ISSN / EISSN : 0258-0802 / 1648-1143
Published by: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 806
Latest articles in this journal
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 58-70; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.1.4
The article investigates the development of the literary studies of Lithuanian literature over the past three decades pointing out some mental movements as well as difficulties of „transferrence“ and „hermeneutics“ of selfreflection. The article is not focused on describing all the schools of literary studies that were under formation at that time, the translated theoretical works or on classifying the researchers of the period (some names are mentioned sporadically as an example only). The aim is to give just one perspective without aiming to provide an objective wholsome overwiew.
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 86-98; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.1.6
The article discusses the policy of dissemination of national literature abroad as one of the soft power practices used for the formation of the image of the country and the country’s literature, created through the translated and published works of Lithuanian authors in foreign languages. It also reviews the current situation, the selection of the works to be translated, institutions and bodies in charge of this dissemination, and problems of the research on the reception of the works (authors) translated into foreign languages.
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 71-85; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.1.5
In the article I discuss how deconstruction (Jacques Derrida and other Yale School participants) came to Lithuanian literary criticism and how it changed habits of humanitarian thinking during the three decades after independence. The most unusual and radical deconstruction critique of essentialist metaphysical thinking, new terminology (inter-text, elimination of center, footprint, writing, difference, blinding, labyrinth narrative, guest / enemy, etc.) and new strategies for interpreting texts were very important for Lithuanian humanities liberated from Soviet ideology. Literary critics have noticed and discussed the undoubted connection between postmodernist literature and its deconstructive reading.We can find three tendencies in the deconstructive criticism of Lithuanian literature. The first tendency is the interpretation of general theoretical concepts of deconstruction, second tendency - searching the deconstructive features in literary works and the third tendency of criticism, expanding its own self-criticism and self-irony, is discussing chrestomathic and structuralist interpretations of the literary works or deconstructing icons of Soviet culture. We know very well, that many feminist, postcolonial, historiographic, anthropological, or interdisciplinary researches of literature cannot escape the effects of deconstruction.
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 99-119; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.1.7
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 120-126; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.1.8
Akvilė Rėklaitytė, Meistraujantis žmogus: poetinė Marcelijaus Martinaičio antropologija, Vilnius: Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, 2020, 286 p.
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 8-28; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.1.1
The article focuses on the beginning of the Singing Revolution in Lithuanian culture and tries to identify the most significant dominant features in order to understand the entirety of the new changes in literature. In the face of political upheaval, such a dominant feature was the question of truth; however, the well-established poetry tradition – romantic, neo-romantic, modern neo-romantic, which coexisted with social realism in Soviet times, and experimental – did not raise such questions of truth but only reflected the nation’s collective expectations. The evolution of Lithuanian literature, which was highly fragmented during all the decades of the Soviet occupation, united the country through the expatriate poet Bernardas Brazdžionis while he was visiting Lithuania in the summer of 1989. Poetic texts predominated during the first demonstrations of Sąjūdis (the Reform Movement), but while trying to understand their position in the general Lithuanian culture and literature discourse, one needs to acknowledge the leading nature of poetry throughout the Soviet times: having its niche in the cultural system, poetry posed a large number of vexed questions, sought philosophical profundity, and was able to constantly address the deepest metaphysical questions even in strict censorship conditions. Lithuanian prose, which evaded the requirement by the doctrine of social realism to portray the world and characters engaged in class struggles, also found support in the poetry system and created a non-linear but coherent narrative where metaphors prevail. Lithuanian prose poetry became a sign of esthetic quality in independent Lithuania too, where the question of truth, which was important for achieving independence, found a way similar to that of poetry – through memoirs and essays to esthetics and little prose. At the beginning of independence, poetry, which had fed Lithuanian prose with its ideas, themes, conception of the world and esthetic solutions, also merged with memoirs and essays, thus being part of the discourse of telling the truth.
