Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology

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EISSN : 2456-690X
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 304
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Anowarul Islam
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 52-60; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330251

Abstract:
The main objective of this study is to explore the major impacts of salinity intrusion on coastal agriculture and farmer’s livelihoods in Bangladesh. The study has attempted to identify some effective measures for the sustainability of coastal agriculture. The study was conducted based on both primary and secondary data during 2010-2020. To collect primary data, a total of 150 respondents out of 240 households were randomly interviewed and samples are drawn proportionately from study sites. Descriptive and inferential statistics have been done to analyze data. The ArcGIS mapping tool was adopted to represent the spatio-temporal change of saline area. It reveals that due to high salinity intrusion the coastal agriculture has already experienced noticeable adverse impacts especially in increasing rate of salinity, loss in cultivable land and production. Shrimp farming with brackish water and tidal inundation are explored as the main causes for salinity intrusion. In study sites, the level of salinity in 2020 is much stronger than in 2010. It reveals that due to strong salinity in agricultural land the farmer's are suffering from low income, unemployment, scarcity in irrigation and freshwater. It was identified that the planned shrimp culture, management of the embankment, cultivation of saline tolerant crops and raising public awareness will be the possible measures to control the intrusion of salinity. Therefore, it is expected that the evaluation of the revealed impacts of salinity intrusions and the explored measures will be effective to ensure the sustainability of coastal agriculture in Bangladesh.
, M. W. Mucheru-Muna, J. N. Mugwe, K. F. Ngetich, M. N. Kiboi, D. N. Mugendi
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 40-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330250

Abstract:
In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), acidic soil covers 29% of the total area. About 13% of the Kenyan total land area has acidic soils, widely distributed in croplands of the central and western Kenyan regions. The high soil acidity, coupled with soil nutrient depletion, negatively affects crop productivity in the region. We conducted an on-farm experiment to determine the effect of lime, manure, and phosphatic fertilizer application, either solely or combined, on soil chemical properties, maize yield, and profitability in acidic soils of Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya. The treatments were different rates of manure, lime, and P fertilizer. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block design replicated ten times in farmer’s fields. Soil sampling was done at a depth of 0-20 cm prior to the start of the experiment, after crop harvest of SR2016 and LR2017 seasons. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory following standard methods. Results showed that lime significantly increased soil pH by 10.6% during the SR2016 and by 17.7% during the LR2017. Similarly, treatments with lime reduced exchangeable acidity and increased soil available P. Treatments with inorganic fertilizers had significantly higher maize grain yield in comparison with treatments with the sole application of lime, manure, and lime + manure. Lime + fertilizer + manure treatment gave the highest average maize grain yield (5.1 t ha−1), while control gave the lowest (1.5 t ha−1) during the LR2017 season. Economic returns were low due to the prevailing low rainfall experienced during the study period during the SR2016 season. Lime combined with inorganic fertilizer treatment recorded the highest returns (128.75 USD ha-1) followed by sole inorganic fertilizer (105.94 USD ha-1) during the LR2017 season. The study recommends a combination of both lime and inorganic fertilizer for enhanced maize production and profitability in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya.
J. C. Ozougwu, G. U. Amana, I. Nwachukwu, C. A. Imakwu, C. U. Uzochukwu, A. E. Nwafia
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 30-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330249

Abstract:
This study is aimed at determining the physicochemical characteristics of selected wetlands of Kogi State. From each sampled wetlands (Abu’ja and Egwubi), surface water was collected and examined for the following physicochemical parameters: hydrogen ion concentration, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and temperature (0C) using Hanna meter. Dissolved oxygen was determined using dissolved oxygen meter. The data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences version 20.0, Paleontological Statistics version 3.14 and Microsoft Office. Physicochemical parameters studied were not normally distributed from test of normality. They were compared using Man-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H nonparametric tests for comparisons between two and more than two groups respectively. In Abu’ja wetland, the temperature for all the months were similar except for January and December which were significantly cooler (p < 0.05); pH was similarly constant except for January and August (p < 0.05). Dissolved solids ranged from 95 to 118 ppm with similar values between months except in March. Mean electrical conductivity ranged from 0.15 to 0.22 ms/cm. These values were similar between months in Abu’ja. Significant fluctuation occurred in dissolved oxygen on monthly basis. In Egwubi study station, temperature ranged from 20oC to 31 oC, significant difference occurred between January and May and between September and November (p < 0.05), pH was also similar between months. Dissolved solids ranged from 26 to 90 ppm. Electrical conductivity ranged from 0.2 to 0.14 ms/cm. Significant differences only occurred between April and August (p < 0.05). Dissolved oxygen was similar throughout the study period. Our result indicated that the essential minerals and other physiochemical parameters are widely distributed but some are not within the normal range of portable water for humans. Both study wetlands showed low pollution, organic waste in Abu'ja site may be handled by autochthonous bacteria and through self purification of the water body. Nutrient levels are high in wetland habitats as wetlands have rich biomes and support high level of biodiversity. The water is suitable for irrigation and livestock consumption. The presence of the plankton is a pointer to the fact that the two wetlands possess adequate water quality for establishment of great biodiversity.
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 8-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330248

