British Journal of Nutrition

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ISSN / EISSN : 0007-1145 / 1475-2662
Published by: Cambridge University Press (CUP) (10.1017)
Total articles ≅ 15,375
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, Urszula Kudla, Jean Nyakayiru, Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma
British Journal of Nutrition pp 1-66; doi:10.1017/s0007114521002786

Introduction: Human breast milk is the best source of nutrition in early life, particularly during the first six months. Nevertheless, human breast milk composition is variable and more insight in the exact factors contributing to this variability is warranted. In this review, we explored the impact of maternal dietary intake and nutritional status (e.g., anthropometric measures, body mass index, bioimpedance) on human milk macronutrient composition. Method: PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane were systematically searched till November 2019. Results: In total, 4946 publications underwent title-abstract screening; 101 publications underwent full-text screening. Eventually, 50 publications were included in this review, investigating either associations between maternal dietary intake (n=29) and/or maternal nutritional status (n=29), and macronutrient composition of human breast milk. Reported energy composition ranged from 51-72 kcal/dl, and 67% and 54% of the studies reported associations between with maternal nutritional intake and status, respectively. Protein content ranged from 0.8-3.3g/dl and four studies suggested a negative association with nutritional status. Fat content ranged from 2.1- 9.8g/dl, and 68% of the studies reported positive associations with nutritional status. Carbohydrate content ranged from 5.8-7.5g/dl, and 67% of the included studies did not report an association between intake or status. Conclusion: Literature investigating associations of maternal dietary intake and nutrition status with breast milk composition of macronutrients and energy content is diversified, both in terms of used methodology as well as results. Further studies using well defined and standard parameters are essential to aid the formulation of scientific recommendations.
British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 126; doi:10.1017/s0007114521002129

British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 126; doi:10.1017/s0007114521002117

Cathrine Horn, Johnny Laupsa-Borge, Amanda I. O. Andersen, Laurence Dyer, Ingrid Revheim, Trine Leikanger, Nicole T. Næsheim, Inghild Storås, Kristine K. Johannessen, Gunnar Mellgren, et al.
British Journal of Nutrition pp 1-48; doi:10.1017/s0007114521002580

It is widely assumed that people with obesity have several common eating patterns, including breakfast-skipping (1), eating during the night (2) and high fast-food consumption (3). However, differences in individual meal and dietary patterns may be crucial to optimizing obesity treatment. Therefore, we investigated the inter-individual variation in eating patterns, hypothesizing that individuals with obesity show different dietary and meal patterns, and that these associate with self-reported energy intake (rEI) and/or anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional data from 192 participants (aged 20–55 years) with obesity, including 6 days of weighed food records, were analyzed. Meal patterns and dietary patterns were derived using exploratory hierarchical cluster analysis and k-means cluster analysis, respectively. Five clear meal patterns were found based on the time-of-day with the highest mean rEI. The daily rEI (mean ± SD kcal) was highest among “midnight-eaters” (2550 ± 550), and significantly (p < 0.05) higher than “dinner-eaters” (2060 ± 550), “lunch-eaters” (2080 ± 520), and “supper-eaters” (2100 ± 460), but not “regular-eaters” (2330 ± 650). Despite differences of up to 490 kcal between meal patterns, there were no significant differences in anthropometric measures or physical activity level (PAL). Four dietary patterns were also found with significant differences in intake of specific food groups, but without significant differences in anthropometry, PAL, or rEI. Our data highlight meal timing as a determinant of individual energy intake in people with obesity. The study supports the importance of considering a person’s specific meal pattern, with possible implications for more person-focused guidelines and targeted advice.
Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Reza Bagheri, Hoda Bavi, Julien S Baker, , Laura Mancin,
British Journal of Nutrition pp 1-68; doi:10.1017/s0007114521002609

