Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1822-8682 / 2538-8762
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 101
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Kamilė Medeckytė, Daiva Tamulevičienė
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2020.29

Abstract:
In recent decades, as the newly created internal and external environment conditions have radically changed the environment of business, the process of creating and implementing business strategy became more relevant. The data, generated by strategic management accounting, makes this process more efficient. The article examines the concept of the strategic management, its importance and related instruments. The article provides results of the research carried out to determine the level of awareness and application of strategic management accounting instruments in Lithuanian companies. Empirical research has shown that the level of awareness and application of the strategic management accounting instruments in Lithuanian companies is minor. The most common strategic management accounting instruments are as follows: customer profitability analysis, benchmarking, competitive position monitoring, strategic pricing, and strategic costing. The least known and, according to the research, the least applicable strategic management accounting instruments are: attribute costing, product life cycle accounting and brand value budgeting. According to the study, the most significant reason for the difficulties in implementing strategic management accounting instruments is the lack of time required to implement the instruments.
Ieva Turskytė, Alfreda Šapkauskienė
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika pp 3-3; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2021.31

Abstract:
In 2008, a global financial crisis happened. It led to strong currency price volatility. Because of that, discussions on the need for an alternative, institution-independent currency occurred. Due to this reason the first decentralized cryptocurrency Bitcoin was created. The new and not yet explored concept of cryptocurrency changed the previously strictly defined role of money. Currently, with the growth of the cryptocurrency market, the most important regional institutions (e.g. FED, EBA) provide regulatory guidelines of a recommendatory nature. The regulations of these institutions remain significant, reflecting the dominant approach to digital money. Because of this reason, the aim of the study is to identify the factors that determine the difficulties in the legalization process of cryptocurrencies and to investigate the features of the European Union's cryptocurrency regulatory policy. Methods used: analysis of scientific literature and legal documents, systematization, comparison, interpretation and generalization of information. The results of the study show that the European Union has taken active regulatory action with the growing importance of cryptocurrencies in the world. To date, a document regulating the definition of cryptocurrencies has not yet been adopted at Union level, but the adoption of the cryptocurrency regulation proposal presented in 2020 would mean greater clarity and security for cryptocurrency issuers, intermediaries and users.
Deimantė Morkūnaitė, Daiva Raziūnienė
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika pp 6-6; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2021.34

Abstract:
The reports of the heating sector are one of the most important sources of heating data, accurate and reasonable pricing and is an essential objective of public interest. The verification of the reports on regulated activities is particularly important to regulate interpretation of the principles of companies’ operating cost and accounting separation systems. The purpose of the article is to identify the main elements of the regulatory activities report whereas have to be improved and needs more attention of auditors and regulators. There were examined 52 reports of Lithuanian heating sector companies using document (content) analysis approach. Misstatements were analysed using specific evaluation criteria to identify areas for improvement. The development of an appropriate methodology and the efficient functioning of the process should help to avoid errors or inaccuracies in determining, fair recognition, disclosure and valuation of fixed assets as an essential factor of heating prices.
Rasa Kanapickienė, Greta Keliuotytė-Staniulėnienė, , Daiva Budrienė, Mantas Valukonis
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika pp 2-2; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2021.30

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic crisis differs in nature from the previous financial crisis and therefore different solutions must be taken. In this context, governments are seeking to help businesses deal with the effects of the pandemic, which have had the greatest impact on corporate liquidity. The analysis of government support measures in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown that EU governments use not only direct but also indirect financial support to business. However, the latter is not sufficiently analysed in scientific works. The aim of the study is to analyse the measures of indirect financial support for business applied by EU governments and to provide the classification of the measures described. In order to achieve the aim, the following methods of scientific research were used: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, abstraction, and analogy of scientific literature, normative documents, reports and reviews of international organisations, and support measures applied in governments’ practice. The study developed an original structure of government indirect financial support measures for business, comprising three components of government support measures: (1) minimisation of legal norms related to corporate finance; (2) indirect financial assistance related to labour law; (3) strengthening the legal framework for corporate finance. The measures analysed are described in more detail by distinguishing them into separate groups. The structure developed is based on concrete examples of application in EU countries and could contribute to a more targeted approach to business support in the future.
Kotryna Nagytė, Lina Dagilienė
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika pp 4-4; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2021.32

