Species Diversity

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1342-1670 / 2189-7301
Published by: Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology (10.12782)
Total articles ≅ 604
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Masanori Nonaka, Takeshi Hayashibara
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 297-342; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.297

Investigations were carried out on 22 deep-water octocoral specimens in the family Coralliidae sampled from the Emperor Seamounts during 2009 to 2012. The specimens were collected from 350–1100 m deep, mostly from the southernmost region of the Emperor Seamounts. Colonies were identified by visual and microscopic observation of standard morphological characters (colony size, diameters of colony base and branches, diameter and height of autozooid mound, thickness of coenenchyme and sclerite sizes, etc.) along with supporting information from molecular DNA analysis. Half of the 22 specimens were identified as Pleurocorallium cf. pusillum (Kishinouye, 1903), suggesting that the species called “Mid” that was once harvested dominantly in this area was this species. The remaining 11 specimens were identified as genus Hemicorallium Gray, 1867. These were identified as belonging to the following species: one previously described species [H. laauense (Bayer, 1956)], three similar species [H. cf. abyssale (Bayer, 1956), H. cf. regale (Bayer, 1956), H. cf. sulcatum (Kishinouye, 1903)] and three new species (H. kaiyo sp. nov., H. muzikae sp. nov. and H. tokiyasui sp. nov.).
Tsukasa Waki, Mizuki Sasaki, Hajime Matsubara, Satoshi Shimano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 273-279; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.273

The feather mite Pseudalloptinus milvulinus (Trouessart, 1884) was collected from feathers of the Black Kite Milvus migrans (Boddaert, 1783) in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2019. The identification of this mite was based on the form and arrangement of setae on the idiosoma and aggenital region. This study is the first report of this mite species and the genus Pseudalloptinus Dubinin, 1956 in Japan.
Kentaro Mochizuki, Yoshiaki Kai, Hiromitsu Endo, Hiroyuki Motomura
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 281-287; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.281

Ocosia spinosa Chen, 1981 (Tetrarogidae) is newly recorded from the Pacific coast of Japan, on the basis of 10 specimens (31.3–78.1 mm standard length), having been previously reported only from Taiwan. A revised diagnosis for the species, based on the Japanese specimens plus a single specimen from Taiwan, is given as follows: XV–XVIII, 7 or 8 dorsal-fin rays; III, 4–6 anal-fin rays; usually 13 (rarely 12) pectoral-fin rays; 12–18 lateral-line pores on body; 6–15 gill rakers; usually 28 (rarely 27) vertebrae; 2nd dorsal-fin spine longest, slightly longer than 3rd spine; interspinous dorsal-fin membranes of middle portion of dorsal fin incised for one-fourth to one-third of each spine length; dorsal profile of snout concave; posterior lacrimal spine directed backward, its length about 2–3 times greater than that of anterior lacrimal spine; small lateral lacrimal spine usually present (absent in larger specimens); small spine usually present at anterior end of suborbital ridge in smaller specimens (absent in larger specimens); weak stubby papillae covering upper lip and anterior half to one-third of lower lip; trunk uniformly brownish-red when fresh, without distinct markings (but with faint brownish small blotch near base of middle portion of dorsal fin in some individuals). Although the presence or absence of small spines on the lateral surface of the lacrimal and anterior end of the suborbital ridge has previously been regarded as an important diagnostic character of O. spinosa, examination of the present specimens showed that the character changes with growth. The present specimens represent the first Japanese records, as well as the northernmost and easternmost records for the species. The new English and Japanese standard names “Red Waspfish” and “Aka-hachiokoze”, respectively, are proposed for O. spinosa.
Mizuki Sasaki, Jason Lee Anders, Minoru Nakao
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 255-272; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.255

The cestode fauna of murid and cricetid rodents in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, was evaluated based on our parasite collection and a review of the literature. Adult and larval cestodes collected from Apodemus speciosus (Temminck, 1844), Myodes rufocanus (Sundevall, 1846), and Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) in Hokkaido were identified by both morphological and molecular diagnoses. A total of 10 species from 5 families were confirmed in our collection. Arostrilepis tenuicirrosa Makarikov, Gulyaev, and Kontrimavichus, 2011, Paranoplocephala kalelai (Tenora, Haukisalmi, and Henttonen, 1985), and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) were recorded for the first time from Hokkaido. A comprehensive look at both the present and previous studies revealed that the cestode fauna of rodents in Japan consists of at least 30 species from 6 families. Among them, 23 species occur in Hokkaido. The species composition is strongly affected by the nearby Eurasian continent, suggesting parasite migrations with rodent hosts over land bridges between Hokkaido and Sakhalin and between Hokkaido and Honshu, the main island of Japan. A DNA barcoding system using sequences of nuclear 28S rDNA and mitochondrial cox1 allowed us to identify cestodes at species and genus levels, even in different developmental stages. The integration of morphological and molecular diagnoses is essential in cestode taxonomy to establish a common ground for biogeographical studies worldwide. The standardization of DNA barcoding is particularly of critical importance.
Daisuke Uyeno, Enjoy Rain
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 249-254; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.249