Obesity remains a serious relevant public health concern throughout the world despite related countermeasures being well understood (i.e., mainly physical activity and an adjusted diet). Among different nutritional approaches, there is a growing interest in ketogenic diets (KDs) to manipulate body mass (BM) and to enhance fat mass (FM) loss. KDs reduce the daily amount of carbohydrate intake drastically. This results in increased fatty acid utilization, leading to an increase in blood ketone bodies (KBs) (acetoacetate [AcAc], 3-β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB], and acetone), and therefore metabolic ketosis. For many years, nutritional intervention studies have focused on reducing dietary fat with little or conflicting positive results over the long-term. Moreover, current nutritional guidelines for athletes propose carbohydrate-based diets to augment muscular adaptations. This review discusses the physiological basis of KDs and their effects on BM reduction and body composition improvements in sedentary individuals combined with different types of exercise (resistance training [RT] or endurance training [ET]) in individuals with obesity and athletes. Ultimately, we discuss the strengths and the weaknesses of these nutritional interventions together with precautionary measures that should be observed in both individuals with obesity and athletic populations. A literature search from 1921 to April 2021 using MEDLINE, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, PUBMED, WEB OF SCIENCE, SCOPUS, and SPORTDISCUS databases were used to identify relevant studies. In summary, based on the current evidence, KDs are an efficient method to reduce BM and body fat in both individuals with obesity and athletes. However, these positive impacts are mainly because of the appetite suppressive effects of KDs, which can decrease daily calorie intake. Therefore, KDs do not have any superior benefits to non-KDs in BM and body fat loss in individuals with obesity and athletic populations in an isocaloric situation. In sedentary individuals with obesity, it seems that fat-free mass (FFM) changes appear to be as great, if not greater, than decreases following a low-fat diet (LFD). In terms of lean mass, it seems that following a KD can cause FFM loss in resistance-trained individuals. In contrast, the FFM-preserving effects of KDs are more efficient in endurance-trained compared to resistance-trained individuals.
Ying Sun, Xin Du, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng,
British Journal of Nutrition pp 1-30; doi:10.1017/s0007114521002592

Iodine is an important element in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Thyroid function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT). Excessive iodine leads to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, but the mechanism is not yet clear. Type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) is a selenium-containing protease that plays a vital role in thyroid function. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of hypothalamus Dio2 in regulating TSH increase caused by excessive iodine and to determine the effects of iodine excess on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) levels. Male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups and administered different iodine dosages (folds of physiological dose): normal iodine (NI), 3-fold iodine (3HI), 6-fold iodine (6HI), 10-fold iodine (10HI), and 50-fold iodine (50HI). Rats were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, or 24 weeks after iodine administration. Serum TRH, TSH, total thyroxine (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) were determined. Hypothalamus tissues were frozen and sectioned to evaluate expression of Dio2, Dio2 activity, and monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). Prolonged high iodine intake significantly increased TSH expression (p < 0.05), but did not affect TT3 and TT4 levels. Prolonged high iodine intake decreased serum TRH levels in the hypothalamus (p < 0.05). Dio2 expression and activity in the hypothalamus exhibited an increasing trend compared at each time point with increasing iodine intake (p < 0.05). Hypothalamic MCT8 expression was increased in rats with prolonged high iodine intake(p < 0.05). These results indicate that iodine excess affects the levels of Dio2, TRH, and MCT8 in the hypothalamus.
British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 126; doi:10.1017/s0007114521001872

British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 126; doi:10.1017/s0007114521001884

Zahra Akbarzade, Kurosh Djafarian, Nasim Saeidifard, Shabnam Aliakbari Majd, Nazila Garousi, Fatemeh Samadi, Hanieh Jebraeili, Maryam Chamari, Cain C. T. Clark,
Published: 8 July 2021
by 10.1017
British Journal of Nutrition pp 1-36; doi:10.1017/s0007114521002543

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Amy Jennings, Elizabeth Sanchia Connole, Karen Joy Murphy, Anne Marie Minihane
Published: 8 July 2021
by 10.1017
British Journal of Nutrition pp 1-28; doi:10.1017/s0007114521002567

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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