ISSN / EISSN : 2595-5527 / 2595-5527
Published by: Environmental Smoke (10.32435)
Total articles ≅ 138
Latest articles in this journal
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp.1
The knowledge of physical, biological, and chemical estuarine processes and how they are affected by climate change conditions is essential for improving estuarine management. A common methodological approach for studying these complex processes is based on the implementation of numerical models supported by field data as bathymetry, sediment characteristics, flow discharges, current velocities, and sea water levels. This work is based on the implementation of a numerical model of the Minho River estuary using the Delft3D software. This model is able to simulate hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes for different time scales. It was calibrated using the OpenDA tool, which automatically determines some of the models’ parameters, such as the tidal constituents and the roughness coefficient, aiming to minimize the error between observed data and simulated results. Different scenarios were considered to assess the effects of climate change, according to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Results showed that the elevation in the estuary mouth can reach 77 cm, depending on the considered scenario. It was also determined that floods are the main sediment transport driver along the estuary, intensifying the accretion processes. Furthermore, the sea-level rise reduces the amount of transported sediments to the coastal platform, increasing the erosion risk in this area and increasing the accretion inside the estuary.
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE pp 44-47; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp.7
Acari are a subclass of chelicerate arthropods that includes mites and ticks. The present study focuses on the taxonomic diversity of aquatic mites in the Portuguese territory of the Minho Region. Our aim was to compile all available information and thus generate a list of species linking them to the site where they were recorded. Aquatic species were all those that live exclusively in the marine environment, deep sea, intertidal, freshwater, brackish water or in transitional environments with the terrestrial environment if their lifestyle is associated with the aquatic environment. Since the first records of Portuguese endemic mites by Lunblad in the 1950s several authors have contributed to accurately catalogue, record, and redescribe this vast group in Portugal and Minho consecutively. In our review in this work, we used the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) to obtain previous occurrences supplemented by an extensive literature review and the book collection Süßwasserfauna von Mitteleuropa, among others. Additionally, we resorted to active sampling and by-catch sampling in the Portuguese section of the Rio Minho catchment area. The collected organisms represent 12 new records for the Minho River and among them 10 are new records for Portugal, which were deposited in the Natural History Museum of the Iberian Peninsula - NatMIP (“Museu de História Natural da Península Ibérica”), Vila Nova de Cerveira, Portugal.
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE pp 64-74; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp.10
The European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), is vulnerable to infections by the parasitic nematode Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara, Niimi & Itagaki, 1974, mainly in freshwater ecosystems. The eel is a bioindicator species due to its benthic behaviour, predator, and life cycle. The parasite feeds on blood from the eel's swim bladder, causing damage to the walls and deterioration of this organ, reducing energy reserves, and affecting its migratory capacity for reproduction. Eels were captured at different sampling points divided into 4 areas of the international section of the Minho River in the following time periods: 1995-96, 2008-2011 and 2017-2021, through fyke nets and electric fishing sampling techniques. The objectives of this work were to analyze the dispersion and prevalence of A. crassus in the Minho River basin over time, infection rates and the eels condition. The prevalence levels found reach values close to 75% in some sampled locations and 99% of eels shown pathological signs of swim bladder infection. The nematode dispersal area increased since the early 1990s when its presence in the Minho River was first recorded.
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE pp 48-53; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp.8
The sound spectrum of water configures representative marks of various environments, which define a sound heritage with scientific, cultural, emotional, sensorial and educational value. From this perspective, river environments comprise a wide spectrum of sonic resonances. This study, contextualized within the field of geo-sonority research, considers the recording and analysis of water through several samples from the upper basin of the Miño River. The objectives are to advocate for the role of sonority as part of the intangible heritage, to explore its character in the fluvial environment of inland Galicia, and to contribute to the preservation of the sonic marks of water as sounds inherent to the identity of an area. The methodology applied consists of phases of field recording, the creation of databases and of phonic analysis. Water in its sound form, from the drop rhythmically repeating to the roar of a waterfall, fills an audible sound spectrum that characterizes soundscapes. By registering, documenting, and analyzing the sounds of the water, we advance in the knowledge of the diversity of the sound environments in the river basin of the Miño River.
