Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner

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ISSN / EISSN : 08537380 / 2252696X
Total articles ≅ 226
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Arnold Parlindungan Sinurat, Tiurma Pasaribu, Tresnawati Purwadaria, Tuti Haryati, Elizabeth Wina, Tri Wardhani
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 81-90; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2501

Abstract:
Antibiotics (AGP) have been used as feed additives to promote growth and feed efficiency in poultry production. However, many countries include Indonesia now ban the use of AGP and attempts are made to replace the antibiotic to maintain good performances of broilers. Plant bioactives is one of the alternatives that could replace the AGP. An experiment was conducted in an attempt to replace the AGP in broiler feed with a mixture of some plant bioactives (liquid smoke of cashew nutshell, Phyllanthus niruri, and clove leaves). Eight (8) dietary treatments were formulated to have similar nutrients consist of negative control (NC), positive control (NC+AGP), diets supplemented with liquid plant bioactives in 3 levels and diets supplemented with powder plant bioactives in 3 levels. Each diet was fed to 6 replications of 10 birds each from 1 to 35 days old. The performances and the immune response of the broilers due to the treatments were observed. Results showed that the powder plant bioactives could not improve the performance of broilers. None of the feed additives (AGP or plant bioactives) affect the immune systems of the broilers. However, liquid plant bioactives in low dose improved the performance of broilers better than the AGP and therefore is suitable to replace the antibiotic as feed additives in broiler diet.
Nurul Afzan Hilda Zakiya, A H Yanti, T R Setyawati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 68-73; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2026

Abstract:
The use of liquid semen for artificial insemination program of Etawah crossbreed goat (PE) is an alternative to replace frozen semen which is constrained by limited and expensive facilities. Production of liquid semen is faster than frozen semen, but the viability of liquid semen which preserved with a standard extender such as tris egg yolk is very short. The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of PE goat semen in egg yolk tris substituted with energy sources such as glucose, galactose, and mannose and to determine the most efficient energy source for semen preservation. This research was conducted from August to September 2018 at the Artificial Insemination Center in Lembang, West Java. This study was designed in a randomized block design (RBD) consist of three experimental groups divided into five groups. Fresh semen of PE goats were preserved using extender which energy source has been modified. Results showed that using glucose in PE goat semen extender produced the best motility among other groups (64.29 ± 9.2%). The highest viability was found in extender with fructose substitution (86.76 ± 2.3%). The longest viability of liquid semen was found in the extender with glucose substitution. It lasted for six days.
Peni Wahyu Prihandini, A Primasari, M Luthfi, J Efendy, D Pamungkas
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 39-47; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2496

Abstract:
Information on the genetic diversity of native and local cattle in Indonesia is vital for the development of breeding and conservation strategies. This study was aimed to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of the Indonesian native (Bali) and local [(Donggala, Madura, Sragen, Galekan, Rambon, dan Peranakan Ongole Grade x Bali (POBA)] cattle populations. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples (n= 75). Partial sequences of mtDNA cyt b, 464 bp, were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction technique (forward primer: L14735 and reverse primer: H15149). Thirty-four reference sequences of Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bos javanicus were included in the phylogenetic analyses. A total of 55 polymorphic sites and 13 haplotypes were observed in the whole breeds. No variable sites of mtDNA cyt b were observed in Galekan (kept in BCRS) and Rambon cattle. Overall haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.515 ± 0.070 and 0.0184 ± 0.0045, respectively. The highest (0.092) and the lowest (0.000) genetic distances were between Bali and Donggala cattle populations and among Galekan (kept in BCRS), Rambon, and POBA cattle populations, respectively. Both mtDNA network and phylogenetic analyses revealed two major maternal lineages (A and B) of the studied population. Most of the sampled individuals (69.33%, present in haplotype H8-H19) were linked to lineage B, which belonged to the same cluster with Bos javanicus. Overall, most of the Indonesian native and local cattle populations had a considerable genetic diversity and shared a common maternal origin with Bos javanicus.
Omar R Mardenli, Ms Mohammad, Ha Hassooni
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 60-67; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2459

Abstract:
The use of cryoprotectants in vitrification would reduce the critical damages to the embryos, thus increase the survival rates. This research was conducted in the laboratory of reproductive biotechnology at the faculty of Agriculture of Aleppo University. The study aimed to evaluate the viability and survivability of early Syrian Awassi embryos under the influence of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) following vitrification. Embryos were vitrified in three solutions of cryoprotectants (A: DMSO (3 ml), B: EG (3 ml), and C which was composed of a combination of DMSO (1.5 ml) and EG (1.5 ml)). After thawing, embryos that had been vitrified in C solution achieved the highest rates of cleavage (P< 0.01) comparing with A and B solutions for 2-16 cell stage (50.00% Vs 30.77% and 36.36%), morula (9.00% Vs 44.44% and 40.00%) and blastocyst stage embryos (92.86% Vs 58.33% and 50.00%) respectively. Down to the hatching blastocyst stage, 2-16 cell stage vitrified embryos in C solution achieved an encouraging rate comparing with A and B solutions (39.20% Vs23.08% and 22.73% respectively). The rates of arrested embryos decreased significantly (P< 0.05) after thawing across the three solutions especially the morula and blastocyst stage (0.00 and 3.70% respectively) (C solution). No significant differences were observed in the three types of embryos across all stages and solutions despite the large range among these rates. Given the apparent benefit of the participatory effect of cytoprotectants, it is advised to use a mixture of DMSO and EG (1:1) in vitrification of ovine embryos.
Forough Masoumi, Mehrdad Shariati, Mokhtar Mokhtari
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 91-98; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2467

