Bulletin of the National Research Centre

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EISSN : 2522-8307
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1186)
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Rochdi Kaddar, Chayma Tarik, Maryam Atmani, Ikrame Enakhil, Nada Fakhri, Mohamed Khalis, Abdellah Lotfy,
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00827-8

Background: The implementation of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown has affected the daily practices of subjects with chronic diseases such as diabetes and caused negative impact on their lifestyle and habits such as physical activity, dietary habits and accessibility to medications. Diabetic people are considered the most vulnerable groups to COVID-19, and the lockdown measure has disturbed the diabetes self-management. In our study, we aimed to assess, for the first time at the regional level (Souss Massa Region), the COVID-19 lockdown impact on HbA1c levels in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We carried out a cross-sectional quantitative analysis at the health center of the industrial district in Agadir City. Results: We found a significant improvement in post-lockdown mean ± SD HbA1c in 150 subjects suffering from T1D and T2D; p = 0.005). Our analysis revealed a significant association of HbA1c deviation with educational level and medical coverage (p = 0.01). No significant association was detected between HbA1c deviation and age, gender, weight, height, current BMI status, fasting blood sugar, family history, urban or rural areas, marital status, professional activity, socioeconomic income, type of diabetes, dietary, comorbidities, diabetic complications, housing, adherence to the dietary recommendations, physical activity, medical appointments, stopping medication, self-monitoring, fasting and anxiety about getting COVID-19. Conclusions: COVID-19 lockdown had no deleterious effect on HbA1c levels in Moroccan patients with T1D and T2D.
Nada Omar Mostafa, Nihal Refaat Kabel, Muhammad Abbass Masoud
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00814-z

Objective: To compare the push out bond strength of MTA apical plug in a simulated immature root, after using different irrigation protocols; NaOCl + 20% Etidronic acid (HEBP) and NaOCl + 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with and without diode laser activation. Methods: Twenty-eight extracted single straight rooted permanent human teeth were selected. The root lengths were standardized (15 mm) by decronation of all samples. Instrumentation was done using the ProTaper Next system (Dentsply Sirona), the canals were flushed with 1 mL NaOCL after each instrument. Then, the apical 3 mm was cut perpendicular to the root’s long axis and the canals were prepared till file 90( master file) using the balanced force technique to simulate immature teeth. Samples were divided into four experimental groups (n = 7) in accordance with the irrigation protocol; G1 (NaOCl + HEBP), G2 (NaOCl + EDTA) both G1 and G2 were activated with diode laser, while G3 (NaOCl + HEBP) and G4 (NaOCl + EDTA) were activated with manual agitation. Canals were filled with a 5-mm MTA (ProRoot MTA, Dentsply Tulsa Dental) apical plug. Each root was transversely sectioned perpendicular to their long axis to have a 3 mm ± 0.1sections in thickness from the root apical portion. A push-out test was performed, and the failure pattern was assessed. Push out bond strength values were analyzed with student t test for compared pairs. Two-way ANOVA was used to detect the effect of each variable (chelating agent with/without laser activation). Result: Effect of diode laser activation in G1 and G2 showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) on the push out bond strength values of MTA, while in manual activated groups (G3 and G4), there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) where G4 recorded higher push out bond strength mean values than G3. Conclusions: The diode laser activation when used with NaOCL and HEBP increased the effect of HEBP as chelating agent and improved the push out strength values of MTA, rendering it an alternative mild chelating agent in comparison with the EDTA.
, Abdullahi Opeyemi Alausa, Adewale Adetutu, Akinade William Owoade
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00832-x

