Latest articles in this journal
Health, Volume 13, pp 217-237; doi:10.4236/health.2021.133019
This paper reports on two studies using different measures of both Modern Health Worries (MHW) and the Personality Disorders (PDs) to establish the relationship between the two concepts. Study 1 used the PID-5 which is a measure of maladaptive personality traits and the extended 40 item MHW scale. Study 2 used the original 28 item measure of MHW and PDs as measured by the Coolidge Axis-II Inventory—Short Form: SCATI. In study 1 a regression on the total MHW scale accounted for 14% of the variance: those who scored higher on Antagonism and Negative Affect had higher MHW scores. In the study 2 regressions showed four variables consistently related to MHW: sex (females with higher scores), optimism, political beliefs (left wing liberals with higher scores) and those with Cluster B personality disorders (dramatic, overly emotional, erratic). There was enough overlap in the two studies to conclude that various PDs mainly from Cluster B (Moving Against others) were modestly related to MHW as predicted. Limitations and implications are considered.
Health, Volume 13, pp 405-415; doi:10.4236/health.2021.134033
Niigata City in Japan and Khabarovsk City in Russia signed a sister city agreement in 1965 and have been interacting with each other for a long time. We have been conducting comparative research on the elderly between the two cities, but there is no research on the young. Distorted perception of body weight and unnecessary dieting behavior in adolescent girls is considered a problem in both Japan and Russia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the distortion of weight perception and diet behavior of adolescent girls in both the countries. In addition, it was decided to investigate the eating habits of people in both the countries. In total, 195 15-year-old girls from Niigata, Japan (October 2020) and 286 girls from Khabarovsk, Russia (February 2017) were surveyed. The questionnaire used was an excerpt from the World Health Organization survey on the health behavior of school-age children. The proportion of Japanese adolescent girls who perceived themselves as overweight (distorted body weight perception) was 60.5%, which was significantly higher than that of Russian adolescent girls at 30.1% (p < 0.001). In addition, the prevalence of weight loss behavior in Japan was 34.9% (n = 68), which was significantly higher than that in Russia with 27.3% (n = 78) (p < 0.001). Adolescent girls in Japan had more serious problems with weight perception, but had fewer problems with breakfast and vegetable intake habits than those in Russia. From a young age, perception of correct body shape and establishment of eating habits are important not only for current health but also for future health. We need to carefully educate adolescent girls that their body undergoes major changes through secondary sexual characteristics during adulthood.
Health, Volume 13, pp 354-368; doi:10.4236/health.2021.134029
This exploratory study examined elderly African Americans attitudes on the COVID-19 pandemic by identifying their perceptions of risk based personal, social, and cultural factors. It seeks to understand their insights toward public health pandemic response initiatives and other efforts to mitigate COVID-19 outbreak response measures impacting elderly African Americans, including policies, interventions, and public information/communication. The effectiveness of pandemic response measures and community caregiving support for the elderly African Americans was examined as well. Respondents in this study were a convenient sample of 60 residents predominantly in a Midwestern metropolitan area. Respondents were eligible for study participation if 1) there were 60 years and over and, 2) African American or people of African descent. A mixed research method design comprising focus groups and online survey was used to collect the data for the study. The respondents characterized the impact of the coronavirus as a personal, family, and community loss (e.g., less socially engaged and burdensome). An overwhelming majority (98.3%) expressed no worries about getting health care if they or their family members needed it. A sizable number of respondents expressed the need for all to be tested to help prevent the spread of the virus.
Health, Volume 13, pp 299-305; doi:10.4236/health.2021.133024
Purpose: To investigate the effect of silver ionised water on acid production in plaque. Methods: After injecting 0.5 mL of silver ionised water (concentration: 5 ppm) produced with the sintering coating method in the sensor part of the pH metre, plaque collected from the oral cavity by one platinum loop was mixed in. Immediately after that, a 5% sucrose solution (1 g/20 mL) was added and the pH was continuously measured for 30 minutes at 1-minute intervals (A). Similarly, silver ionised water was mixed with 5% sucrose solution in the same way as in (A) at 3 (B), 5 (C), 10 (D) and 15 minutes (E) after plaque contamination. The pH was measured at 1-minute intervals. The pH of the purified water containing no silver ionised water mixed with plaque and sugar solution at the same time was measured and used as a control. Each experiment was conducted three times, and the pH measured every minute was compared as a percentage of the pH at the beginning of the measurement (100%). Results: Analysis of variance of the repeated measurements to determine the effect of silver ionised water on the decrease in pH revealed a main effect of silver ionised water and an interaction between time and group [F(1.302,20.826) = 39.145, p < 0.01]. Multiple comparisons using Dunnett’s method showed a significant decline in the rate of decrease in pH from B to E as compared with that in the control (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Silver ionised water was found to inhibit the acid production in plaque.
