7Fe3+ 2(OH)18}{[Ca(H2O)6](SO4)2(H2O)6}. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R = 0.093. Erssonite is trigonal, P $\bar{3}$ c1, with a = 9.3550(6), c = 22.5462(14) Å, V = 1708.8(2) Å3 and Z = 2. The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %)(hkl)] are: 11.22 (90)(002), 5.63 (64)(004), 4.670 (100)(110, 104, 014), 2.626 (64)(032, 302), 2.435 (66)(034, 304) and 1.951 (45)(038, 308). The mineral is named in honour of the Swedish amateur mineralogist Dr. Anders Ersson (b. 1971).
, Daniela Pinto, Donatella Mitolo, Uwe Kolitsch
Published: 1 September 2021
Mineralogical Magazine pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1180/mgm.2021.69

Thermessaite-(NH4), ideally (NH4)2AlF3(SO4), is a new mineral found as a medium- to high-temperature (~250–300°C) fumarole encrustation at the rim of La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy. The mineral deposited as aggregates of minute (<0.2 mm) sharp prismatic crystals on the surface of a pyroclastic breccia in association with thermessaite, sulfur, arcanite, mascagnite, and intermediate members of the arcanite–mascagnite series. The new mineral is colourless to white, transparent, non-fluorescent, has a vitreous lustre, and a white streak. The calculated density is 2.185 g/cm3. Thermessaite-(NH4) is orthorhombic, space group Pbcn, with a = 11.3005(3) Å, b = 8.6125(3) Å, c = 6.8501(2) Å, V = 666.69(4) Å3 and Z = 4. The eight strongest reflections in the powder X-ray diffraction data [d in Å (I)(hkl)] are: 5.65 (100)(200), 4.84 (89)(111), 6.85 (74)(110), 3.06 (56)(112), 3.06 (53)(221), 3.08 (47)(311), 2.68 (28)(022) and 2.78 (26)(130). The average chemical composition, determined by quantitative SEM-EDS (N by difference), is (wt.%): K2O 3.38, Al2O3 25.35, SO3 36.58, F 26.12, (NH4)2O 22.47, O = F –11.00, total 102.90. The empirical chemical formula, calculated on the basis of 7 anions per formula unit, is [(NH4)1.85K0.15]Σ2.00Al1.06F2.94S0.98O3.06. The crystal structure, determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data [R(F) = 0.0367], is characterised by corner-sharing AlF4O2 octahedra which form [001] octahedral chains by sharing two trans fluoride atoms [Al–F2 = 1.8394(6) Å]. Non-bridging Al–F1 distances are shorter [1.756(1) Å]. The two trans oxygen atoms [Al–O = 1.920(2) Å] are from SO4 tetrahedra. NH4 + ions occur in layers parallel to (100) which alternate regularly with (100) layers containing ribbons of corner-sharing AlF4O2 octahedra and associated SO4 groups. The NH4 + ions are surrounded by five oxygen atoms and by four fluorine atoms. The mineral is named as the (NH4)-analogue of thermessaite, K2AlF3(SO4), and corresponds to an anthropogenic phase found in the burning Anna I coal dump of the Anna mine, Aachen, Germany. Both mineral and mineral name have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (IMA2011-077).
Published: 19 August 2021
Mineralogical Magazine pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.1180/mgm.2021.65

Amphibole and biotite were the principal mafic minerals precipitated during the magmatic and post-magmatic (including hydrothermal) crystallisation stages of coeval metaluminous to slightly peraluminous syenogranites and peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites of the Mandira Granite Massif, in the post-collisional A-type Graciosa Province, S-SE Brazil. Magmatic calcic (ferro-ferri-hornblende and hastingsite) amphiboles occur in the metaluminous syenogranites, whereas calcic (ferro-edenite), sodic–calcic (ferro-ferri-winchite) and sodic (arfvedsonite and riebeckite) amphiboles occur in peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites. Rare earth element (REE) contents decrease from hornblende to winchite and riebeckite, and the partition coefficients indicate increasing compatibility from light rare earth elements (LREE) to heavy rare earth elements (HREE), with a marked preference for the HREE over the LREE in the sodic–calcic and, particularly, the sodic amphiboles. Post-magmatic calcic- (ferro-actinolite) and sodic- (riebeckite) amphiboles are also present in the peralkaline granites. Magmatic biotite (annite) is dominant in syenogranites, whereas post-magmatic annite and late-to post-magmatic annite evolving to siderophyllite occurs in the peralkaline granites. Typical hydrothermal phyllosilicates are chlorite (chamosite) in syenogranites and related greisens, and ferri-stilpnomelane which is present in both peralkaline granites and metaluminous syenogranites. Lithostatic pressure estimates suggest that the main granites were emplaced under pressures of ~93–230 MPa, with close-to-liquidus temperatures varying from ~830°C for syenogranites to ~900°C for the peralkaline granites. The original magmas crystallised mainly under relatively reduced (buffered at ~ –1 ≤ QFM ≤ 0), and more oxidising (somewhat above QFM) environments, respectively. Chlorite, replacing biotite in syenogranites and as the main mineral in the related greisens, permits the temperature of the main hydrothermal event to have taken place between 250 and 272°C. Estimated log (f HF/f HCl) values from biotite compositions vary from ~ –2 to –1 (syenogranites) and ~ –3.5 to –2 (peralkaline granites) and indicate F preference over Cl in the hydrothermal fluid phase.
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