Background: Medicinal plants are natural sources of antioxidants effective in the treatment of oxidative stress-mediated diseases. This study aims to evaluate the hepato-renal protective efficacy of Andrographis paniculata leaves methanolic extract in arsenic-induced oxidative stress. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals per group. The rats in groups 1 and 2 received normal saline, while rats in groups 3 and 4 received 200 mg/kg body weight of A. paniculata or ascorbic acid per day, respectively, for 7 days orally. The rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 received a single dose of arsenic at 10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally on day 7, and 24 h later, rats in all the groups were killed and the blood, liver, and kidney samples were collected for biochemical/histological studies. Results: Administration of arsenic to rats induced a significant increase in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, urea, creatinine, and triglycerides in the plasma, while it decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activities in the liver and kidney. It also significantly reduced the levels of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet (PLT), and lymphocytes (LYM) in the blood. However, the levels of AST, ALT, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, and triglycerides in the plasma of groups of rats that received A. paniculata extract before administration of arsenic were decreased, while their SOD, GSH, and CAT levels were elevated in the liver and kidney. The values of their WBC, RBC, PLT, and LYM were also significantly increased when compared to the arsenic group rats. Histological observations showed varying degrees of liver damage in the arsenic group rats, while the histoarchitecture of the liver of rats that received A. paniculata extract were significantly improved. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that A. paniculata extract ameliorates arsenic-induced hepato-renal toxicity and could be exploited in the management of toxicity effects associated with the arsenic.
, , Rashid Al Malki, Amira Safwat, Muradjan Al Baloshi, Amal Abbas, Ahmed S. Al Salami, Sami M. Al Mujaini, Khalid Al Dhuhli, Said Al Mandhari
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00825-w

Background: The changing epidemiological profile of the COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertain clinical picture of patients characterise this ongoing and most challenging health event. Objectives: To report clinical features, laboratory characteristics, and mortality risk factors among COVID-19 patients admitted to a secondary hospital in Oman. Methods: A retrospective study for the first 455 patients admitted with COVID-19 to Rustaq hospital from 12th April, 2020 to 27th September, 2020. A predesigned questionnaire collected data from the hospital medical electronic system. Results: The mean age was 42.84 (SD = 19.86) years, and the majority of patients were aged 30 to 59 and 60 or above; 207 (45.5%) and 189 (41.5%), respectively. Male patients constituted approximately two-thirds of the subjects. Fever, dyspnea and cough were the most common presenting symptoms (69%, 66%, and 62%, respectively), while comorbidities with diabetes mellitus and hypertension were 47% and 44%, respectively. Bacterial growth was identified at approximately 10%. Bivariate analysis turned out to be significant with a number of factors. However, multivariate analysis showed significance with patients aged over 60 (OR = 7.15, 95% CI 1.99–25.63), dyspnea (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.5–5.33), dyslipidemia (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.02–3.66) and being bed-ridden (OR = 5.01, 95% CI 1.73–14.44). Durations from onset of symptoms to admission and respiratory distress were lower among patients who died; p = 0.024 and p = 0.001, respectively. Urea, Troponin and LDH may act as potential diagnostic biomarkers for severity or mortality. Conclusions: This study identified groups of patients with a higher risk of mortality, with severe disturbance in the laboratory markers while some could act as potential diagnostic biomarkers.
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00830-z

Background: In 2019, a viral and respiratory pathology called COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China, and spread to other continents. Its main symptoms include fever, cough, dyspnea, myalgia, anorexia and respiratory distress in the most severe cases, which can lead to death. Furthermore, manifestations in the oral cavity such as ageusia and dysgeusia, as well as lesions in other regions of the oral cavity, can be observed. Main body: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically assess the clinical evidence on the use of photobiomodulation (PBMT) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) for the treatment of oral lesions in patients infected with Sars-Cov-2. The literature extracted from electronic databases such as PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, and Google Scholar was screened for eligibility, and relevant articles were included. The review is limited to manuscripts published in English, Spanish and Portuguese language between December 2019 and October 2021. A total of 5 articles with 11 cases retracting PBMT and aPDT as therapeutic strategies for the regression of oral lesions and painful symptoms. The results show favoring the associated use of PBMT with aPDT (P = 0.004), and the isolated use of PBMT with the result of significant “P = 0.005” and good confidence interval (7.18, 39.20) in ulcerative lesions, herpetic, aphthous, erythematous, petechiae and necrotic areas. Conclusions: PBMT and aPDT could be effective in the treatment of oral lesions of patients infected with Sars-Cov-2 in a short period of time; however, more long-term randomized clinical trials studies are needed to define the therapeutic strategy.
Ferdinand Adounkpe, Aimé Cézaire Ayena, Viridiane Aholoukpe, Victorien Dougnon, , Marc Medehouenou, Lamine Baba-Moussa
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00821-0

