Clinical Oncology and Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2613-4942 / 2613-4942
Published by: Science Repository OU (10.31487)
Total articles ≅ 221
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Flor M Fernández-Gordón Sánchez, Elena Gomez Dominguez, Cristina Garfia Castillo, Jorge Arroyo Andres, Luis Robles Diaz, Yolanda Rodriguez Gil
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2021.10.03

Abstract:
Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors is associated with termed inflammatory and immune-related side effects (irAE). Upper gastrointestinal symptoms are infrequent and appear mainly in patients on combination therapy with two checkpoint inhibitor drugs. We present the case of a patient with IIIB stage cutaneous melanoma treated with Nivolumab in monotherapy who developed an immune-mediated gastritis. Histopathologically, due to the paucity of published cases, no specific pattern of Nivolumab-immune-mediated gastritis has been described. We have reviewed the literature and compared the histopathology of the cases available in the literature.
Salvador Macias-Diaz, Ana Lilia Castruita Avila, Joaquin Gabriel Reinoso Toledo, Mario Garcia Carrasco
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2020.10.04

Abstract:
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with not achieving a complete pathological response in patients with breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with tumor response failure in patients with breast cancer operated and who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, analytical and observational study. Vitamin D was measured in patients with breast cancer who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and its association with tumor response was determined. For the inferential analysis, the Student’s t-test, chi-square test, and Fisher’s exact test were used. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty-six patients were included. There was tumor response failure to treatment in 69.3% and vitamin D deficiency occurred in 58.3%. No association was found between vitamin D deficiency and tumor response failure (p = 0.729), histological type (p = 0.691), molecular profile (p = 0.969), clinical stage (p = 0.468) or menopause status (p = 0.701). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is not associated with tumor response failure in breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Miguel Unda, Ana Loizaga-Iriarte, Sheila Mohamed-El Azzouzi, David Gonzalo-Aparicio, Sofía Rey-Gonzalez, Ana I. Serrano-Gutierrez, Elena Riesco-Paredes, Sandra San Cayetano-Talegon
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2020, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2020.10.02

Abstract:
Background: Hypotheses defend BCG being able to have an impact on the course of COVID-19 disease, decreasing the rate of infections and their severity. Objective: To determine if the incidence and severity of COVID-19 are less in patients who receive adjuvant treatment with intravesical BCG for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and if the number of instillations are influential. Methods: All the participants treated with intravesical BCG between January and June-2020 were analysed, researching if they had been infected, and comparing them with the infection rate in the general reference population of our Hospital. Ethical Aspects: The Healthcare Ethics Committee of the Hospital approved the study and informed consent forms were delivered to patients treated with BCG in order to authorize the use of their data in this study. Statistical Analysis: OpenEpi (Link) statistical analysis was carried out by means of 2×2 tables applying the chi-square statistic and Fisher test for qualitative variables. Results: 117 patients, 23 women (19.7%) and 94 men (80.3%), received treatment with BCG. The mean age was 72.12 years; all ≥50 years. Seven in induction phase, 6 weeks, and 110 in 1-year maintenance, 3 weeks to 3, 6 and 12 months, excluding those that had <4 instillations. Three patients (2.56%) were infected with moderate disease that required admission to the ward. None in the Intensive Care Unit. In the general population, 8558 (5.7 %) were infected. 2015 (1.35%) required admission to the ward and 185 (0.12%) in the Intensive Care Unit. There are no statistically significant differences in the infection rate. Neither was there any in the incidence of moderate or severe disease nor in the incidence of disease between the different phases of the intravesical treatment. Conclusion: We have not been able to demonstrate that intravesical BCG impacts the incidence rate or the severity of COVID-19.
N. Baskaran, S Vignesh, V Chandrasekar
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2021.08.11

