Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner

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ISSN / EISSN : 0853-7380 / 2252-696X
Total articles ≅ 249
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Masrurah Masrurah, Isyana Khaerunnisa, Sri Murtini, Cece Sumantri
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 82-88; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i2.2715

Avian Beta Defensin 2 (AvBD2) gene, which is located in chromosome 3, plays an important role in the immune system of the chicken by inhibiting the development of microorganisms such as bacteria that infect body tissues. Defensins are produced through epithelial cells immediately after tissue injury or infection, which then processes the maturation of dendritic cells to initiate an immune response in the lymph nodes. The purpose of this study was to discover the polymorphism of the AvBD2 gene in IPB-D1 chickens. PCR and direct-DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the diversity of intron 1, exon 2, and intron 2 AvDB2 genes in 47 chickens. Genotype and allele frequency, and heterozygosity calculations were carried out to obtain information of the AvBD2 gene polymorphism. A total of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the AvBD2 gene located in intron 1 (g.4843T>A, g.4853G>A, and g.4859T>C), exon 2 (g.4881A>G, g.4889G>A, and g.5002C>T), and intron 2 (g.5075C>T, g.5111T>G, g.5116G>T, and g.5177G>T). All SNPs are polymorphic. The g.5002C>T mutation causes changes in the amino acid Ala to Val which has the potential to be a candidate for characterizing disease resistance in IPB-D1 chickens.
Kakanang Buranaamnuay, A Kettawan, C Changsangfa, S Aiemongkot
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 74-81; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i2.2729

Calcium is one of the minerals that are essential for male reproductive function. Calcium deficiency adversely affects spermatogenesis, normal sperm function and results in infertility. The sperm quality of rats fed a standard diet containing chicken bone extract powder (BEP) was assessed in the present study. Twenty male 8-week-old rats, Wistar strain, were randomized by weight into two groups of ten rats each and fed ad libitum a standard diet containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3, control) or chicken BEP; both were equivalent to 0.5% calcium. At the end of the 7-week consumption, the net body weight gains measured in control (101.33±21.81 g) and chicken BEP groups (100.74±26.80 g) were not significantly different (P>0.05). The in vitro sperm quality in terms of concentration, motility, viability, resistance to hypotonic stress, acrosomal reaction ability and morphology was comparable between control and chicken BEP (all were P>0.05). The results suggest that chicken BEP addition into feeds is an alternative calcium source that is as effective but less expensive as CaCO3, a commercial calcium (fortificant). At least, it has no detrimental effect on male reproductive function.
Amalina Nur Wahyuningtyas, Irma Isnafia Arief, Epi Taufik
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 65-73; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i2.2718

Pathogenic bacterial contamination found in fresh cow's milk can be caused by poor milking management. This traditional milking process allows the milk to be contaminated from bacteria and dirt. Dyeing dairy cows using a commercial antiseptic is a common measure that can be done to prevent mastitis. Nipple immersion can be done after milking using synthetic antiseptic agents such as povidone iodine and chlorine. However, the use of synthetic antiseptics can actually cause a slight irritation and allergic effect and leave a residue. Therefore, it is hoped that the use of natural-based antiseptics can replace synthetic antiseptics. One of the natural based antiseptics that can be used is bacteriocin. This research aimed to analyze the application of the plantaricin IIA-1A5 as a substitute for synthetic antibacterial for teat dipping before milking namely microbiological tests, physicochemical tests, and pH measurements. The study was conducted using a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The treatment design consisted of control (without immersion), plantaricin 0.0074%, and povidone iodine 0.2%. Results showed application of plantaricin IIA-1A5 as teat dipping before milking can reduce the Total Plate Count, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus population. The use of plantaricin IIA-1A5 as teat dipping did not change pH value and physicochemical quality (fat, SNF, lactose, and protein), which is below the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) about fresh milk. This ability is comparable to the iodine group, a synthetic antibacterial widely used by smallholder breeders in Indonesia. It is concluded that plantaricin IIA-1A5 can be used as a substitute for synthetic antibacterial (iodine group) for teat dipping before milking.
Dairoh Dairoh, Jakaria Jakaria, Mokhamad Fakhrul Ulum, Andi Baso Lompengeng Ishak, Cece Sumantri
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 49-56; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i2.2701

Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) are native Indonesian cattle, domesticated from banteng (Bibos banteng). Genes that have an important role in meat quality are calcium-activated neutral protease genes, known as calpains (CAPN). The objective of this study was to evaluate the polymophisms of calpain gene SNP g.232 G>T by PCR-RFLP technique and its influence on growth trait and meat quality of Bali cattle detected by ultrasound imaging of longissimus dorsi thickness (LDT), back fat thickness (BFT), marbling score (MS), and intramuscular fat percentage (PIMF). The polymorphisms of CAPN1 gene were analyzed by PCR-RFLP using BglII restriction enzyme (n=52 cattle). The ultrasound images of longissimus dorsi muscle were carried out transversally and longitudinal between 12th -13th thoracic vertebrae then analyzed by Image-J NIH software. Result showed that SNP g.232 G>T of CAPN1 gene was polymorphic in Bali cattle. SNP g.232 G>T of CAPN1 gene in Bali cattle has higher diversity which was showed of 0.48 heterozygosity value and was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphisms of SNP g.232 G>T was associated significantly (P<0.05) with bodyweight at 730 days, marbling score (MS), and intramuscular fat percentage (PIMF). It suggests that the CAPN1 gene in Bali cattle is a candidate for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS), which influences body weight at 730 days, marbling score, and percentage of intramuscular fat.
Efrilia Tri Wahyu Utami, Muhamad Bata, Sri Rahayu
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 57-64; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i2.2711

This study was conducted to examine the effect of different local cattle breeds on energy metabolism and performance fed on rice straw basal diet. Fourty local male cattle (2.5 years; initial BW 300.30±0.68) of Madura cattle (M), Sumba Ongole cattle (SO), Bali cattle (B), and Bali Timor cattle (BT) were used in this study, where types of local breed were used as treatments (10 animals/treatment). The study used a randomized block design (RBD) with cattle's initial body weight as a group. The cattle were fed on rice straw ad libitum and concentrate 2.5% BW (DM 86.53%). The variables measured were energy intake (EI), digestible energy intake (DEI), metaboloizable energy intake (MEI), energy retention (RE), RE to EI ratio, RE to DEI ratio, C2/C3 ratio, the efficiency of hexose conversion to VFA (ECH) and the average daily body weight gain (ADG). The results showed that the different breeds of local cattle had a significant effect (P<0.05) on EI, DEI, MEI, RE, RE to EI ratio, RE to DEI ratio, C2/C3 ratio, and ECH, but had no significant effect on ADG (P>0.05). M has the highest EI, DEI, MEI, and RE 139.52 MJ/day, 99.69 MJ/day, 65.84 MJ/day, and 98.45 MJ/day, respectively, but the highest RE to EI ratio at B, while for the best RE to DE ratio, C2/C3 ratio, ECH, and ADG, at SO were 99.24%, 28.85, 74.97%, and 1.24 kg, respectively. It can be concluded that the best local cattle in terms of performance and feed energy efficiency are Sumba Ongole cattle.
Alan P Dargantes, April Hari Wardhana, Jose Alexander C Abella, Milkesidick R Sequito, Simon A Reid, Douglas Bruce Copeman, K At Dargantes
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 22-30; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i1.2508

Pathogenicity of 10 isolates of T. evansi collected from Mindanao, Philippines, and one isolate from East Java, Indonesia was determined and compared. The susceptibility of these isolates against diminazene aceturate, melarsomine dihydrochloride, suramin and quinapyramine sulphate/chloride was also tested. Twenty-five mice were infected intraperitoneally with each isolate and 20 were treated with the 4 drugs (5 mice/drug) while 5 infected and 7 uninfected mice served as infected-untreated and uninfected controls, respectively. Treatment was carried out 24 hours post-infection and parasitemia was monitored for 35 days. Mice infected with Philippine isolates significantly died earlier (5-11 days) than those infected with the Indonesian isolate (14-16 days). The prepatent period for Philippine isolates (3-8 days) was significantly shorter than the Indonesian strain (11-13 days). Trypanosomes were not observed in the blood of mice infected with any of the Philippine isolates when treated with quinapyramine sulphate/chloride, melarsomine dihydrochloride or suramin. Two of 10 mice infected with either C4 or A9 Philippine isolates and treated with diminazene aceturate had parasitemia on days 29 and 31, respectively. It is concluded that isolates of T. evansi from Mindanao, Philippines, are more pathogenic than the isolate from East Java, Indonesia. This study also indicated that quinapyramine sulphate/chloride, melarsomine dihydrochloride and suramin are effective against these T. evansi isolates from Mindanao, Philippines and East Java, Indonesia, while two of the Mindanao isolates are resistant to diminazene. This information is valuable in the enhancement of the control strategy against surra in the Philippines and Indonesia.
Syifa Khairunnisa, Savitri Novelina, Nena Hilmia, Didik N Hadi, Dedi Rahmat,
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i1.2584