Background: Africa has a rich and diverse flora that people use for their food and health needs. This study aims to explore the possibility of using aqueous and/or ethanolic extracts of Alchornea cordifolia leaves as an alternative in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria responsible for gastritis and urinary tract infections. Results: The results show that 100% of the tested bacilli (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa) are resistant to the 10 antibiotic disks tested. This resistance is 66.66% for quinolones and fluoroquinolones. S. aureus was found to be resistant to glycopeptides and aminoglycosides. Three ESBL genes are identified in bacilli against only one type of ESBL gene in cocci. 100% of the bacilli carry the SHV genes, and S. aureus has the Mec A gene. The aqueous extract exerted a bactericidal effect on all the strains with MICs and BMCs varying, respectively, from 0.76 to 50 mg/ml and BMCs from 0.76 to 100 mg/ml. Only 40% of the chemical groups (tannin, flavonoids, mucilages and sterol-terpenes) sought were present in the aqueous extract. The ethanolic extract is not active. Conclusions: Based on these data, the aqueous extract of A. cordifolia leaves is a good phytomedical candidate for the treatment of gastritis (stomach cramps, watery or bloody diarrhea) and urinary tract infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
M. R. Kamala Priya, Priya R. Iyer
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00824-x

Background: In the present study, the medicinal plants were exclusively selected based on their significant anti-HIV and anticancer activities. The green synthesis of gold nanoparticles was carried out using the 15 medicinal plant extracts on reduction with chloroauric acid. The present study also focused on a novel pharmacognostic approach over the usage of plants source. The nanoparticle synthesized through medicinal plants possessed the potential therapeutic properties of the plants. The resultant nanoparticle carried the attributes of a nanomaterial alongside the phytoactivity. Results: Initially, individual nanoparticle (NP) was synthesized through a single plant extract and studied for its effective anti-HIV and anticancer activity. Finally, a nanoconjugate (NC) comprising of the 3 extracts (trio extract) in one nanoparticle was synthesized. The nanoparticles which exhibited comparatively high anti-HIV and anticancer activity were chosen for the synthesis of nanoconjugate, thereby achieving a synergistic anticancer and anti-HIV activity. Further, a nanodrug conjugate (NDC) was prepared in combination of AuNPs and the chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (Dox) for cancer and AuNPs with antiretroviral drug azidothymidine (AZT) for HIV. Conclusions: A nanodrug conjugate helps to enhance the efficiency of the drug. The nanodrug conjugate brings about a combinatorial effect of the nanomaterials and the drug. Further, a biocompatible nanocarrier was developed as a conjugate with chitosan and gold nanoparticles using STPP as gelating agent for the drug doxorubicin. The synthesis reaction was optimized under various underlying parameters. The gold nanoparticles proved to be stable at high temperature and different buffers and ensured to be a safe option for bioassays and in vivo applications. Upon storing the synthesized AuNPs at different storage conditions, the nanoparticles were observed to be highly stable for a period of more than 48 months. The present study resulted in biosynthesis of highly stable gold nanoparticles using medicinal plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents.
, Varol Celik
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00823-y