Health, Volume 13, pp 1-15; doi:10.4236/health.2021.131001
The productivity of medical staff within a polyclinic is not an easy task due to the multiple activities that physicians must perform at the same time: not only healthcare for patients, but also academic activities, such as scientific research and teaching. Hybrid professionals are healthcare professionals who have to play multiple roles, often not precisely identified. This analysis examines the case study of the University Polyclinic of Messina (Italy) where three university departments and 7 Dipartimenti di Attività Integrate (DAI) are distinguished and physicians (both professors and researchers) are called to reconcile multiple tasks. Given the distinction between university departments and DAIs, the aim of this contribution is to identify the organizational elements that prove to be predictors of scientific efficiency and productivity. To what extent does the inclusion in a DAI or within a university department affect individual incentives? A new dataset is built for the present research containing information on University Polyclinic of Messina physicians (full professors, associate professors, researchers). From the Scopus online database (https://www.scopus.com/home.uri) individual information relating to the number of publications, the number of citations, h-index was obtained. The latter is used to assess the quality of individual research; in order to evaluate the teaching activity, the number of hours dedicated to didactical activities is taken into account, together with the number of teaching hours required by one’s role. Information related to remuneration and the circumstance of carrying out intramural activities has also been included. A thorough statistical analysis is carried out and the individual groups (DAI and university departments) are compared through the Kruskal Wallis test. Estimating a Poisson Gamma mixture model highlights those variables that are significant predictors of scientific productivity. Attention paid to organizational methods should allow identifying the ideal setting for hybrid professionals to practice the medical profession, while carrying out managerial duties, without compromising the quality of teaching and research. An efficient solution could thus be proposed to the complex multi-objective optimization problem that healthcare professionals are called to answer.
Health, Volume 13, pp 31-39; doi:10.4236/health.2021.131003
Objective: This review aims to summarize key facets of the Pro Choice and Pro Life perspectives and outline a resolution pathway that minimizes abortion. Main Results: Approximately 1.3 billion abortions occurred worldwide from 1990 through 2014. In the United States, more than 61 million abortions were performed between 1973 and 2017. The Pro Choice perspective posits that: 1) A fetus is not a person; therefore, a person is not harmed. 2) Forced childbearing includes significant health and psychological risks to the mother and can exacerbate poverty. Since a person is not harmed and the mother is benefited, abortion is a moral good. From a Judeo-Christian, Pro Life perspective: 1) God creates every person in his image and has a pre-conception life plan for them. 2) God commanded us to be fruitful and multiply and identified children as a blessing. Hence, abortion harms a person and is rebellion against God. Conclusion: In working toward a solution, agape love, which is sacrificial and giving, not selfish or condemning, is a good starting point. In that light, the Judeo-Christian community can begin bridging the chasm between the Pro Life and Pro Choice communities by sharing truth in love and helping to meet the material and emotional needs of pregnant women who see no alternative to abortion. Proactive, unconditional love provides the foundation for making the womb a sanctuary for life.
Health, Volume 13, pp 123-133; doi:10.4236/health.2021.132011
Care prevention comprises an integral part of long-term care in Japan and is provided across the following populations: those without problems when screened by the Basic Check List (BCL, Type 1), those having problems when screened by the BCL (Type 2), and those certified in the “support need levels” by the long-term care insurance eligibility assessment (Type 3). We aimed to clarify the care prevention needs across these three populations by using the interRAI Check-Up, an internationally developed instrument. We conducted cross-sectional surveys to assess care prevention needs for convenience samples of community-dwelling older adults in two cities in western Japan from October 2016 to December 2017, and we integrated the secondary data of older adults’ assessment from September 2014 to June 2018. Prevalence rates of nine domains of care prevention needs were calculated. Among the 125 participants, 20 were Type 1, 23 were Type 2, and 82 were Type 3. All three types had the following needs that had not been assessed in the BCL: pains, risk of hospital-emergency room visits, driving reviews, and instrumental activities of daily living capacity. The results showed that interventions for a wide range of care prevention needs should be considered in the long-term care prevention project.