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp.book
O X Simpósio Ibérico Sobre a Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Minho, organizado pelo Aquamuseu do Rio Minho/Câmara Municipal de Vila Nova de Cerveira e co-organizado pelo Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental – Universidade do Porto, num contexto multidisciplinar, abordou temas que abrangeram áreas desde a geoquímica de sedimentos e formas erosivas do leito rochoso do rio Minho; as mudanças climáticas numa perspetiva da futura gestão da água e nos efeitos já evidentes ao nível das comunidades biológicas; importância da gestão dos recursos da pesca no rio Mouro pela monitorização e aplicação de regras específicas de exploração; diagnóstico e medidas em curso para a conservação das populações de peixes migradores; a ameaça dos poluentes emergentes; a divulgação de novos registos de invertebrados encontrados no rio Minho (abordagem taxonómica); evidências da colaboração entre pescadores e investigadores para um melhor conhecimento social da comunidade piscatória, da sua atividade e da sua contribuição para o processo de gestão; comunicação de ciência e educação ambiental. No âmbito da mesa-redonda (workshop), em modelo aberto à comunidade, onde participaram pescadores, foram apresentados resultados de trabalhos no âmbito do Conhecimento Ecológico Local (Etnobiologia), em que os próprios tiveram a oportunidade de manifestar as suas opiniões relacionadas com a atividade da pesca. Houve ainda oportunidade de entregar os prémios referentes ao concurso de ilustração científica “Rio Minho, Biodiversidade e Artes de Pesca”, cuja exposição completa esteve patente na Bienal de Cerveira.
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE pp 7-16; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp.2
The existence of forms sculpted by fluvial erosion is frequent in Bedrock Rivers. Since 1999, the Area of Physical Geography of the University of Vigo (Ourense Campus) has been conducting research on these rock cavities in various reaches of the middle Miño River. The exploratory study that is presented corresponds to the case of a section upstream of the Barbantiño river waterfall (Ourense, Galicia). Carried out within the framework of a research line with the objectives of inventorying, characterizing, interpreting and evaluating the erosive forms in the rocky channels of the Miño River and its tributaries, the employed methodology included phases of field work, creation of a database, and statistical analysis. From the records in the sampled sectors of the Barbantiño River, an inventory was made with 60 erosive forms, considering quantitative variables (measurements of length, width, depth) and qualitative variables (morphology of the bottom, state of the walls, and presence of deposits). The preliminary results of the exploratory analysis provide new information on the sculpted forms in bedrock, allowing comparison with previous studies. The erosive forms of the studied section are characterized by great variability in their depth (between 2 cm and 2.7 m), length (between 7 cm and 2.5 m) and width (between 4 cm and 2 m); the strong correlation between surface and bottom dimensions (Spearman's r> 0.85); and the coexistence of cavities in an incipient state, furrows and potholes. These results contribute to the advancement of knowledge of a natural legacy that is part of the geodiversity of the Miño River basin, with a complex of values associated with its condition of geomorphological heritage.
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE pp 29-35; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp.5
The Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests (ICNF) has recently carried out work on planning and management of recreational fishing in the area of the Mouro River drainage basin — a mountain watercourse in the North of Portugal (River Hydrographic Basin). Minho) which is born near the place of Lagarto (Lamas de Mouro, Melgaço), in the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PNPG). The model adopted was initially implemented (2008) to manage that activity in the Olo river basin (BH of the Douro river), and this methodology also served as a foundation for creating in 2020 in the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes (Mente rivers, Rabaçal and Tuela – Vinhais and Bragança) plus three recreational fishing areas. In this context, 13 sampling stations were set up (12 in the Mouro river and 1 in the Sucrasto river), considered representative of a large part of the habitats that make up this study area, where actions were carried out to monitor the ichthyofauna (electrical fishing) and hydromorphological characterization of habitats (River Habitat Survey, RHS). The monitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates was an additional action, recently introduced in this type of work, aimed at improving the biological assessment of water quality and aquatic ecosystems and which is serving as a basis for the preparation of a Master's Thesis. With this study, data was analyzed concerning age, growth, physical condition of the monitored specimens, as well as their relationship with the different types of habitats where they were captured. To detect spatial distribution patterns underlying biotic (species/abundance and species/ages) and environmental data, multivariate methods can be used. As a result of this work, the Ludic Fishing Zone (ZPL) of the Mouro River (and its tributaries) will be created, with the aim of promoting recreational and sport fishing based on more conservationist principles. With this initiative, ICNF intends to guarantee greater protection and sustainability of endogenous aquaculture resources, with particular emphasis on the case of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). This salmonid annually elects a significant part of these continental waters to complete its reproductive phase. However, other studies, in this context, should be developed to better understand the ecology of the species in a country that coincides with its southern limit of distribution in Europe.
