Biotechnology Journal International

Journal Information
EISSN : 2456-7051
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 205
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, Noha M. Osman, Nadia A. Abo El-Maaty, Eman R. Mahfouz
Biotechnology Journal International pp 32-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430146

Abstract:
Background and Aim: Uterine lumen contamination with bacteria is ubiquitous in buffalo after parturition. Nearly one-third of these infected animals develop endometritis which leads to reduced fertility. The present study aimed to evaluate the expressions of IFN-γ and NOS2 genes in uterine tissue of buffaloes with endometritis and comparing them with those in healthy animals using RT-qPCR Materials and Methods: Uterine samples were collected from 50 apparently healthy and 50 clinically infected buffaloes. RNA was extracted from the collected buffalo's uteri and cDNA was synthesized from extracted RNA. Quantitative Real Time PCR technique was performed using this synthesized cDNA. Results: Apparent up-regulation of both genes mRNA expression was recorded in endometritis-infected animals with 8.3-folds for IFN-γ and 9.99-folds for NOS2 (P<0.001). Conclusion: The upregulation of IFN-γ and NOS2 expression in the uterine tissue of endometritis-infected buffaloes can be used as a scale for measuring the efficiency of drugs used for endometritis treatment.
, Gali Adamu Ishaku, Afiniki Yohanna, Dashe Dentsen Fortune, Aisha Salihu Jibrin
Biotechnology Journal International pp 23-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430145

Abstract:
Malaria remains a threat to public healthcare system. In 2018, more than 200 million people were exposed to this disease globally. There have been reports of drug-resistance in the recommended therapy in some endemic regions. This called for relentless efforts in the search for potential antimalarial compounds. An in vitro culture technique has emerged as a promising option for sustainable and industrial propagation of plant bioactive compounds with wide range of medicinal properties. The demand for these invaluable metabolites is witnessing a continuous increase as a folk medicine, hence, endangering their existence in natural habitats. Besides its use in natural form, the nature’s gift to humans seems to be restricted and limited by environmental conditions. An in vitro culture approach remains the most viable and sustainable alternative for the endangered plant species. Here, we present some plant species reported to have potential antimalarial activities and recommend further study through callus culture induction against malaria.
, Mohd Shahir Shamsir, Farid Ahmad Danishfar
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i430144

Abstract:
β-amylase is a hydrolytic enzyme that is involved in breaking down starch and producing energy. Since the discovery of β-amylase, it has been applied in various applications especially in the food industry. In this study, a novel β-amylase from Clostridium thermosuluregen, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments its extracellular emulsion to ethanol at 62 ℃ was modelled and studied using bioinformatics tools and compared with B. cereus β-amylases that functions at mesophilic conditions. The results showed that the overall structural conformations, secondary structures, and important residues involved in active and binding sites were identified in both proteins. The results revealed that the modelled β-amylase of C. thermosulfuregen is very similar with respect to the global conformation, location of active and binding sites. Both proteins showed identical structural domains with the thermophilic variant possessing a high percentage of hydrophobic amino acid residues, polar amino acid residues, and differences in secondary composition such as loops and beta sheets as the potential evolutionary thermal adaptations that make it stable enzyme that functions up to 70 ℃. The results suggest that the thermal stability are not dependent on one single unique mechanism and may use one or a combination of the mechanisms to sustain its structural conformation at a higher operating temperature. Overall, considering the common properties of this modelled protein with the β-amylase of B. cereus, it can be assumed that if the β-amylase of C. thermosulfuregen were expressed in-vitro, it would produce a stable protein that possesses the hydrolysis function for C. thermosulfuregen to break down the starch and sugar formation.
Besim Salkić, Kemal Avdić, Ensar Salkić, Samira Huseinović, Ahmed Salkić, Sead Noćajević
Biotechnology Journal International pp 25-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330142

