Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1648-2425 / 2345-0266
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 232
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Latest articles in this journal

Rasa Genienė
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 21, pp 26-36; doi:10.15388/stepp.2020.21

The global coronovirus (Covid-19) pandemic has been revealed what about half of the world’s deaths are recorded in large institutions of the elderly and people with disabilities, and these are later thought to be incentives for states to take active deinstitutionalisation efforts. In order for deinstitutionalisation actions to respond to its ideological origins, which lie in the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in the necessary legal instruments and in clarifying that Member States are responsible. The article reveals how the deinstitutionalisation processes that have already started are implemented and evaluated in Central and Eastern Europe and discusses their problems. Content analysis was used to investigate the Soviet regime, leading to the implementation of official and alternative (shadow) reports on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
Ieva Adomaitytė-Subačienė, Agnė Girkontaitė, Donata Petružytė, Eglė ŠUMSKIENĖ
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 21, pp 8-25; doi:10.15388/stepp.2020.20

The phenomenon of social entrepreneurship is sufficiently well-researched abroad since the end of the 20th century. Nevertheless, it is quite a new and under-researched subject in Lithuanian academic discourse. The goal of this article is to explore the experiences of pioneers of social entrepreneurship in Lithuania, the way they create and develop the model of social entrepreneurship. The first half of the article discusses various concepts of social entrepreneurship, its historical development, connections with corporate social responsibility and its purpose in contemporary societies. The second part describes the authentic experiences of being the icebreakers of social business practices in bureaucratic system. Results are based on semi-structured qualitative interviews, conducted in autumn 2018 - spring 2019, with 14 social entrepreneurs in Lithuania. The analysis was done following the approach of grounded theory. The research shows, that social entrepreneurs experience various challenges while cooperating with governmental institutions or municipalities while searching for suitable funding models and experiencing ignorance from society in general. Nevertheless, they still engage in these activities with the help and support of an emerging community of active like-minded social entrepreneurs, whose support is essential for the existence and development of social entrepreneurship in Lithuania.
Daumantas Stumbrys, Jekaterina Byčkova, Eugenijus Lesinskas, Jurga Mataitytė-Diržienė, Jolita Norkūnienė
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 20, pp 67-78; doi:10.15388/stepp.2020.19

The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic, family, and educational differences in children’s speech perception development after cochlear (hearing) implantation. The research was conducted in Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos during the years 2013–2018. Open-set speech perception in quiet surroundings were evaluated during hearing assessments (n=81). Information about different factor groups was collected according to the Nottingham Children’s Implant Profile questionnaire. Three main factor groups were analysed: (a) demographic, (b) family, and (c) educational. A Bourdieu-based approach was adopted to analyse social inequalities of health of children with cochlear implants. Different factors were operationalized as different forms of capital. Our findings highlight the importance of family’s social and cultural capital to children speech perception after cochlear implantation.
Greta Skubiejutė
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 20, pp 8-21; doi:10.15388/stepp.2020.15

Vienų motinų šeimos yra viena iš opiausių problemų Europoje dėl augančio tokių šeimų skaičiaus, gilėjančio skurdo, kuris siejamas su familializmo ideologijos ir skurdo feminizacijos padariniais. Šeimos politika tam tikrų keliamų problemų kontekste kuria sąlygas vienų vaikus auginančių moterų šeimoms gyvuoti arba uždaro į skurdo ratą. Nors Lietuvoje yra nemažai vienų motinų šeimų skurdo tyrimų, tačiau nėra išsamaus šeimos politikos tikslų ir priemonių tyrimo, kuris gali padėti suprasti, kodėl, augant ekonomikai ir kintant demografijai, vienų motinų šeimos yra labiausiai skurstanti šeimų grupė Lietuvoje. Tad tyrimo tikslas – išsiaiškinti, kaip Lietuvos šeimos politikoje yra (ne)atpažįstamos vienų vaikus auginančių moterų šeimos ir kokios sąlygos egzistuoti joms sudaromos šeimos politikos įstatymų kontekste. Tikslui pasiekti buvo kokybiškai analizuoti įvairūs įstatymai iš MISSOC ir Lietuvos Respublikos Seimo dokumentų duomenų bazių. Tyrimo rezultatai rodo, kad Lietuvos šeimos politikos kontekste aiškiai jaučiama familializmo ideologija, siekiama stiprinti ir didinti branduolinių šeimų ir daugiavaikių šeimų skaičių, tikintis išspręsti demografines problemas. Vienų motinų šeimos politikoje nėra matomos, nėra įvardijamos kaip politikos prioritetas ir į akiratį patenka tik tada, kai atsiduria socialiai remtinų šeimų grupėje. Taip pat yra siejamos su diskriminuojančiomis sąvokomis, tokiomis kaip „nepilna šeima“.
Violeta Vilkoitytė, Daiva Skučienė
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 20, pp 22-39; doi:10.15388/stepp.2020.16