Abstract:
Increased wet season rainfall is associated with improved water supply at point water sources and improved river flows and water reservoir levels. For piped water supply schemes with surface water intakes, this is supposed to enhance operations since there is adequate raw water unlike in the dry season where operations are interrupted due to insufficient flows. However, this is not the case in Nzoia River Basin as established by this study. As rainfall increases, drinking water production in treatment plants at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies decrease and vice versa. Nzoia River Basin is one of the regions that is highly vulnerable to climate variability in Kenya, hence understanding rainfall variability and trends is important for better water resources management and especially drinking water supply. This study aimed at assessing rainfall variability and trends for 3 rainfall stations in Nzoia River Basin; Leissa Farm Kitale, Webuye Agricultural Office and Bunyala Irrigation Scheme and its impact on drinking water production at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies treatment plants. The rainfall data used in this study covers 31 years period from 1970 to 2001 and was obtained from the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD), Nairobi, Kenya. Monthly water supply production data for Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies covering 15 years period from 2000 to 2014 was obtained from the County governments of Uasin Gishu, Kakamega and Busia. Rainfall variability and trend was analysed using the parametric test of Linear regression analysis and the non-parametric Mann Kendall statistical test. Monthly rainfall and monthly drinking water production was analysed using Pearson moment correlation to establish the relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly drinking water supply production at Mois Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia Water supplies treatment plants. The results of variability and trend in annual rainfall shows Webuye Agricultural Office recording declining rainfall at -0.8994 mm/31 years (-0.029 mm/ year); whereas Leissa Farm Kitale shows increasing rainfall at 1.0325 mm/31 years (0.033 mm/ year) and Bunyala Irrigation Scheme’s rainfall is increasing at 0.5245 mm/31 years (0.017 mm/ year). Drinking water supply production at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies has been increasing with time between 2000 and 2014. The results of Pearson moment correlation coefficient shows a strong negative relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly drinking water supply production at 0.05 significance level for Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies. This shows that as rainfall increases, drinking water supply production in treatment plants at Moi’s Bridge, Lumakanda and Busia water supplies decreases. During the rainy season, the cost of water treatment goes up as a result of increased turbidity. Increased rainfall in Nzoia River Basin presents water treatment challenges to the existing water supply treatment plants resulting into reduced production.Water supply managers should improve the capacity of the existing water supply treatment plants to cope with the increased rainfall variability under the changing climatic conditions.
, Abdur Rouf Sarkar
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i330247

Abstract:
With pandemic progression and the stay-at-home situation, household are producing more dangerous medical waste. Households became the most vulnerable and unprotected sector of coronavirus transmission due to the unconsciousness and lack of guidance of hazardous waste management. Therefore, waste management is a critical concern to public health. This study examines household waste generation and waste management issues in Bangladesh during COVID-19 from March 2020 to August 2021. The study showed that adequate identification, collection, transportation, processing, separation, and disposal are the challenges of safe waste management. Each activity bears a high risk of getting infected because of lack of proper guidance and protection. Moreover, the improper disposal of hazardous waste causes immense soil, water and air pollution that might have negative effects to the human body. Some suggested guidelines to a better COVID-19 household’s waste management are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.
S. M. Adamu, A. A. Ijah, H. C. Ozoani, F. M. Rasheed, J. O. Emmanuel, T. S. Ingoroko, O. O. Adedire, E. J. Zaka
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 41-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230246

Abstract:
This study shows the effect s of solid waste dumpsite on ground water quality in Farin-gida, Kaduna State Nigeria. Water samples were collected from six (6) different wells in three(3) strategic areas that have major dumpsites in Farin-gida. These samples were collected in November from both bore holes and hand dug wells within (0-50 meters) to the dumpsite. The following physico-chemical properties of well water was tested for, in the laboratory thus; Total Dissolve Solid, Total Alkalinity, Fluoride, PH, Turbidity and Electrical Conductivity. The results obtained as shown in table 1,2 and 3 respectively indicate that all the wells have varying levels of physico-chemical concentration that is different from the standard as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ), which implies that the water from the study areas are not safe for drinking. Hence, should be treated.
, Mokaya Dennis Chweya, Kitur Esther, Koske James
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 28-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230245

Abstract:
Plastic waste material continues to present environmental challenges throughout the world. Of greatest concern is their disposal in agricultural soils where they interfere with soil fertility due to its inability to decompose fast. Specifically, the research examined under experimental conditions the crop germinative emergence of (Zea mays L.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) as affected by plastic waste material commonly disposed in urban and rural environments of Kenya. The plastic types were identified by their thickness of 30 microns. The experiment was laid out in a 2 by 1 Randomized Block Design (Latin Square) with two replicates in plots each measuring 1m x 1m. The data collected involved determination of emergence percent cover. The date of planting was noted and records were taken from the day first shoot emergence was observed in controls for 10 days. Percent emergence measurements was done for at least 10 days and this involved taking of vertical photographs of each plot from the day first shoot emergence was observed in controls. Assumptions of normality were found to be satisfactory and the set hypotheses were supported by the results. In the overall, there were significant differences (P<0.05) between E. coracana planted in soils mixed with 6 microns thick plastic material and the ones planted in controls. The EPC mean for the E. coracana planted in soils mixed with 30 microns thick plastic material was 25.78%, while controls had 75.58%. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between Z. mays in soils mixed with 6 microns thick plastic material and the ones planted in controls. The EPC mean for the Z. mays planted in soils mixed with thick plastic material was 41.52%, while that of control groups was 86.18%. In conclusion, there were a significant difference (P<0.05) in effects of 6 microns’ thick plastic material on germinative emergence of the two food crops, that is; E. coracana and Z. mays and hence the study recommends that, plastic waste material of any thickness should be avoided on farmlands where Z. mays and E. coracana are grown.
Hla Hla Aung, Kye Mon Min Swe
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230244