Abstract:
Biomarkers are substances that are either secreted by the tumor or produced by the body in response to the presence of cancer. Biomarkers serve as an objective measure for evaluation of normal and pathological processes as well as pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Cancer studies are usually difficult to interpret, especially based on the contemporary medical diagnosis. In this circumstance, biomarkers are developing as reliable diagnostic metabolites, which have many promising applications in oncological screening, differential diagnosis, risk assessment, response to treatment, and examining the progression of disease. Genome or protein based prognostic biomarkers are available, for numerous cancer types, for potential inclusion into clinical prognostic staging methods. However, there lies difficulty in translating these biomarkers into clinical outcomes. This review concerns important biomarkers related to wide varieties of cancer and also elucidates mode of action of few major biomarkers.
Khalid Iqbal, Noreen Amjad, Sumera Butt, Fajar Rafi Ranjha, Sajid Anees Minhas, Qurat Ul Ain Shamsi
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2021.09.06

Abstract:
Purpose: The study of clinical effectiveness of deep-inspirational breath-hold (DIBH) in left breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) was aimed at focusing on dosimetry and organs at risk (OARs) evaluation. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the heart and ipsilateral lung V30 for DIBH technique and to compare with free breathing (FB) technique. Clinical data shows that by increasing the inhalation amplitude value (cm), the maximum heart distance decreases in the treatment field. Materials and Methods: Thirty left-sided breast and chest wall patients were CT scanned on 4DCT with DIBH. These patients were chosen for the DIBH technique with the ability to hold their breath for more than 20 seconds. Radiotherapy of these patients was planned using field-in-field planning technique, and OAR doses were observed using the institutionally specified DIBH protocol. Results: The mean heart dose was less than 3Gy. Whereas V2Gy and V10Gy were less than 30% and 5%. The mean ipsilateral lung dose was 7.59 Gy. Ipsilateral lung V30 was less than 25% with ±10% margins. It is found that by increasing the inhaling amplitude (cm) heart involvement in the tangential treatment field decreases. Conclusion: DIBH is an easy and highly efficient treatment technique for reducing the mean dose of the heart and V30 of ipsilateral lung. The maximum heart distance decreases as the baseline of inhalation increases due to heart doses.
Bruno Soriano Pignataro, Emne Ali Abdallah, Vinicius Fernando Calsavara, Celso Abdon Lopes Mello, Kenji Nishinari, Guilherme Yazbek, Ludmilla Thome Domingos Chinen
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2021.10.01

Abstract:
Background: Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in oncology patients. There are no accurate risk assessment tools to predict venous thromboembolism (VTE). Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor microemboli (CTM), and high platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may predispose to VTE. Objective: To evaluate correlations of CTCs, CTM, and PLR with VTE and progression-free survival (PFS) in gastric cancer patients. Methods: Patients with gastric cancer were recruited (March 2016 to April 2017). CTCs were assayed by ISET at two timepoints: before neoadjuvant treatment (CTC1) and after surgery/before adjuvant therapy (CTC2) for patients with localized disease, and before first-line chemotherapy (CTC1) and after 6 months (CTC2) for patients with metastases. VTE incidence was determined retrospectively. PFS was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: We studied 93 patients. According to Khorana scores, 63 (67.7%) patients were at intermediate and 30 (32.3%) were at high risk for VTE. VTE incidence was 20.4% and CTM were found in 39.8%. VTE developed in 7/37 (18.9%) CTM-positive and in 11/50 (22%) CTM-negative patients (p=0.93). When PLR >288, VTE occurred in 7/14 patients (p=0.005). PLR also associated with poor PFS (p<0.0001). CTC2 was associated with poor PFS (p<0.0001). CTC2, PLR and VTE were independent prognostic factors for PFS (p=0.005, 0.043, and <0.0001 respectively). Conclusion: PLR is a prognostic indicator for PFS and for VTE in gastric cancer. Neither CTC, nor CTM improved risk stratification for VTE in our population.
Ihsan Ceceli, Seyit Mehmet Ceylan
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2021.09.02