Abstract:
Organic food production contributes to the preservation of human health, preservation and protection of the environment and increase of soil fertility, reduction of all forms of pollution as a consequence of intensive agricultural production and animal husbandry. Hence by purchasing products that carry the label organic product consumers indirectly affect the protection and preservation of the environment Organic food is food that is worth investing in due to the smaller amount of harmful substances in the products. Cornel cherry (Cornus mas L.) is one of the most suitable species for organic production. It is adaptable to various abiotic factors and is resistant to numerous pests and diseases. Aims: The aim of the study was to select promising dogwood phenotypes from the natural population for further reproduction by grafting. Study Design: The subject of the research was selected 6 self-growing dogwoods from a rural area. Place and Duration of Study: Samples of fruit were collected at the site of Ćehaje, City of Srebrenik,Tuzla Canton, BiH in the spring of 2019. Methodology: In order to determine the best traits, the measurement of physical quantities, determination of coefficients of variation and analysis of chemical characteristics of dogwood fruits harvested from trees of 6 wild phenotypes marked as DKA1, DKA2, DKA3, DKA4, DKA5 and DKA6 were performed. Results: Based on the analyzed indicators, the DKA6 phenotype showed the best results.
I. R. Danbima, I. J. Tekwa, A. T. Gani
Biotechnology Journal International pp 18-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330141

Abstract:
Purpose: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of groundnut shell incorporation rates on the growth and yield of maize. Research methods: The study was carried out at the students’ demonstration farm of the Federal Polytechnic, Mubi, Adamawa State, in 2018. Seeds were sown on a prepared land treated with four (4) doses of groundnut shells (0, 25, 50 and 75 tons/ha) arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), replicated 4 times. Each plot was marked out at 2.0 m length × 2.0 m width with 0.5 m gap between the replicated plots and blocks. Maize growth parameters were determined at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after sowing and maize yield parameters were determined at 10 and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS). Findings: The groundnut shell application rates increased maize growth parameters such as, plant height, number of leaves per plant, leave area index, and stem girth, number of cobs per plant and cobs weight. The results revealed that plant height, number of leaves, leaf area index and stem girth were significantly (P≤ 0.05) influenced by the treatments, except for the control treatment at 2- WAS. The higher application rates (50 and 75 t/ha) of groundnut shell significantly (P≤ 0.05) influenced the plant growth components better than the 25 and 0 t/ha treatment rates. Research limitations: There were no limitations to report. Originality/Value: The results suggests that groundnut shell incorporation rate at 50 t/ha could be recommended as the most appropriate and profitable for high performance of maize plants in Mubi. The results generally suggest that maize plants may tolerate even higher rates of groundnut shell incorporation beyond the rates used in the study.
J. M. Madu, A. I. Ogbonna, C. I. C. Ogbonna
Biotechnology Journal International pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330140

Abstract:
The effects of temperature, pH and incubation time on amylase, protease and cellulase activity by different species of Aspergillus in crude oil polluted soil sites in Nigeria were studied. Incubation period, Optimal pH values and temperatures for the enzymes produced by the different micro‐organisms were determined. The production of amylase by A. fumigatus and A. niger isolated from crude oil polluted sites showed that both fungi had their peaks on the first day of incubation for amylase, protease and cellulase. A. niger showed higher stability across a range of pH (3-6) and temperature (25-70oC) changes in all the enzyme activities. Further experiments are recommended to purify the secreted enzymes and stability studies will be performed to enhance the application of enzyme to commercial level.
, O. Obire
Biotechnology Journal International pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330139

Abstract:
This investigation focuses on molecular identification of antibiotic resistant bacteria isolated from petroleum producing vicinity using 16S rRNA sequencing based technique. The bacterial 16s rRNA gene sequences were amplified using polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, characterized and compared by using primers which has been compared to national center for biotechnology information (NCBI) sequence database. The presence of the plasmid mediated antibiotic resistance determinants CTX-M and QNRB genes in the bacterial isolates were analyzed. A total of four bacterial isolates that were resistant to all the antibiotic agents used were identified molecularly. The BLAST results showed 100 % similarity and phylogenetic study indicated that the genes were evolutionarily related to Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas xiamenensis, Chryseobacterium cucumeris and Staphylococcus sp., respectively. The genes obtained were submitted to the NCBI gene bank and were assigned accession number; MN094330, MN094331, MN094332 and MN094333, respectively. CTX-M and QNRB genes were however absent in the bacterial isolates. The result identified some peculiar abilities of the bacterial isolates to be resistant to antibiotics and suggests a correlation with resistance and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The level of resistance could be as a result of the disinfection process during wastewater treatment procedure or the same adaptive mechanisms possessed by the isolates to control the hydrocarbon concentration in their cell. The study also clearly indicates that these wastewaters, when discharged into the environment directly may pose a risk for the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Pratibha Maravi, Anil Kumar
Biotechnology Journal International pp 36-71; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i330143