Abstract:
Myanmar is an earthquake-prone country in SE Asia and all types of faulting such as strike-slip, normal, and reverse are occurring all over Myanmar territory. Apart from surface faults, the India oceanic plate is subducting obliquely beneath Burma continental plate along Sunda subduction zone. The interaction between the India plate, the Burma plate and Eurasia plate appears to be characterized by the initiation of major movements between plates switching from one to another within this tectonic region. The Sagaing Fault is a primary plate boundary between the Burma plate and Indochina plate along which most of the relative motion has occurred and will continue to occur for the geologic future. According to seismicity record in Myanmar, most of the earthquakes occurred either in the evening or at midnight or at dawn. So the people become scary because earthquake occurs without warnings. During such situation, people run immediately outside the building to the open space due to people’s survival instincts. People have anxiety which is a normal response to frightening situation. The social media interviews the earthquake researchers/ earthquake geologists why the earthquake occurs and how to protect them during earthquake. By disseminating the information on social networks, people become aware of the earthquake disaster and become focusing on effective preparedness.
V. Sreelekshmi,
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230242

Abstract:
Aim: The present study was done to find out ability of sulfate reducing bacteria to reduce sulfonated azo dyes found in the textile effluent. Study Design: Isolate Sulfate reducing bacterial strains from dye contaminated soil samples, inoculate and incubate dye supplemented media under static anaerobic condition and measure the decolorization using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Place and Duration of Study: The samples were collected from Travancore textiles Nemom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Laboratory analysis were performed at Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, India. The study was done for a period of six months. Methodology: The isolated sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) strains were screened to test the tolerance to selected sulfonated azo dye Direct blue 71. The decolorization assay was done in Postgate media and an aliquot of samples (3mL) were withdrawn periodically, centrifuged at 10,000rpm for 15min. The supernatant was used to assay azo dye reduction by measuring residual absorption at the wavelength 594 nm of the Direct Blue 71. Results were compared with the uninoculated control. The optimization of physicochemical conditions for effective decolorization of the selected bacterial strains was studied at different environmental conditions (pH, temperature, concentration and added co-substrates such as sodium acetate, lactate and mannitol). The biodegradation of sulfonated azo dye was assessed by characterizing the metabolites formed after degradation by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). FT-IR analysis revealed only decolorization had occurred without degradation of the dye during the short incubation period of one week. Conclusion: Degradation of azo dyes and other recalcitrant compounds by obligate anaerobes such as sulfate reducing bacteria is a slow process. Hence, extension of incubation period is necessary for the effective and complete degradation of the dye by SRB.
Tambeke Nornu Gbarakoro, Edache Bernard Ochekwu, , Benjamin Uzonna Ononye, Lemenebari Teteg
Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2021/v16i230243

Abstract:
Aim: The study was carried out to ascertain how Hamelia patens would be valuable in sustaining diversity of beneficial insects. Study Design: Investigative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The insects and plants were processed for identification at the Laboratories of the Department of Animal and Environmental Biology and Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Identification and curation of the insects was done at Insect Museum, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. The study started in June and ended in September 2018. Methodology: The heights and canopy sizes of the Hamelia patens were measured with range pole and measuring tape. Insects associated with the floral parts of Hamelia patens were collected in the morning (08:00-10:00 am) and in the evening (4:00-06:00 pm) hours, with a sweep net. They were knockdown by pyrethrum insecticide and preserved in a bottle containing 70% ethanol. They were taxonomically grouped and sent to a taxonomist at Insect Museum, Nigeria for species identification. Results: Fifteen (15) insect species were collected on the Hamelia patens; Megachile mephistrophelica (Grib.), Megachile cinta (Fab.), Braunisca bilunta (Enderloein.), Pterandus sp., Lilioceris sp. and Virachola antalus (Hoph.) restricted their visitation on the plants only in the morning hours, Chelonus bifoveolatus (Szepg.) and Chrysolagria nairobana (Borch.) restricted their visitation in the evening hours. The remaining species were continuous on the plants. There was no significant difference (P=.05) between the number of insect species collected on taller plants and shorter ones. There was a significant difference between the insects that visited the plants in the morning and evening hours. Conclusion: The arrival of the insects on the Hamelia patens varied but some were time dependent. The clipping of the plant’s twigs affected the abundance of insects that visit the plant.
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