Abstract:
Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a rare malignancy of the head and neck region. Its diagnosis and treatment are difficult due to its rare and aggressive tumor nature and the complex anatomy of its localization. A 70-year-old male who presented with symptoms caused by this rare tumor was reported. The patient presented with pain on the left side of the head and vision loss in the left eye for 1 month, and his endoscopic biopsy was reported as undifferentiated carcinoma. This case report aimed to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
Ruth Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, Miguel Angel Velazquez-Flores
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2021.09.05

Abstract:
Non-coding RNAs are conformed by a large repertoire of RNA molecules with unimaginable tridimensional structures and functions. Small nuclear RNAs are an essential part of the spliceosome machinery, which is crucial for proper mRNA maturation. It is important to add that U6, one of the four snRNAs forming the spliceosome has been extensively studied. Full-length U6 (U6-1) loci are widely dispersed throughout the genome (200-900 copies), but a few U6 full-length loci have been identified to date as potentially active genes. The importance of U6 to carry out, together with other snRNAs, the catalytic activity and recognition of annealing target sequences, its evolution in the genome and the fact that the genome has many U6 copies and pseudogenes, its association with retrotransposition, as well as their implication in diseases is discussed in this review.
Sanjay S. Reddy, Maitham A. Moslim, Hailan Liu, Max Lefton, Karen Ruth, Rajeswari Nagarathinam, Harry Cooper
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2021.08.09

Abstract:
Background: Ampullary carcinoma is rare with a more favourable prognosis compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The role of histological classification, including pancreatobiliary (PB) and intestinal (INT), on survival and recurrence outcomes in ampullary cancer is still debatable. Methods: 42 patients were identified between 1996-2010. Results: Nineteen classic pancreatoduodenectomies (PD) and 23 pylorus-preserving PDs were performed. Pathological review revealed 23, 18 and 1 patients with the PB, INT and mixed histology, respectively. Adjuvant chemoradiation (ACRT), chemotherapy, and radiation were given to 14 (33.3%), 4 (9.5%) and 2 (4.8%) patients, respectively. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) from time of surgery were higher in the PB histological variant compared to INT (p=0.005 and 0.012, respectively). A landmark (LM) analysis found higher survival in the PB variant patients compared to INT (RFS p=0.023; OS p=0.048). There was no difference in RFS between both histological variants for patients who underwent surgery alone (p=0.42). However, the PB had higher RFS compared to the INT histology for patients who underwent ACRT (p=0.008). Conclusion: Ampullary carcinoma with PB histological variant was associated with significant survival benefit. The PB versus INT survival benefit was seen in the setting of ACRT, but not with surgery alone.
Cecelia Bellcross, April Hermstad, Christine Tallo, Chelsea Leonard, Ioana Pencea, Christine Stanislaw
Clinical Oncology and Research, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.31487/j.cor.2021.08.08

Abstract:
Purpose: The Breast Cancer Genetics Referral Screening Tool (B-RST™) has been endorsed as one of several validated screening tools to identify women appropriate for cancer genetics referral. We conducted a randomized trial to determine the most effective means of follow-up for women who screened positive on B-RST™ 3.0. Methods: Women undergoing screening mammography at one of four Emory clinics were approached to complete the B-RST™. Participants who screened positive were randomized to one of three follow-up groups: self-referral (Group 1), electronic health record (EHR) clinician messaging (Group 2), or direct contact (Group 3). We compared genetic counseling appointment scheduling and completion rates by group. Results: Of 2,422 participants, 658 (27.2%) screened positive. Genetic counseling appointments were scheduled by 9.2%, 20.1% and 9.7% of Group 1, 2 and 3 participants respectively (p=0.001). Challenges to scheduling included lack of physician response to EHR messages and unsuccessful direct contact. Among those scheduled (n=78) 70.5% completed the appointment, with no difference between the three groups. Conclusion: B-RST™ can be used effectively in mammography settings to identify high-risk women for cancer genetics referral. Follow-up via EHR appears an acceptable and efficient approach, but additional strategies are needed to facilitate completion of the genetic counseling process.
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