A copepod, Pseudanthessius chuukensis Uyeno, n. sp. (Cyclopoida: Pseudanthessiidae), is described based on the type specimen obtained from the grouper Epinephelus sp. (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Serranidae) caught in Chuuk Lagoon (North Pacific Ocean), Federated States of Micronesia, North Pacific Ocean. The copepod differs from its congeners in the following female characters: the urosome is 5-segmented; caudal rami are five to six times longer than wide; the distal endopodal segment of leg 1 carries three spines and three setae; leg 4 endopod has two setae, without proximal swellings, and as long as about two-third of that of the exopod. This finding of the copepod is the first record of the family Pseudanthessiidae from the actinopterygian fish.
Takafumi Nakano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 205-206; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.205

The spelling of the specific name monticolus in the scientific name of a spider, Cybaeus monticolus Kobayashi, 2006, does not violate any relevant provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. This spelling is, therefore, the “correct original spelling” of the specific name under Article 32.2 of the Code. Regardless of whether this name is deemed an adjective or a noun in apposition, it should be maintained unaltered when it is combined with the generic name Cybaeus L. Koch, 1868, the gender of which is masculine. The later spelling monticola, as presented in the combination Cybaeus monticola in a recent arachnological treatise and then in an important online taxonomic resource from which its use appears to be spreading, is an “incorrect subsequent spelling” under Article 33.3 of the Code.
Takato Izumi
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 241-247; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.241

Members of the family Haloclavidae, belonging to the order Actiniaria, are characterized by the presence of a large siphonoglyph next to their actinopharynx and an aboral end without a basal disc. Members of the genus Haloclava Verrill, 1899 have been reported primarily from Europe and America, and have not yet been described from Japanese waters based on the collected specimen. In this study, I describe a new species, Haloclava hercules sp. nov., from the Pacific coast of Japan. This new species is chiefly characterized by cudgel-like blunt massive tentacles with knob-like acrospheres in the outer tentacular cycle and gigantic basitrichs over 250 µm in length, which are the largest known from sea anemones.
Ken-Ichi Okumura, Zhe Zhao
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 235-240; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.235

This study describes a new species of the subfamily Coelotinae (Agelenidae) from Kinki district, central Japan, under the name of Coelotes nojimai sp. nov. It resembles C. yodoensis Nishikawa, 1977 and C. nagaraensis Nishikawa, 2009 but is characterized by a male palp with a large and greatly curved conductor and slender spermathecae in the internal genitalia of female specimens. The morphological differences and distribution ranges of these three species have been discussed in detail. In addition, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mt-COI) partial sequences of the new species have been analyzed and documented for future use.
Naoto Sawada, Haruhiko Toyohara, Takafumi Nakano
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 217-224; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.217

Sodium hypochlorite has been used for cleaning specimens of freshwater and brackish water snails that are covered with deposits. Our experiments using specimens of two freshwater snail species, Semisulcospira niponica (Smith, 1876) and S. reticulata Kajiyama and Habe, 1961, showed that this traditional method could remove thin deposit layers, including algae, but was not useful for obstinate deposits. We found that a new method using ammonium thioglycolate could be applied to remove obstinate iron-rich deposits. Though ammonium thioglycolate treatment caused loss of gloss inside the aperture, this loss could be prevented by plugging a kneaded eraser into an aperture. Moreover, the new method could clean specimens with little damage of the periostracum. So as to remove deposits with the least damage to shells, 3% w/v sodium hypochlorite was useful for deposits including algae, and 20% w/v ammonium thioglycolate was suitable for cleaning specimens with iron-rich deposits. Degeneration of the microstructure of inner whorls can be avoided by plugged shell apertures with a kneaded eraser in both methods. Shell deposits that are composed of both algae and iron should be treated first with 20% w/v ammonium thioglycolate, and then with 3% w/v sodium hypochlorite to remove the deposits. Appropriate cleaning methods enable accurate examination and long-term preservation of shell specimens.
Yuzo Ota, Hisanori Kohtsuka, Katsuhiko Tanaka
Species Diversity, Volume 26, pp 207-216; https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.26.207

Adult male and larva of Gnathia capitellum sp. nov. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae) are described. The specimens were laboratory-reared larvae that infested host fishes collected by longline fishing in a coastal bay of Izu Peninsula and adult males found in dredge samples from shallow water (depth: 11–12 m) of Miura Peninsula, central Japan. Adult males of G. capitellum sp. nov. were easily distinguished from the other species of Gnathia Leach, 1814 from around the world by the small oval head and the inner margin of pylopod without plumose setae. Most other Gnathia species have a large rectangular head and plumose setae present on the article 1 of pylopod. Appearance of the adult male resembles the genus Afrignathia Hadfield and Smit, 2008 rather than Gnathia but Afrignathia has maxilla 1 which is absent in all known male gnathiids in the world including G. capitellum sp. nov. Fish parasitic larva of G. capitellum sp. nov. is also described herein. This larva closely resembles larvae of the genus Gnathia, but can be distinguished from the other Gnathia species by the remarkably oval-shaped basis in pereopods 2–4.
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