Material Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2160-7613 / 2160-7621
Published by: Hans Publishers (10.12677)
Total articles ≅ 874
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才王 树
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 25-30; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.111004

Abstract:
采用复合式CO2激光表面持续加热和水射流淬火相结合的新型热处理工艺对双相纤锌矿/立方氮化硼(wBN/cBN)表面进行改性处理,研究了水射流辅助激光热处理工艺对wBN/cBN硬度的影响。结果表明,伴随着快速淬火热处理的应力诱导相变和纳米尺寸晶粒的形成,双相wBN/cBN的维氏硬度最高可达到70 GPa,接近聚晶金刚石(PCD)的硬度。 The surface of duplex wurtzite/cubic boron nitride (wBN/cBN) was modified by a new heat treat-ment process combining CO2 laser surface continuous heating and water jet quenching, the influ-ence of water jet assisted laser heat treatment on the hardness of wBN/cBN was studied. The re-sults show: With the stress-induced phase transition of the rapid quenching heat treatment and the formation of nano-sized grains, the vickers hardness of the two-phase wBN/cBN can reach 70 GPa, reaching the hardness of polycrystalline diamond (PCD).
霞暴 丽
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 247-261; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.113031

Abstract:
黑色二氧化钛与普通的白色TiO2相比,具有改善的光学吸收性能,有利于太阳光谱的紫外到红外区域的太阳能吸收,被认为具有吸收整个太阳光谱范围的潜能,在多个领域具有广泛的应用。文中综述了黑色二氧化钛纳米材料的各种合成方法及其物相、形态和电子结构的综合表征技术,以期能够准确的表征黑色二氧化钛结构特征,为黑色TiO2的制备提供指导。Black TiO2 used in many fields facilitates the maximum solar energy absorption from ultraviolet (UV) to infrared (IR) due to their improved optical absorption properties in comparison to the normal white TiO2, which is considered that black TiO2 has the potential to absorb the whole solar spectrum. In this paper, the synthesis methods of black TiO2 nanomaterials and the comprehensive characterization technology of its phase, morphology and electronic structure are reviewed in or-der to accurately analyze the structural characteristics of black TiO2 and provide guidance for the preparation of black TiO2.
芳王 新
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 950-957; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.118110

Abstract:
MOFs (金属有机骨架化合物)因其可设计的结构、可配置的拓扑结构、可调谐功能、易功能化的腔体、超高的孔隙率和比表面积等特性,使它在化学、生物和工业领域的应用中展现出了巨大的潜力。本文总结了MOFs合成方法及其优缺点,并总结了其影响因素,以便研究从预期目标去获得特定MOFs结构和应用性能,同时列举了金属有机骨架化合物潜在性能方面的研究进展,并对MOFs的发展前景作了展望。 MOFs (metal-organic skeleton compounds) have shown great potential in chemical, biological and industrial applications due to their designable structure, configurable topological structure, tunable function, easily functionalized cavity, ultra-high porosity and specific surface area, etc. In this paper, the synthesis methods of MOFs, their advantages and disadvantages are summarized, and the influencing factors are summarized, so as to obtain the specific structure and application properties of MOFs from the expected target. At the same time, the research progress in the potential properties of metal-organic framework compounds is listed, and the development prospect of MOFs is prospected.
想徐 想
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 929-936; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.118107

Abstract:
概述了纳米银石墨烯(AgNPs-rGO)的制备方法,通过抗坏血酸还原并加入PVP减少纳米银粒子的团聚得到纳米银石墨烯(AgNPs-rGO)复合材料,然后用SEM和FTIR对纳米银石墨烯复合材料进行了表征,采用微观接触角测量仪研究了纳米银石墨烯复合材料的疏水性能。结果表明:当AgNO3:GO质量比为2:1时,制得的AgNPs-rGO复合材料的水接触角为36˚,在此复合材料中有最优的疏水性能。 The preparation methods of silver nanoparticle-graphene composites (AgNPs-rGO) were summa-rized and a series of AgNPs-rGO were obtained by ascorbic acid reduction. The obtained AgNPs-rGO composite materials were subsequently analyzed by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy and their hydro-phobic properties were characterized by using a micro contact angle measuring instrument. The results show that when the mass ratio of AgNO3 and GO is 2:1, the water contact angle of AgNPs-rGO composite material is about 36˚ and this corresponding composite has the best hydrophobic prop-erty.
刘 旭
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 918-928; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.118106