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp-book/
The X Iberian Symposium on the Hydrographic Minho River Basin, organized by the Aquamuseu do Rio Minho/Câmara Municipal de Vila Nova de Cerveira and co-organized by the Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR) - University of Porto, in a multidisciplinary context, addressed themes that covered areas from the geochemistry of sediments and erosive forms of the Minho River bedrock; climate change in a perspective of future water management and the already evident effects on the biological communities; the importance of fisheries resource management in the Mouro River by monitoring and applying specific exploitation rules; diagnosis and ongoing measures for the conservation of migratory fish populations; the threat of emerging pollutants; the dissemination of new records of invertebrates found in the Minho River (taxonomic approach); evidence of collaboration between fishermen and researchers for a better social knowledge of the fishing community, its activity and its contribution to the management process; science communication and environmental education. Within the workshop, in a model open to the community, where fishermen participated, results of works within the scope of Local Ecological Knowledge (Ethnobiology) were presented, and the fishermen themselves had the opportunity to express their opinions related to fishing activity. There was also the opportunity to award the prizes of the scientific illustration competition "Rio Minho, Biodiversidade e Artes de Pesca" (Minho River, Biodiversity and Fishing Arts), whose complete exhibition was on display at the "Bienal de Cerveira".
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE pp 24-28; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp.4
Society in general is distant from scientific culture, it is required to bring scientific knowledge closer to the population. In this context, an effective and attractive way for scientific dissemination is the establishment of natural history museums, which are institutions of knowledge, displaying the past. Natural history museums have the natural world as their object of study; and their collections may contain the most diverse types of materials (local and/or from various parts of the world), such as zoological, botanical, geological, archaeological, among others. Scientific collections are the largest and most important source of authoritative biodiversity data, contributing to studies of biodiversity composition, evolutionary (morphological and genetic), biogeographical, phenological, as well as geological. The materials present in these collections may serve for temporal comparison, being useful to produce predictive models. Likewise, they have a fundamental role in safeguarding type specimens, i.e. the first organisms identified to describe and name a new species. In addition, there is the component available to visitors in general, in order to raise public awareness on the preservation of the local fauna and flora and of other places in the world. In this way, the museums serve both the academic-scientific public and visitors who come to these sites for recreational purposes. It is intended to promote, in Vila Nova de Cerveira, the Natural History Museum of the Iberian Peninsula - NatMIP (“Museu de História Natural da Península Ibérica”), which intends to collect materials for scientific purposes, mainly Iberian.
ENVIRONMENTAL SMOKE pp 36-43; https://doi.org/10.32435/envsmoke/xibesymp.6
Although species identification is a central component on Biological Sciences, misidentifications are quite common generating error cascade effects on other environmental studies, resulting on erroneous population estimates, status, trends, and distribution data. One of the main causes of these errors occurs when dealing with damaged material, immature specimens, sexual dimorphism, intraspecific variation, and species with poor or outdated descriptions. Furthermore, usually there is no material retained as voucher of the specimens studied in scientific collections, hindering confirmation the identified species, in morphoanatomical and genetic scope. Even with this reliance on species identification taxonomy has been in decline for many years. In this study, we present the case study of the crustaceans identified for the Minho River estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula), using a taxonomic approach comparing these results with the biological surveys obtained through various ecology studies performed for 4 decades. A total of 64 species of crustaceans were identified within this study, in which 44 were new records for the Minho River estuary, compared to the 25 species identified on the biological surveys analyzed. Being one of the first studies of this nature in the Minho River, the main objective will be to provide taxonomic support in future projects in this area, contributing to the knowledge of the fauna of Portugal and the Iberian Peninsula.