Abstract:
Annotation. Big Data (BD) is one of the most commonly used terms in the modern world of business and information technology. The main features of BD (quantity, speed, and variety) introduce to unique processing of large information amounts, regardless of their scale, storage and computational complexity, analytical and statistical correlation. The significant emergence and potential use of BD has affected business accounting and financial auditing by replacing the long-used mechanical data collection and completion processes with automatic ones, comparing and searching for correlations between different structure and nature data. According to analysis, the main advantages of applying the BDA in the audit process are related to faster and more efficient execution of procedures, obtaining more detailed results, grouping and comparing data according to selected criteria. In the meantime, cons of BD application are related to the additional professional supervision requirements and the proper data analysis in order for the correct results interpretation. The paper presents the conceptual model, which shows the relationships between BDA tools and financial audit procedures. In addition, the model shows factors and risks, which have impacts on internal and external environment of clients, the applicability of specific audit procedures. It was found that the application of the model in the procedures includes testing of 5 relationships, i. e. classification, clustering, regression and time series analyses, the method of association rules and text research, visualization tool. The Aim of the Study is to identify the application of DDA tools in financial audit procedures. Research Methods: comparative and systematic analysis of the literature; content analysis; statistical data analysis; graphical analysis. Keywords: Big data, Big data Analytics, Financial Audit, Financial Audit Procedures. JEL Code: M15, M40, M42.
Diana Bachtijeva
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika pp 5-5; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2021.33

Abstract:
The article describes the bonus plan, debt/equity and political cost hypotheses, based on a positive accounting theory, with reference to opportunistic approach, explaining the reasons for choosing accounting methods. Research based on these hypotheses has revealed the main types of financial information manipulation - earnings management and creative accounting. After conducting the analysis of scientific sources, the article presents the definitions of earnings management and creative accounting of various authors, distinguishes the types of earnings management – accrual-based earnings management and real earnings management. After analyzing the manipulation methods indicated in the literature, a comprehensive list of profit management and creative accounting methods are presented. The methods are structured and classified according to their compliance with accounting standards, types of profit management and their impact on accounting areas. The provided list and classification of methods is useful in a scientific sense for further research on this phenomenon.
Diana Bachtijeva
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika, Volume 22, pp 6-6; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2020.28

Abstract:
The beginnings of accounting can be found even in the 14st century, when trade transactions began to be recorded in the books of account. To this day, accounting has evolved at certain stages, depending on goals were set for the accounting for that period. In the article after concluding the analysis of scientific sources the following are presented: the stages of accounting development, which were influenced not only by different Anglo-Saxon, Germanic and Latin accounting systems, but also by economic and political factors; the influence of accounting on the development of accounting theories is revealed. The concept of positive accounting theory, assumptions for manipulating accounting and the concept and application methods of earnings management and creative accounting are presented. Based on the research, a model of multi-paradigm approach is presented, in which the methodologies of normative and positive accounting theory can be fully applied. The proposed complexity of methodologies can help to solve not only the problems of creative accounting and earnings management, but also other problems of the 21st century. accounting issues.
Lina Matusevičienė, Kristina Rudžionienė
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika, Volume 22, pp 5-5; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2020.27