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 29-42; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.1.2
In the period of 1989-2020 Lithuanian literature experienced a very dynamic literary development. The aim of the article is to highlight specifics of the new cycle and to analyze the prose trends of each decade of regained independence. The author discusses the literary process more synchronically than diachronically. The first period, i.e. the transition from the Soviet regime to the new system, was especially outstanding as the censorship was eliminated, the previously banned works of deportees and resisters were legalized, the postwar émigré writers returned back to culture and opportunities for innovation opened up.The role of writer as a cultural hero diminished. Former writers loyal to the Soviet regime described this situation as crisis, while the younger generation developed postmodernist way of writing. Many works were based on the cultural and historical memory reckoning with the Soviet era. All genres underwent certain transformations, such as emergence of peculiar essay genre, spread of ego-documentaries, revival of short stories, and flourishing popular literature.Serious changes took place after 2004 when Lithuania joined the European Union, which led to economic emigration and encouraged changes in mentality and expanse of local contexts. Mobile, “transit” type of Lithuanian character emerged who changed his place of residence but felt lonely in the global world. This is a huge innovation, bearing in mind the sedentary agrarian Lithuanian culture and the confines of the iron curtain during the Soviet era. Increased quantity of published books decreased their quality.
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 43-57; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.1.3
The cultural shift that has been taking place over the thirty years since Lithuania regained its independence is bound up with the role of a rapidly changing – in terms of both stage and text – theatre. These changes were mostly expressed through rhetorical formulations of a discourse of “crisis”. It is no exception that this word has been used as a usual descriptor of the state of Lithuanian dramaturgy. Through a discussion of the differing aspects of the relationships between the defenders of the logos theatre and the proponents of stage praxis, this article argues that during the transitionary period that changed Lithuania’s history, and which also supplied the concept of “crisis”, the world of Lithuanian theatre, afflicted with constant perturbations, revealed itself. The multifariousness of “crisis” is also elucidated: at the start of the period of independence the term was used to describe the vacuum problem of Lithuanian drama, after ten years – the lack of current relevant plays, today – the limited access to contemporary dramaturgical texts. The conclusion is thereby drawn, that the dissemination of dramatic texts is not only a prerequisite of lessening the long-lived tensions between text and stage authors, but also of deeper studies of the development of contemporary Lithuanian dramaturgy.
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 25-31; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.4.2
In this paper, based of a geocritical approach, a journey as some path leading toward self-knowledge in the novel of Patrick Modiano, French writer and Nobel Prize winner, Voyage de noces (1990), has been analyzed. A journey is understood as a path that leads toward self-knowledge because the characters of the novel undergo changes depending on the place they find themselves in. This journey gains several forms: it can simply be a journey from one point to another, also can have the aspect of escapism and finally be understood as deportation. In all these cases the nature of the journey changes depending on how the characters perceive themselves. The narrator admits that his aim is to write the autobiography of Ingrida, the character of the novel. Thus he sets out on a journey through her inner world, that naturally will last longer than the one from one point to another. The places are generally depicted as central and peripheral, the capital of the country and its outskirts or the capital and the regions of the country. The narrator tries to understand changes in Ingrida’s life and her faith, at the same time changes in the author’s self-knowledge happen: he becomes a writer.
Literatūra, Volume 63, pp 19-47; https://doi.org/10.15388/litera.2021.3.2
Studies of the Christian apocrypha have paid relatively little attention to the authors' self-awareness and intentions. The authors of the Apocrypha often impersonate characters of the apostolic generation or write about events that could not have been known to them. This leads to the suspicion that they are deliberately trying to manipulate the reader by directly deceiving him. In contemporary scholarship, apocryphal literature is often described as "forgery". We believe that in many cases this is not an accurate characterisation. The aim of the authors was not manipulation, creating a power relationship of authority with the reader, but the reconstruction of tradition by responding to a new Sitz im Leben. The article emphasises the secondary, derivative character of apocryphal literature. The authors of the Apocrypha were convinced of the veracity of their texts because they systematically relied on sources that were reliable from their point of view: the future canonical gospels, the oral contents, often with folkloric features, theological topoi taken over from the previous generation. This made it possible to attribute their work to the apostles or their companions, since the belief of the time was that the work of the disciples could rightly be attributed to the teacher. It is very likely that some of the works reflect the experience of altered states of consciousness.