Abstract:
在肿瘤治疗领域中,纳米载药体系的研究与开发对于提高肿瘤治疗的精准度和有效性具有非常重要的意义,但材料本身存在的生物相容性、肿瘤的异质性和复杂性以及可见光波段光源穿透深度不够等问题始终限制着肿瘤治疗效果的提高。本研究在聚多巴胺聚合过程中加入吲哚菁绿,通过π-π堆积和疏水相互作用实现ICG的装载,制备出可用于光热/光动力联合治疗的纳米载药体系。结果表明,所制备的ICG/PDA材料具有较好的光热转换能力和光热稳定性,在功率密度为1 W/cm2的光照下,溶液温度能够在1 min内迅速上升至50℃,此外,ICG/PDA较ICG有更快的活性氧产生速度和更多的活性氧产量。人卵巢癌细胞SKOV3细胞实验结果表明,所制备的ICG/PDA材料在未光照的条件下具有较高的生物相容性,而在808 nm近红外光照下具有明显的光照抑制作用。综上所述,所制备的肿瘤抑制性ICG/PDA纳米复合材料具有用于肿瘤光热/光动力联合治疗的潜力。 In the field of tumor therapy, the research and development of nano-drug delivery systems are of great significance to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of tumor therapy, but the biocompati-bility of the material itself, the heterogeneity and complexity of tumors, and visible light problems such as insufficient penetration depth of the band light source have always limited the improvement of tumor treatment effects. In this study, indocyanine green was introduced in the process of polydopamine polymerization, and ICG was loaded through π-π stacking and hydrophobic interaction to prepare a nano-drug loading system that can be used for photothermal/photodynamic combined therapy. The results showed that the prepared ICG/PDA nanoparticles had good photother-mal conversion ability and photothermal stability with a temperature rise to 50˚C in 1 min under the irradiation of 1 W/cm2 NIR, meanwhile, a faster active oxygen generation rate and more active oxygen production were exhibited than those by free ICG. Finally, the experimental results of human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) showed that the prepared ICG/PDA material possessed the excellent biocompatibility under condition without NIR irradiation, and exhibited the obvious tumor cell inhibition under 808 nm NIR irradiation. In summary, the prepared tumor inhibitory ICG/PDA nanoparticles have the potential to be used in photothermal/photodynamic combined therapy.
梁 铎
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 699-706; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.116081

Abstract:
为进一步推广冷拌冷铺技术的工程应用,论文在综合国内外研究现状的基础上,根据胶结料不同分别论述了乳化型、溶剂型、反应型三种冷拌冷铺沥青混合料的强度形成机理,从混合料拌和、摊铺、碾压的角度总结了冷拌冷铺沥青混合料施工工艺,结合冷拌冷铺沥青混合料材料特性,分析了其社会及环境效益,针对冷拌冷铺技术现状从混合料配合比设计方法、性能评价体系、耐久性提升方面提出了冷拌冷铺沥青混合料进一步研究建议,对于冷拌冷铺技术的推广应用具有积极地推动作用。 In order to further promote the application of cold mix cold paving technology, based on the com-prehensive research status at home and abroad, the paper analyzes the strength formation mech-anism of three cold mixed cold pave asphalt mixtures, namely emulsification, solvent and reaction, according to the different cementation materials. The construction technology of cold mixed cold asphalt mixture is summarized from the perspective of mixture mixing, spreading and rolling, and combined with cold mixed cold asphalt. The paper analyzes the social and environmental benefits of the green mixture material. According to the current situation of cold mix cold paving technology, the further research suggestions on the mix ratio design method, performance evaluation system and durability improvement are put forward, which will promote the promotion and application of cold mix cold paving technology.
苗 雷
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 707-716; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.116082

