Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1949-4998 / 1949-5005
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 2,415
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Lubomira Izakova, Dagmar Breznoscakova
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 68-79; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.131007

Abstract:
Background: Schizoaffective Disorder (SAD), similarly to schizophrenia, is a potentially chronic mental disorder that negatively affects the functioning of a patient. Various issues in everyday clinical practice often arise from its diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainty. To date, there is a lack of a well-defined therapeutic algorithm used to treat the simultaneously manifesting schizophrenic and affective components. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic approaches in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders to identify the need of different treatment strategy for these diseases. Methods: In a retrospective study, we evaluated the therapeutic algorithms used in all patients with SAD (n = 99) hospitalized at the Department of Psychiatry, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Bratislava throughout the year 2010 and compared them with the therapeutic procedures used in all schizophrenia patients hospitalized in the same year (n = 120). Results: We found similarities between the groups of patients with schizophrenia and SAD in the number, type and length of hospitalizations and general patient management. Differences were identified in terms of the spectrum of used pharmacotherapy. For the treatment of both mental disorders, atypical antipsychotics were used the most. In the treatment of schizophrenia, we found the most frequent use of combined antipsychotic therapy, meaning oral and long-acting injectable forms. Patients with SAD mostly received antipsychotic monotherapy, but its complex effects were supplemented with other psychotropic drugs, mostly mood-stabilizers and anxiolytics. Conclusion: The results of our study show similarities between schizophrenia and SAD in terms of health care utilization, despite the fact that SAD is generally considered to be a “milder” disorder. On the other hand, this study indicates differences in the spectrum of pharmacotherapy used.
Philip McCallion, Junrong Shi, Lisa A. Ferretti, Mary McCarron
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 47-59; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.131005

Abstract:
There remain challenges in understanding the aging lives of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: A cross-sectional comparison of people with and without I/DD was created using China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A definition of I/DD was established, three samples were created: those with an assigned/described intellectual and developmental disability prior to age 22 years; those with similar impairments at and after age 22 years; and those in the population without an assigned/described impairment. Findings: Those with I/DD appeared to have greater health needs on initial analysis. People with an impairment similar to I/DD but occurring after age 22 years had the same or greater needs in subsequent analyses. Both groups had greater needs than those with no identified disability. Discussion: There must be greater efforts to discover those with I/DD who are already in existing datasets, greater attention to the full range of lives led by people with I/DD and inclusion of data from a broader range of countries.
Sigal Eilat-Adar, Isabel Periquito, Alice Mo, Aviva Zeev, Rachel Golan, Naresh Gunaratnam
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 60-67; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.131006

Abstract:
Background: Both the civil war in 1998 and the tsunami in 2004 in Sri Lanka resulted in a large number of orphans. Objective: To examine the effect of nutritional intervention on one-year period of stunting and/or emaciated status. Methods: Study setting: Twenty-eight girls aged 5 - 19 years old were in the care of Grace Girls’ Home, an orphanage for girls located in the port town of Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, at the time of the survey. Nineteen of them had two available anthropometric measurements recorded over one year of follow-up. Anthropometric measurements were obtained prior to the intervention of nutritional mentoring to the local caregivers, and one year after intervention. Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and BMI-for-age z-scores were calculated using SMART methodology. Nutritional consultancy recommended an additional 15 - 20 grams of high quality protein per day, which was given to the girls. The kitchen team was encouraged to regularly prepare a variety of pulse-based dishes, using local foods and recipes. The local palm oil, rich in saturated fatty acids, was replaced with sunflower oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results: Stunting was decreased from Height to age Z-score (−1.19 ± 0.94) to (−0.90 ± 1.06) (P = 0.016), and BMI Z-score from (−0.80 ± 0.79) to (−0.50 ± 0.74) (P = 0.004). Conclusions: A single nutritional education intervention, culturally adapted and implemented by the local caregivers, can decrease stunting in orphans within one year.
Hossam Alakhrass, Abdullah Al Mulla, Sameh Kamal Al-Akhrass, Mohammed Aljuaid
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 40-46; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.131004

Abstract:
Since the declaration of the Covid-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020, the coronavirus has upended communities and dramatically changed people’s daily endeavors across the globe [1]. The current Covid-19 circumstances are occasioned by social realities such as the proliferation of misinformation, social inequalities, and nations’ inability to prepare for unprecedented crises such as the coronavirus. While Covid-19 has managed to elicit anxiety, cause illnesses and deaths, different sectors, individuals, and health dockets utilize technology to combat the pandemic. As we advance, there will be a need for a critical social understanding of how technology can be used to apprehend global crises such as coronavirus. To comprehend how technology is being used to address the coronavirus crises, the current paper assesses, evaluates, and rates the Covid-19 website developed by the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia [2].
Weikai Chen, Wei Cui, Ye Qiu, Di Cui
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 454-471; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.134036

Abstract:
With the development of deep sequencing and bioinformatics technology, a large number of products produced by abnormal RNA splicing, such as chimeric RNA and chimeric/fusion proteins, have been discovered. Natural chimeric/fusion genes are new genes formed by natural fusion of two or more independent genes. Chimeric RNAs can be transcribed by natural chimeric genes, and can also be formed by cis-splicing or trans-splicing of two or more precursor mRNAs. Unlike fusion genes, the production of chimeric RNAs does not involve changes in the DNA level of chromosomes. At first, chimeric RNAs were found as tumor markers. With the deepening of research, researchers also found a large number of chimeric RNAs in normal tissues. From the perspective of biological function, chimeric RNAs can play a biological role in regulating the expression of corresponding maternal genes, translating into chimeric proteins, and forming long non-coding RNAs. The objective of the present study focused on the frontiers of chimeric RNA and reviewed its role in health and tumor study to reveal research progress of chimeric RNA and health and provide a new sight of relative disease treatment. The main conclusion of this review is that chimeric RNA may serve as a biomarker for specific tumor diagnose and treatment while its role in normal physiology needs to be revealed.
Kathy Sexton-Radek
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 369-377; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.134030