This research aimed to estimate carcass quality of Pasundan cattle using ultrasound imaging based on Body Condition Score (BCS). Total 31 head of female cattle with age ranging from 4 to 7 years from Regional Technical Implementation Unit of the Center for Artificial Insemination and Artificial Insemination for Beef Cattle Development at Ciamis West Java, Indonesia with BCS ranging from 1.0-4.0. The marbling score, intramuscular fat (IMF), backfat thickness (LP), and thickness musculus of m. longissimus dorsi (LD), m. psoas major (PM), m. psoas minor (PMN), m. gluteus medius (GM) and m. biceps femoris (BF) were scanned using ultrasound on 3 different locations, i.e. on 12th-13th ribs (thorax), lumbar 4th - 5th (lumbar), and between tuber coxae and tuber ischii (gluteal) with 5 MHz frequency of convex transducer. The results showed that BCS increased when LP, marbling score and IMF from m. LD, m. PM, m. PMN, and m. GM was rising. Pasundan cattle showed marbling scores ranging from score 1 to 5 and percentage IMF ranging from 2.62% to 4.82%. Body Condition Score affected carcass quality of Pasundan cattle on parameters such as musculus thickness, marbling score, and intramuscular fat (IMF) from ultrasound imaging of m. LD, m. PM. m. PMN, m. GM, and m. BF.
Dwi Endrawati, Eni Kusumaningtyas
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 10-21; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i1.2546

Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis are dermatophytes fungi which commonly infect animal and human. Conventional and molecular methods were used for identification of the fungus. The region of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) has a high probability for fungal identification. PCR-RFLP was reported as a useful method to differentiate dermatophytes fungi. The objective of the study was to compare molecular profile of T. mentagrophytes and M. canis based on the result of ITS fragment digestion using Dde I, Hinf I and Mva I. The molds were isolated from skin scrapping of 18 animals which showed dermatophytosis lesion. The isolated molds were grown on agar plate for 14 days of incubation at 37oC and then identified based on macro and microscopic morphologies. Amplification of chitin synthase gene was used for confirmation and separation of dermatophytes from other fungi. ITS fragment was amplified and then digested using restriction enzymes Dde I, Hinf I and Mva I. The result showed that digestion products from ITS fragment of T. mentagrophytes and M. canis were different. The fragment 159 bp from Dde I, 374 bp from Hinf I and 89 bp from Mva I were present in T. mentagrophytes but absent in M. canis. Based on these results, specific RFLP profile of digestion ITS region by Dde I, Hinf I and Mva I can be used as a specific marker for species of dermatophytes fungi.
Osfar Sjofjan, Danung Nur Adli, Muhammad Halim Natsir, Yuli Frita Nuningtyas, Tika Septi Wardani, Ilmi Sholichatunnisa, Siti Nur Ulpah, Obbi Firmansyah
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 39-48; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i1.2686

In this experiment, we investigate the effect of modified banana tuber meal (M-BTM) to substitute dietary maize in growing-finisher colored-feathered hybrid duck. One hundred and ninety six hybrid ducks (Pekin x Khaki Campbell) with 421.31 ± 0.183g body weight (BW) were allotted to 5 dietary treatments with 9 ducks (unsexed) per pen and 4 replications per treatment. These dietary treatments were: NC (negative control; maize-soyabean-meal based diet), BTM25 (25% maize was replaced by M-BTM-), BTM50 (50% maize was replaced by M-BTM), BTM75 (75% maize was replaced by M-BTM), and BTM100 (100% maize was replaced by M-BTM). The experimental design applied using completely randomize design (CRD). Data of this experiment were statistically analysed by one-way-analysis-of-variance of SAS University version 4.0 red hat (64-bit) University Online Edition. Result demonstrated that M-BTM improved significantly (p< 0.05) digestibility of dry matter and crude protein. It is concluded that M-BTM enhanced apparently growth performaces and digestibility parameters of colored-feathered hybrid duck (Pekin x Khaki Campbell).
Desy Cahya Widianingrum, Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 26, pp 31-38; https://doi.org/10.14334/jitv.v26i1.2670

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) contains bioactive that induce immunity against infectious diseases. This study aim to determine the immunomodulatory effects of VCO based on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lymphocyte proliferation, and histopathological examination in liver and kidney of rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus. The VCO was given intragastrically to rats with a dose of 250 µL for one week. The rats were infected with S. aureus at 5x102 bacterial cells intraperitoneally. Twenty (20) female Wistar rats of one month old were divided into four groups. The negative control group (C-): without treatment, AV group: infected with S. aureus followed by VCO treatment; VA group: pretreated with VCO followed by S. aureus infection, and positive control group (C+): were infected with S. aureus without VCO. All rats were euthanized and necropsied based on the animal ethic standard. Plasma samples were taken to evaluate SOD activity, and lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen to determine their proliferative ability. Livers and kidneys were collected for a histopathology examination. Results showed that the VA group had the highest SOD activity on the 4th week (41.50 ± 3.56 %) and lymphocyte proliferation (0.3018) compared to all treatments, indicating immunomodulatory effects of VCO. Liver of treatments group showed leucocytes infiltration, no hemorrhages (VA); the hepatocytes with normal cells (VA). Kidney of treatments group showed leucocytes infiltration (AV); normal epithelial glomerulus and tubulus cells, still found hemorrhage (VA). These studies indicated that VCO has a potential role as an immunomodulator, hepatoprotectant, and nephroprotectant.
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