Abstract:
Cellulase enzyme complex is comprised of three enzymes namely exo-glucanase, endo-glucanase and β-glucosidase which act synergistically to deconstruct cellulosic biomass in order to produce fermentable sugars. The enzymes are produced naturally by the living organisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae. The majority of microorganisms that live in extreme environments including hot/cold springs, rumen stomach, deep ocean trench, acidic/alkaline pH environment, have been regarded as appealing producers of cellulase. Cellulases produced by microorganisms have enormous applications in different industries such as agriculture, food and feed production, brewing, textile, laundry and biofuel production. Scientists as well as industry researchers consider cellulases as a prospective candidate for further studies due to the intricacy of the enzyme system and massive industrial potential. Scientific belief in its production and further studies challenges are receiving greater attention these days, notably in the intent of decreasing its production cost at the industrial scale. In this review, future possibilities of using cellulase for various industrial applications are also addressed.
, Kola Matthew Anigo, Alice Onyeche Jonah, Meshack Anthony Kugama, Tinok Andrew, Janet Larai Ibrahim, Raymond Arumona, William Denbon Genesis Chinten
Biotechnology Journal International pp 44-52; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230138

Abstract:
Aims: The effect of pre and post-infection administration of zinc and selenium on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in wistar rats on some biochemical parameters were investigated. Study Design: The study was designed to evaluate the effect of pre and post infection administration of zinc and selenium on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in wistar rats. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), Kaduna and Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria, between January 2014 to March 2014. Methodology: Fifty four (54) wistar rats were divided into nine groups of six (6) rats each. Groups III-IX were infected intraperitoneally with 1x103parasite load. Animals in group III were infected but untreated while the infected/treated groups received prophylactic (IV, V and VI) and therapeutic (VII, VIII and IX) treatment with zinc and selenium 50mg/kg and 10mg/kg body weight respectively. Results: Results obtained showed that serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities in the infected-untreated control group were significantly different (P<0.05) and higher as compared to infected treated and normal control. Similarly, the two minerals significantly decreased (P0.05) decrease. On the other hand, a significant (P0.05) difference in direct bilirubin was recorded in infected treated group compared to infected untreated and normal control. Conclusion: It was concluded that administration of zinc and selenium ameliorate the infection-induced biochemical changes in tissues and organs associated with Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in Wistar rats.
Ensar Salkić, Besim Salkic, Amela Hercegovac, Aldijana Avdić, Azra Dorić, Emir Imširović
Biotechnology Journal International pp 37-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2021/v25i230137

Abstract:
Aims: The basic precondition for apple breeding is the genetic diversity of varieties, which implies a large number of different, positive genes that enable adaptation to different weather conditions, resistance to new diseases and pests. One of the reliable sources of genetic diversity are indigenous varieties of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Their genetic identification is the first step in a process that has as its ultimate goal the collection of genetic material. The main goal of this research is to analyze the genetic variability of five indigenous varieties of apple in Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina in terms of contributing to the management of conservation and expansion of existing genetic resources, spreading this material through registered nurseries. Study Design: The research included fiveautochthonous apple varieties: "Ovčji nos“ “Dobrić“, "Šarenika“, "Rančica“ and "Petrovača“. Place and Duration of Study: Samples of young leaves were collected at the site of Donji Moranjci, City of Srebrenik,Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina in the spring of 2019. Methodology: In order to determine the genetic diversity of five indigenous apple varieties were genotyped ten SSR(Simple Sequence Repeats) markers. Results: No cases of synonyms or homonyms were found within the analyzed set.The results of the study indicate a pronounced differentiation, ie all five examined varieties represent unique genotypes. Conclusion: The examined sets of genotypes possess significant genetic variability, which is important especially when we consider that a relatively small number of samples have been analyzed.
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