Abstract:
Young adults, as a group, have poor quality sleep. While possessing the knowledge of the value of sleep health, young adults often allow their social schedules to encroach upon sleep time. Since March of 2020, the prevalence of COVID-19 reached a rate where quarantine, shelter in place mandates were employed worldwide. The obvious public health necessity of this action, along with the uncertainty with increasing rates of COVID-19 is compounded by distribution issues related to the vaccine. This literature review presents the factors related to young adult sleep followed by psychological consequences of COVID-19 factors. Several studies identify the need to attend to not only the sleep quality needs of young adult sleep but also the increased number of reporting depressed mood. Suggestions for improvement of young adult sleep given the factors of quarantine and uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic are provided.
Takaaki Miyake, Yoshiharu Tanaka, Haruka Kawabata, Shinya Saito, Megumi Oda
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 178-187; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.132016

Abstract:
Assuming that secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) in pre-schoolers is influenced by wake-up time, bedtime, sleeping duration and activity, the current study examined the influence of basic pre-schooler lifestyle on the circadian rhythm of s-IgA. We conducted a questionnaire survey on lifestyle and measured steps, heart rate and salivary s-IgA in 44 pre-schoolers aged 4 or 5 years old. Saliva was collected over 2 days at six time points: bedtime, upon waking up, upon arriving at nursery school, before lunch, after lunch and upon going home. To obtain relatively reliable s-IgA values, the s-IgA concentration/total protein concentration ratio (referred to as s-IgA/T.P.) was calculated. Relationship between the s-IgA/T.P. and heart rate, steps, wake-up time, bedtime and sleeping duration was then examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Accordingly, pre-schooler lifestyle had the following effect on circadian rhythm of s-IgA: 1) s-IgA/T.P. values were higher upon waking up than at other measurement time points; 2) pre-schoolers with considerable physical activity had high s-IgA/T.P. at bedtime and upon waking up; and 3) pre-schoolers with long sleeping durations and early bedtime had high s-IgA/T.P. upon waking up. Thus, our results confirmed that pre-schoolers’ lifestyle habits, such as bedtime, sleeping duration, physical activity, had an effect on the circadian rhythm of s-IgA.
Lindsay M. Belvedere, Siena F. Davis, Bobbi L. Gray, Benjamin T. Crookston
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 188-203; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.132017

Abstract:
In India, women and children continue to experience food insecurity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the Rajasthan Nutrition Project (RNP) led to changes in 1) dietary habits and nutrition, and 2) indicators of gender equality, female autonomy, and empowerment. This study surveyed women belonging to self-help groups who were pregnant or who had young children. Over the course of the intervention, significant improvements were seen in the following indicators: breastfeeding within one hour of birth, exclusively breastfeeding for the first six months, food insecurity of children and mothers, household decision-making, communication, mobility, and domestic violence. These findings suggest that the RNP is a promising intervention for improving nutrition and female autonomy in Rajasthan, India. Additional research is needed to determine if the RNP would be equally as effective in other regions of India, or in populations outside of India.
Yuanyuan Cao, Yuezhong Liu, Joshua Ho Yin Lai, Yin-Leng Theng
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 165-177; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.132015

Abstract:
With a rapidly ageing population in Singapore, older adults and their family members face challenges of age-related diseases, caregiver stress, and increasing demand for caregiving services. To address this pressing issue, this pilot study aims to introduce online health coaching for older adults in Singapore and evaluate its effectiveness on maintenance of personal healthcare. In the midst of the COVID-19 outbreak, older adults’ activities were largely restricted by measures on social distancing. The online health coaching provided a solution for older adults to achieve a healthy lifestyle in a contactless manner. In this pilot study, 18 older adults (≥55 years old) who were willing to be coached by trained health coaches (n = 10) for 8 weeks (once a week) were recruited. Pre- and post-surveys with older adults were conducted. Furthermore, health coaching booklet was used to control the quality of coaching and to record diet and exercise plans. The pilot study demonstrated that the health coaching provided older adults with knowledge of nutrition and exercise, raised their awareness of well-being in terms of daily meals and regular exercise, and provided an alternative to maintain a healthy lifestyle amidst global pandemic. Additionally, we also identified that the older adults’ satisfactions with health coaching were positively associated with educational levels (R2 = 0.31). Lastly, this pilot study highlighted that health coaching standardization process for older adults is critical for researchers and healthcare practitioners in the future.
Liumei Luo, Yanhai Kang, Fanchang Zeng, Yuzhu Lin, Ying Feng, Mengmeng Li, Feiyan Li
Published: 1 January 2021
Health, Volume 13, pp 157-164; https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.132014

Abstract:
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a kind of serious mental disorder that occurs after severe traumatic events. It is characterized by severe emotional and memory damage. This paper reviews the relevant research literature on PTSD at home and abroad in recent years, and reviews the mechanism of cognitive impairment in mental trauma to reveal the functional mechanism of cognitive impairment in post-traumatic stress disorder, in order to provide reference for future research.
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