#### Advances in Pure Mathematics

Journal Information

ISSN / EISSN :
2160-0368 / 2160-0384

Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)

Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 714

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SHERPA/ROMEO

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#### Latest articles in this journal

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 334-345; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.114021

**Abstract:**

This paper proves Riemann conjecture (RH), i.e., that all the zeros in critical region of Riemann ξ -function lie on symmetric line σ =1/2 . Its proof is based on two important properties: the symmetry and alternative oscillation for ξ = u + iv . Denote . Riemann proved that u is real and v ≡ 0 for β =0 (the symmetry). We prove that the zeros of u and v for β > 0 are alternative, so u (t,0) is the single peak. A geometric model was proposed. is called the root-interval of u (t,β) , if |u| > 0 is inside Ij and u = 0 is at its two ends. If |u (t,β)| has only one peak on each Ij, which is called the single peak, else called multiple peaks (it will be proved that the multiple peaks do not exist). The important expressions of u and v for β > 0 were derived. By , the peak u (t,β) will develop toward its convex direction. Besides, ut (t,β) has opposite signs at two ends t = tj , tj+1 of Ij , also does, then there exists some inner point t′ such that v (t′,β) = 0. Therefore {|u|,|v|/β} in Ij form a peak-valley structure such that has positive lower bound independent of t ∈ Ij (i.e. RH holds in Ij ). As u (t,β) does not have the finite condensation point (unless u = const.), any finite t surely falls in some Ij , then holds for any t (RH is proved). Our previous paper “Local geometric proof of Riemann conjecture” (APM, V.10:8, 2020) has two defects, this paper has amended these defects and given a complete proof of RH.

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 237-253; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.114017

**Abstract:**

In this work, we will derive a numerical method of sixth order in space and second order in time for solving 3-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The numerical method is unconditionally stable. We use the exact single soliton solution and the conserved quantities to check the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed schemes. Also, we study the interaction dynamics of two solitons. It is found that both elastic and inelastic collisions can take place under suitable parametric conditions.

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 254-295; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.114018

**Abstract:**

By means of expansions of rapidly in infinity decreasing functions in delta functions and their derivatives, we derive generalized boundary conditions of the Sturm-Liouville equation for transitions and barriers or wells between two asymptotic potentials for which the solutions are supposed as known. We call such expansions “moment series” because the coefficients are determined by moments of the function. An infinite system of boundary conditions is obtained and it is shown how by truncation it can be reduced to approximations of a different order (explicitly made up to third order). Reflection and refraction problems are considered with such approximations and also discrete bound states possible in nonsymmetric and symmetric potential wells are dealt with. This is applicable for large wavelengths compared with characteristic lengths of potential changes. In Appendices we represent the corresponding foundations of Generalized functions and apply them to barriers and wells and to transition functions. The Sturm-Liouville equation is not only interesting because some important second-order differential equations can be reduced to it but also because it is easier to demonstrates some details of the derivations for this one-dimensional equation than for the full three-dimensional vectorial equations of electrodynamics of media. The article continues a paper that was made long ago.

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 377-385; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.115024

**Abstract:**

The aim of this study is to establish that, the equivalent class which is made up of homotopic loops is a group with respect to in the general interval [m,n]. The study proved from homotopical point of view that is associative, has an identity and inverse function. The study established with proof that is a fundamental group in [m,n] ,.

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 169-179; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.113012

**Abstract:**

In this work, we will discuss Caristi’s fixed point theorem for mapping results introduced in the setting of normed spaces. This work is a generalization of the classical Caristi’s fixed point theorem. Also, Caristi’s type of fixed points theorem was partial discussed in Reich, Mizoguchi and Takahashi’s and Amini-Harandi’s results, we developed ideas that many known fixed point theorems can easily be derived from the Caristi theorem.

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 19-26; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.111003

**Abstract:**

Based on a node group , the Newman type rational operator is constructed in the paper. The convergence rate of approximation to a class of non-smooth functions is discussed, which is regarding to X. Moreover, if the operator is constructed based on further subdivision nodes, the convergence rate is . The result in this paper is superior to the approximation results based on equidistant nodes, Chebyshev nodes of the first kind and Chebyshev nodes of the second kind.

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 27-62; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.111004

**Abstract:**

The Number Theory comes back as the heart of unified Science, in a Computing Cosmos using the bases 2;3;5;7 whose two symmetric combinations explain the main lepton mass ratios. The corresponding Holic Principle induces a symmetry between the Newton and Planck constants which confirm the Permanent Sweeping Holography Bang Cosmology, with invariant baryon density 3/10, the dark baryons being dephased matter-antimatter oscillation. This implies the DNA bi-codon mean isotopic mass, confirming to 0.1 ppm the electron-based Topological Axis, whose terminal boson is the base 2 c-observable Universe in the base 3 Cosmos. The physical parameters involve the Euler idoneal numbers and the special Fermat primes of Wieferich (bases 2) and Mirimanoff (base 3). The prime numbers and crystallographic symmetries are related to the 4-fold structure of the DNA bi-codon. The forgotten Eddington’s proton-tau symmetry is rehabilitated, renewing the supersymmetry quest. This excludes the concepts of Multiverse, Continuum, Infinity, Locality and Zero-mass Particle, leading to stringent predictions in Cosmology, Particle Physics and Biology.

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 386-394; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.115025

**Abstract:**

The main purpose of this paper is to show that the Poincaré q-polynomials admit a representation in terms of the symmetric functions and the Patterson-Selberg (or Ruelle-type) spectral functions. We have shown that the q-series elliptic genera can be expressed in terms of q-analogs of the classical special functions, specially the equivalence between the spectral Patterson-Selberg and the Ruelle functions. The main result of this manuscript is to show that this representation can be used in theoretical physics and we analyze them in terms of the Patterson-Selberg spectral function R (s).

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 121-137; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.112008

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we extend matrix scaled total least squares (MSTLS) problem with a single right-hand side to the case of multiple right-hand sides. Firstly, under some mild conditions, this paper gives an explicit expression of the minimum norm solution of MSTLS problem with multiple right-hand sides. Then, we present the Kronecker-product-based formulae for the normwise, mixed and componentwise condition numbers of the MSTLS problem. For easy estimation, we also exhibit Kronecker-product-free upper bounds for these condition numbers. All these results can reduce to those of the total least squares (TLS) problem which were given by Zheng et al. Finally, two numerical experiments are performed to illustrate our results.

Advances in Pure Mathematics, Volume 11, pp 138-148; doi:10.4236/apm.2021.112009

**Abstract:**

In any completely close complex field C, generalized transcendental meromorphic functions may have some new properties. It is well known that a meromorphic function of characteristic zero is a rational function. This paper introduced some mathematical properties of the transcendental meromorphic function, which is generalized to the meromorphic function by multiplying and differentiating the generalized meromorphic function. The analysis shows that the difference between any non-zero constant and the derivative of the general meromorphic function has an infinite zero. In addition, for any natural number n, there are no practically exceptional values for the multiplication of the general meromorphic function and its derivative to the power of n.