Background: The tumor growth pattern in breast cancer appears to be variable and unpredictable. A minor increase in size in a pre-existing lesion, especially under 1 cm, corresponds to a more pronounced increase in volume. Case presentation: We report a 63-year-old woman with a nodular density mimicking intramammary lymph node, diagnosed as invasive carcinoma of luminal B subtype. The lesion increased size and density over time in following mammograms until having indistinct margins. While the tumor volume was 12.7 mm3 at the first observation on mammography, it has increased approximately 6.7 times to reach 85.7 mm3 in four years. Finally, the patient diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer (T1N0M0) was treated with breast-conserving surgery. Conclusions: Minor changes in size, density, and margin status of a lesion on serial mammograms are warning for breast cancer. Withal, a slight increase in lesion size in two dimensions can result in significant differences in volume. Therefore, comparative evaluation with previous mammograms and observing any difference in morphological features by screening are crucial for early diagnosis and optimal management of the disease.
, Rupali Rana, Surendar Kumar, Reena Thakur, Sachin Goyal
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00822-z

Background: Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro is a popular edible wild fern found in the subtropical Himalayas. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat several ailments and known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antidiabetic activities. Due to its multidimensional nutritional, pharmacological and therapeutic effects, it is well recognized in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Main body of The present review aims to provide updated information on Matteuccia struthiopteris botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects and toxicity methods, in addition to highlight potential for future exploration. Particular emphasis is also given to its antioxidant potential in health promotion. In-depth literature was probed by examining numerous sources via online databases (research and reviews), texts, Web sites and thesis. Plant biotechnology approaches such as tissue culture and micropropagation are also discussed. Short conclusion: Matteuccia struthiopteris is found useful in the treatment of different diseases such as microbial infection, viral infection and diabetes and in weight reduction and also effective as antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Nevertheless, advance studies are required to offer the mechanistic role of crude extracts and its bio-actives and even to discover the structure–function relationship of active principles.
Olajide Joseph Akinjogunla, Adebowale Toba Odeyemi, Mfonobong Favour Alozie, Igbagbo Ehinmore, Unyime Effiong Ukpong, Jumbo Ediomo, Etieno Kingsley Akpanson
Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Volume 46, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00826-9

Background: Bacteremia constitutes a significant public health challenge and represents a vital cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients, and fluoroquinolones are commonly prescribed antibiotics due to their range of activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. This study the evaluated antibacterial activities and time-kill kinetics of fluoroquinolone antibiotics: Ofloxacin (OFL), Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Levofloxacin (LEV) against the etiology of bacteremia of genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Haemophilus, Enterobacter, and Salmonella using disc diffusion, micro-broth dilution and plate count techniques. Results: The lowest mean growth inhibition zones (mm ± SD) of OFL, LEV, and CIP against the isolates were 10.5 ± 0.0, 10.1 ± 0.1 and 9.6 ± 0.3, respectively. The MIC values of OFL, LEV and CIP on isolates ranged from 6.25 to > 50 µg/mL, MBC ranged from 12.5 to > 50 µg/mL, while MBC/MIC ratios were ≤ 2. The time-kill assay revealed that logarithmic reductions in viable cell counts (Log10 CFU/mL) of bacteria exposed to OFL, LEV and CIP ranged from 0.17 to 2.14 for P. aeruginosa; 0.13 to 1.31 for H. influenzae; 0.04 to 2.23 for Acinetobacter spp; and 0.08 to 2.08 for K. pneumoniae. LEV and OFL (1 × MIC concentration) achieved bactericidal effects on S. typhi ST07 and E. aerogenes EA01 at 30 h post-inoculation, respectively, while ≥ 99.9% reduction in the number of viable K. pneumoniae cells exposed to CIP was achieved at 24 h post-inoculation. Conclusion: The fluoroquinolones demonstrated higher inhibitory activities at higher concentrations against the etiology of bacteremia in HIV-infected patients, signifying a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth. The MIC-based time-kill curve analyses showed that LEV achieved 3 Log10-fold reduction (≥ 99.9% reduction) in CFU/mL of most etiology of bacteremia faster compared with the other two fluoroquinolones.
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