Abstract:
Annotation. Tax planning is a topic of interest for taxpayers, practitioners, public authorities and academics. Analyzing scientific literature on tax planning shows that some authors are looking at the tax planning process, while others are looking at the factors that determine tax planning. Although there are a number of scientific literature analysing these factors, it is noted that there is a need to systematize this literature. The purpose of the article is to identify the determinants of tax planning activities in companies and households. Methods used in the article: systematic analysis of scientific literature, systematization of information, comparison, generalization. After analyzing the scientific literature, authors provide a concept of tax planning and selected determinants that encourage and inhibit the involvement of both types of taxpayers in tax planning activities. After a theoretical analysis, it was found that corporate tax planning is influenced by the company's profitability, profit begor taxes, internationalisation, the scale of foreign operations, listing, capital receptivity and growth, development, size and leverage of the company, optimism of the company CEO, experience of his military service, lobbying, reputation and financial accounting issues. Household tax planning is influenced by taxpayers' age, income, intra-household income inequality, experience, a compendium tax system, its complexity, fines, the likelihood ofecassionisation. Religiousity is a factor that hampers the involvement of both businesses and households in tax planning activities. Keywords: tax planning, determinants, tax avoidance, households, company. JEL Code: H26
, Natalija Kurauskienė
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika, Volume 22, pp 4-4; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2020.26

Abstract:
The emergence and popularity of the cryptocurrency has caused a great deal of controversy in the scientific community over market development opportunities, further use of virtual money, and its integration into traditional accounting systems. The global financial market creates many opportunities to use electronic and virtual money for various types of transactions, and the question of how to record cryptocurrency and related transactions in accounting remains relevant. The aim of the research is to evaluate the alternatives of cryptocurrency accounting. For the research methods of scientific literature analysis, comparison, interpretation, information systematization, generalization were used. Although various authors, national and international accounting standards regulators provide their insights and recommendations on cryptocurrency accounting, a unified system has not been formed yet. Currently are analysed such alternatives of cryptocurrency accounting as financial asset, intangible asset or inventory.
Gintarė Markauskienė
Buhalterinės apskaitos teorija ir praktika, Volume 22, pp 3-3; https://doi.org/10.15388/batp.2020.25

Abstract:
Keičiantis ekonominei situacijai aukščiausio lygmens vadovų kompetencijoms yra keliami itin aukšti reikalavimai: pradedant nuo funkcinio, formalaus vadovavimo, aiškiai apibrėžto statuso bei darbo funkcijų, baigiant šiuolaikinio lyderio paveikslu, kuris apima savyje begales kompetencijų ir netgi charakterio savybių bei nuolat keičiasi. Nagrinėjant mokslinės problemos ištirtumo lygį, pastebima, kad dažniausiai tiriama kompetencijų svarba, aukščiausio lygmens vadovų bendradarbiavimas, nagrinėjama asmeninio tobulėjimo, lyderystės tema, taip pat, kokios svarbiausios vadovų kompetencijos gali nulemti verslo sėkmę. Moksliniuose darbuose nėra keliami klausimai, kurie analizuotų aukščiausio lygmens vadovų kompetencijų kitimą laike bei lūkesčius kompetencijoms nuolat besikeičiančioje aplinkoje. Šio straipsnio tikslas yra įvertinti lūkesčių aukščiausio lygmens vadovų kompetencijoms kaitą gerųjų praktikų kontekste. Šiam tikslui pasiekti buvo atlikta mokslinės literatūros analizė, naudoti sisteminimo bei apibendrinimo metodai, analizuojama geroji praktika bei atliktas lūkesčių aukščiausio lygmens vadovų kompetencijoms tyrimas. Mokslinės literatūros analizės rezultatai atskleidė, kokios kompetencijų grupės yra labiausiai vertinamos šiandieninėje verslo aplinkoje, taip pat, kokias galimybes atvėrė bei kokius uždavinius iškėlė karantino režimas šių dienų lyderiams. Atlikus tyrimą buvo nustatytos svarbiausios kompetencijos, tai – aukšti etikos ir moralės standartai, greitas sprendimų priėmimas bei atsidavimas nuolatiniam darbuotojų mokymuisi.
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