Health, Volume 13, pp 81-89; doi:10.4236/health.2021.132008
Introduction: To evaluate the correlation between the presence of an independent EHR (compared to a shared EHR system within an adult hospital system) and an externally-derived third party ranking of children’s hospitals. Methods: Children’s hospitals that ranked in the top fifty of the 2019-2020 US News and World Report (USNWR) were included in the analysis. The mean and median ranking of children’s hospitals with independent versus a shared EHR was evaluated. The 2019-2020 USNWR rankings of the top twenty adult hospitals in the United States were then evaluated. For each children’s hospital with an associated adult hospital that was both ranked, it was noted as to whether the EHR for the children’s hospital was independent or shared and statistical differences in rankings compared. Results: Among the top 50 children’s hospitals included, the median USNWR ranking for hospitals was statistically different with an independent EHR than with a shared EHR (13 vs. 30.0) (p = 0.002). The 21 top ranked adult hospitals were associated with 17 children’s hospitals ranked in the top 50. The median ranking for those with an independent EHR was statistically different for those with independent EHR versus shared EHR (7 vs. 28) (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children’s hospitals with an independent EHR are associated with higher scores on an independent external ranking of hospital quality compared to those which share an EHR with a partner adult hospital.
Health, Volume 13, pp 238-252; doi:10.4236/health.2021.133020
Aim: We devised a self-care supporting program targeting patients with early stages of secondary lower-limb lymphedema. The program incorporates “Simple exercises to replace lymphatic drainage” based on lymphatic flow. The purpose of this study was to consider the feasibility of continuing this program. Methods: The participants were patients in the early stages of secondary lower-limb lymphedema after gynecological cancer surgery and lymphedema therapists with more than five years of experience. Patients continued self-care at home after being briefed on the program, and they were analyzed on their self-care continuity status one month later based on a self-administered questionnaire survey and self-care notes. We interviewed the lymphedema therapists about this program to discuss the feasibility of continuing it and obtain feedback. Results: The patients who participated in the study were six women who underwent surgery with lymph node dissection for gynecological cancer. The therapists were five nurses and one occupational therapist. The patient understood the importance of all items in the self-care. “Observation,” “Touching,” and “Skin care” were relatively easy to continue. “Lymph drainage” and “Exercise” were continued with “Simple exercises to replace lymphatic drainage”. “Other exercises” were able to continue by adding distance and time to daily activities. Furthermore, “Measurement” and “Recording” became a burden and were difficult to continue. Nonetheless, this program was generally approved by the lymphedema therapists. They also pointed out the content and format of the self-care notes as improvements. Conclusions: We found that the self-care supporting program that incorporated “Simple exercises to replace lymphatic drainage” might be feasible to continue self-care for patients with early stages of secondary lower-limb lymphedema. Furthermore, we found that we needed to improve the “Measurement” and “Recording” sections of this program.
Health, Volume 13, pp 16-30; doi:10.4236/health.2021.131002
Introduction: Many overseas volunteers have worked in low and middle-income countries. However traveling abroad and staying in an unfamiliar environment with inadequate medical infrastructure exposes volunteers to a wide range of health risks. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships among disease knowledge and symptoms, disease risk perception, and self-management skills. Methods: This was a questionnaire survey of 189 Japanese who were preparing to volunteer abroad. A factor analysis was conducted on 13 items (six general risk events and seven major diseases) of risk perception. Correlation analysis was performed between the identified risk perception factors and disease knowledge and symptoms. Risk perception scores by factors from the seven disease items were compared between the Self-management Score (SMS) group and disease knowledge and risk of symptoms group, using T-tests. St. Luke’s International University Ethics Committee (19-A092) approved this study. Results: Many participants expected to suffer from digestive diseases (69.3%) and dermatitis (55%) in the field. On the other hand, few expected high risk of malaria (26.5%) or dengue fever (36%). Factor analysis yielded robust factor loadings creating a “Dread” and an “Unknown” factor accounting for 62.2% of total variance. Strong correlation was not found between SMS and disease risk perception. A weak negative correlation was observed in dengue fever, digestive disorders, and dermatitis (r = −0.20 to −0.25, p < 0.001) on the “Unknown” factor. A high SMS score was associated with a lower “Unknown” factor score for malaria, diarrhea, dermatitis, and dental disorders. In addition, higher disease knowledge was significantly associated with higher “Dread” factor score for dental disorders. Conclusions: Self-management skills and disease knowledge will enable higher risk awareness of common diseases and high lethality diseases.