Abstract:
本文依托水泥稳定碎石基层试验段进行了大厚度施工压实工艺研究,检测结果表明:单层施工压实厚度36 cm的水泥稳定碎石基层压实质量可满足设计要求;碾压时遵循先轻后重、先慢后快、从低到高的原则,碾压段落长度宜控制在30~50 m之间;采用分层、整层相结合的压实度检测方法可有效控制大厚度水泥稳定碎石基层施工质量。 Based on the test section of cement stabilized macadam base, this paper studies the compaction technology of large thickness construction. The test results show that the compaction quality of cement stabilized macadam base with single layer construction compaction thickness of 36 cm can meet the design requirements; the rolling should follow the principle of light before heavy, slow before fast, from low to high, and the length of rolling section should be controlled between 30~50 m; the construction quality of cement stabilized macadam base with large thickness can be effec-tively controlled by using the compaction detection method of layered and whole layer.
冰李 舒
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 717-731; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.116083

Abstract:
钠–有机电池以有机材料作为钠离子电池的电极,由于其丰富的钠资源和对环境友好的特点,是下一代可持续、多功能储能装置中具有吸引力的替代锂离子电池。然而,用于钠离子电池的有机物也遇到了一些问题,如氧化还原电位低、在电解质中的溶解度高、电导率低。因此,改变芳香族体系/吸附吸电子基团,构建聚合物,并结合导电基质是有效的策略。本文从功能导向设计的角度,从小分子化合物到聚合物,再到复合材料,对近年来用于钠–有机电池的有机羰基化合物进行了总结和简要讨论。本综述对羰基有机柔性电极的钠–有机电池进行了系统的综述。 Sodium-organic batteries, which use organic materials as the electrodes in sodium-ion batteries, are an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-ion batteries for next-generation sustainable and versatile energy storage devices owing to the abundant sodium resources and environmental friendly features. However, organics used in sodium-ion batteries also encounter some issues such as low redox potential, high solubility in the electrolyte, and low conductivity. In response, altering the aromatic system/attaching electron-withdrawing groups, constructing polymers, and in-corporating a conductive matrix are effective strategies. This review summarizes and briefly dis-cusses recent organic carbonyl compounds for sodium-organic batteries from the viewpoint of function-oriented design, including function evolution from small-molecule compounds to polymers, then composites, and finally flexible electrodes. In particular, as a timely overview, carbonyl-based organic flexible electrodes for sodium-organic batteries are also highlighted for the first time.
龙瞿 小
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 732-740; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.116084

Abstract:
新型锆合金板材在750℃~800℃热轧3或4道次后再冷轧,冷轧后在540℃~600℃退火1.5~50 h。本实验研究了加工引起的微观组织改变,分析了微观组织改变对均匀腐蚀性能和拉伸性能的影响。结果表明:原板材和加工板材均为部分再结晶态,加工没有显著影响织构。在冷轧和退火过程中有细小的第二相析出,但加工板材基体中细小第二相比原板材少。加工之后板材的均匀腐蚀性能得到了改善。基体缺陷密度是影响均匀腐蚀性能的主要因素。选取原板材和580℃短时退火的加工板材对比分析了室温和375℃下的拉伸性能。总体而言,加工之后强度降低,塑性有所提高;不同加工工艺获得的板材力学性能差距不大。第二相是影响力学性能的主要因素。 Sheets of a new zirconium alloy were undergone hot-rolling at 750˚C~800˚C for 3 or 4 passes, sub-sequent cold-rolling and final annealing at 540˚C~600˚C for 1.5~50 h. In this study, the change in the microstructure caused by the working was investigated, and the effect of the microstructure change on uniform corrosion and the tensile properties was analyzed. The results showed that both original and worked sheets are partially recrystallized and working did not influence the texture. In the process of cold-working and followed annealing, fine particles were precipitated. However, the quantities of the fine particles in the matrixes of worked sheets were less than that of the original. The resistance of uniform corrosion is improved after the working. The defect concentration in the matrix is the dominant factor influencing the uniform corrosion. The original sheets and worked sheets annealed at 580˚C for a short time were selected to compare tensile properties at room temperature and 375˚C. In general, strengths decrease but the plasticity slightly increases after the working. Tensile properties of sheets with various working processes show little difference. The quantity of secondary phase is the principal factor affecting the mechanical properties.
王 晨
Published: 1 January 2021
Material Sciences, Volume 11, pp 776-787; https://doi.org/10.12677/ms.2021.116089