This article analyses the elderly attitudes on the continuity of working careers in different sectors of the labour market. It discusses theoretical approaches and the determining factors of older people participation in the labour market. Attention is drawn to the impact they have in different labour market sectors. The investigation was carried out in primary quantitative data analysis. The factors of participation in different labour market sectors were analysed using the data of the European Working Conditions Survey (2015). Primary data are treated with the statistical software package (SPSS). Data analysis includes frequency distribution, cross-tabulation, chi-square tests, factor analysis, and logistic regression methods. The research results shown that in Lithuania, three quarters of the elderly want to pursue a professional career, but attitudes vary across sectors. Logistic regression models showed that job and health satisfaction is particularly important for all sectors. Gender is important in agriculture, hotels, and education. In the financial, public administration, education and health services, the role of education plays an important role and increases the attitudes of working longer. Harmful factors identified during the study had an impact on four branches. Psychologically challenging conditions have affected the financial and educational sectors, harmful substances and physically demanding working conditions affect the attitudes of workers in the manufacturing sector, and harmful feelings affect the agricultural sector workers.
Hanna Ivanivna Slozanska, Nadia Horishna, Lyudmila Romanovska
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 20, pp 53-66; doi:10.15388/10.15388/stepp.20.18

The reorganization of social welfare due to the decentralization reform implemented in Ukraine calls for the development and implementation of new practice models of service delivery best suited for community social work. The research is dedicated to discussion of the development of new models of community social work from a Ukrainian perspective, taking into consideration the community social work and community social service delivery concepts given in the literature and community-based practice models implemented abroad. The article reviews the major competencies social workers need to provide services within the local communities. Implications for future research in the field of community social work are addressed in the concluding part of the paper.
Jurga Mataitytė-Diržienė, Vaida Ališauskaitė
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 20, pp 40-52; doi:10.15388/stepp.2020.17

A recent wave of migration has brought a lot of children to the EU. Children in migration face a stronger risk of becoming victims of violence, physical or sexual abuse, and trafficking. Social workers in the receiving countries are usually the ones who most often provide services to them. The study, using focus group methodology and aiming to identify the needs of social workers for training and their training preferences in this context, was carried out in 2018, in 7 EU countries. The results have shown that the main issue is the absence of specific, systemic training aimed at improving the knowledge and skills needed for work with migrants. The public or governmental institutions did not have an interest in providing such kinds of training, they were organized on an ad-hoc basis by NGOs mainly. Lack of knowledge about legal systems, the difference between the theory and practice, and the lack of practical experience working with migrant minors were named by participants as the main gaps that need improvement.
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 19, pp 95-105; doi:10.15388/stepp.2019.14

The idea that social work needs to be concerned with thinking and acting in a more collaborative way with the people in need is common around the world. At the international level, codes of ethics and social work principles inspire practitioners, researchers, and educators in bridging the gap between themselves and people in trouble, commonly known as service users. Beyond a common agreement around such principle, to realize collaborative relationships in practice is a challenge that requires prudence, coherence, and methodology. The Relational social work method supports the practical development of participation, collaboration, and reciprocity. Through concepts and examples, this article aims to describe how service users can assume the role of collaborators in social practice, research, and education.
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 19, pp 26-43; doi:10.15388/stepp.2019.9

This article investigates issues behind households’ tax payment morale, theoretical and practical aspects of the tax payment gap, and its impact on public sector revenue in Baltic countries. The attitude of households on tax payment is assessed quantitatively by employing a dichotomous logit-probit regression analysis. The tax payment gap among Baltic households has been investigated by applying a “macro approach,” the main components of which are the shadow economy and the total tax rate. The effect of any hypothetical changes in tax morale is assessed by applying social accounting matrixes, which are based on national account data and allow to keep the economy balanced at all time. The results presented in this research suggest that taxes uncollected from households constitute nearly one fifth of total general government revenues and count nearly one tenth of the nominal GDP. Measures applied to strengthening tax morale positively contribute to public sector revenue and in general to the economy, though they should be applied gradually.
Socialinė teorija, empirija, politika ir praktika, Volume 19, pp 44-57; doi:10.15388/stepp.2019.10

It is acknowledged by various organizations, experts, and researchers around the world that meeting psychological and social needs is an important factor in cancer treatment. However, there is a shortage of psychosocial care supply for cancer patients and their family members in Lithuania. The aim of this study is to discern the causes of this insufficient supply. In order to find out the possible causes, Jon Elster’s action explanation framework was used. According to the framework, it is possible to deduce these factors: institutional constraints, economical (resources and labor supply) constraints, social preferences, and political preferences. Qualitative research (expert interviews) and secondary data analysis research methods were employed to gather the required data. A data analysis shows that the there are no institutional constraints for the provision of psychosocial care. However, there is a lack of public resources dedicated for the provision of psychosocial care. As a consequence, the main providers of psychosocial care for cancer patients and their family members are NGOs, which heavily depend on volunteer labor force. There is a contradiction in the point of view toward the professionalization of psychosocial care provision. It is the natural position of medical professionals that the provision of psychosocial care should be in the hands of professionals. On the other side, NGOs disagree with such a perspective. The need for psychosocial care is verbalized by experts and professionals; however, the general public prefers medical treatment. Thus, it is understandable why the public resources allocated to the provision of psychosocial care are so scarce. It is also evident that the political parties are not interested in psychosocial care, as it was shown by our analysis of their political programs.
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