Abstract:
一般认为混凝土结构的水下部分由于长期浸泡使混凝土内部孔隙水饱和。因此,本文针对自然浸泡环境下的混凝土试块,进行了其对氯离子吸附能力的研究。本研究探讨了锂渣掺量、抗压强度、氯盐浓度、侵蚀时间和扩散深度对锂渣混凝土的氯离子吸附性能的影响。结果显示,随着锂渣掺量的提高,不同强度的锂渣混凝土对Cl−的吸附能力呈现随机性。但是当锂渣掺量为30%时,低强度锂渣混凝土的吸附能力较好。随着锂渣混凝土强度等级的增大,不同掺量的锂渣掺量混凝土对Cl−的吸附能力总体呈下降趋势。随着Cl−浓度的增加,不同强度的锂渣混凝土的Cl−的吸附能力呈现基本相同的趋势。随着侵蚀时间的增加,锂渣混凝土的Cl−的吸附能力先急剧减小,然后趋于平缓。说明锂渣混凝土的早期对氯离子的吸附能力较强,随着试验时间的增长,其吸附能力变弱。随着扩散深度的增加,不同NaCl溶液浓度的Cl−的吸附能力的变化趋势有所不同。浸泡于浓度较低的5%和10%的锂渣混凝土对Cl−的吸附能力随着锂渣掺量的增加的增多。而浓度较高的20%的锂渣混凝土对Cl−的吸附能力与强度有关。基于上述实验结果,本研究对处于自然浸泡环境下锂渣混凝土在工程应用过程中提供了一定的参考意义。 It is generally believed that the underwater part of the concrete structure can be saturated with pore water due to long-term immersion. Therefore, the adsorption capacity of chloride ions on concrete samples soaked in natural environment was studied in this paper. The effects of lithium slag content, compressive strength, chloride salt concentration, erosion time and diffusion depth on chloride ion adsorption performance of lithium slag concrete were studied. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of Cl− for lithium slag concrete with different strength was acted of indiscipline with the increase of lithium slag content. However, the adsorption capacity of low strength lithium slag concrete was better when the lithium slag content was 30%. With the increase of strength grade of lithium slag concrete, the adsorption capacity of Cl− to concrete with different lithium slag content was generally decreased. Meanwhile, the adsorption capacity of Cl− of lithium slag concrete with different strength showed basically the same trend with the increase of Cl− concentration. With the increase of erosion time, the adsorption capacity of Cl− in lithium slag concrete decreased sharply first and then tended to be gentle, showing that the adsorption capacity of chloride ion in the early stage of lithium slag concrete was strong. But with the increase of test time, its adsorption capacity became weak. With the increase of diffusion depth, the adsorption capacity of Cl− with different concentrations of NaCl solution was different. It was obtained that the adsorption capacity of Cl− to concrete soaked in 5% and 10% lithium slag with lower concentration was increased with the increase of lithium slag content but the adsorption capacity of Cl− for 20% lithium slag concrete with higher concentration was related to its strength. Based on the above experimental results, this study could provide some reference for the application of lithium slag concrete in the natural immersion environment.
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