Abstract:
As an organophosphorus, Diazinon (DZN) impairs liver tissue function by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and causing oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of Silybum marianum aqueous extract (SMAE) and L-carnitine (LC) on the stereological and histopathological changes of the liver in DZN-treated male rats were investigated. The rats in this study were placed into 9 groups of 8 each containing control, placebo, and a combination of DZN, SMAE, and LC. The animals received SMAE and chemicals orally for 30 days. At last, the liver tissue of all animals was removed. Then, tissue sections from the liver were provided to study the stereological markers including liver volume and weight, hepatocytes’ volume, central venous volume, sinusoidal volume, connective tissue volume, inflammation rate, and a number of the hepatocytes’ nuclei. Also, the sample tissues were evaluated histopathologically. Treatment with DZN significantly reduced the liver volume and weight, hepatocyte volume, central venous volume, sinusoidal volume, and hepatocyte nucleus number compared to placebo and control but it significantly increased the inflammation and volume of liver’s connective tissue. However, co-administration of SMAE and LC with DZN improved liver volume and weight, hepatocyte volume, central venous volume, sinusoidal volume, connective tissue volume, and hepatocyte nucleus number alone compared to the DZN treatment. Liver inflammation was also significantly decreased compared to the DZN treatment but comparing to the placebo and control groups, it increased significantly. Simultaneous administration of SMAE and LC has protective effects on liver tissue and can reduce DZN-induced liver injury in rats.
Zuratih Zuratih, Sps Budhi, Z Bachruddin
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 74-80; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2066

Abstract:
Methane is one of the gases produced by ruminants during feed fermentation in the rumen. This experiment was aimed to investigate the production of monacolin K in rice bran fermented by Monascus purpureus mold and the influence of the supplementation of fermented rice bran using Monascus purpureus mold on elephant grass basal diet on fermentation products and methane production in an in vitro gas production method. The study consisted of two experiments. The first experiment analysis of monacolin K production in fermented rice bran using Monascus purpureus. Fermentation is done by the addition of Monascus purpureus at levels 0, 4, 8, and 12% (v/w) of substrate (rice bran) with 3 replications. Monacolin K in the substrate was analyzed using HPLC. The second experiment was the evaluation of supplementation of fermented rice bran to elephant grass basal diet using in vitro gas production. The treatment diet evaluated were Pennisetum purpureum (control), Pennisetum purpureum:rice bran (1:1 ratio), and Pennisetum purpureum:rice bran fermented. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. Results from the first experiment shows that rice bran with the highest monacolin K content was in rice bran fermented at 12% by Monascus purpureus. Result from the second experiment showed that supplementation of fermented rice bran to Pennisetum purpureum basal diet did not affect rumen ammonia concentration, VFA, protein microbial production, and dry matter and organic matter digestibility. However, methane production (CH4) was reduced (P<0.05) by 50%, and the protozoal population was decreased (P<0.05) by 80%. It is concluded that supplementation of fermented rice brands containing monacolin K was able to reduce methane production and the protozoa population without affecting feed fermentation.
A. Anneke, F Saputra, A Hafid, Abl Ishak
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 48-59; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i2.2498

Abstract:
Information on non-genetic and genetic factors is required in the selection program. Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP) has been conducting a selection of the growth traits of Sapera goat (50% Saanen, 50% PE). This research was aimed to study non-genetic and genetic effects on growth traits from birth to the age of 120 days old of the 2nd generation (G2) of Sapera goat. Data on body weight and measurement were collected from kids at birth (105 head.) to the age of 120 days old (51 head). The 30 days interval growth data were calculated by linear interpolation. Non-genetic effects were analyzed by General Linear Model for unbalanced data by considering sex, type of birth, the month of kidding, and year of kidding as fixed variables. The genetic component was analyzed by a mixed linear model by considering sire as a random variable. Heritability was estimated by the paternal half-sib method. Non-genetic factors mostly had no significant effect (P> 0.05) on body weight and measurement. The 90 days old and 120 days old males had higher weights than females (P<0.05). Birth type and year of kidding had significant effects (P<0.05) on body weight and some measurements at certain ages. No significant months of kidding effect on the growth traits (P>0.05). Heritability values of body weight (h2 = 0.11-0.19) and body sizes (h2 = 0.03-0.24) were relatively low. Except high heritability values for birth weight and for body weight at 30 days old (h2 = 0.59 and 0.29), and for hip girth at 30 days old and at 60 days old (h2 = 0.13-0.54). The growth traits of G2 Sapera kids were affected by sex and year of kidding and slightly influenced by genetic (sires) factors.
Dela Ria Nesti, Ahmad Baidlowi, Achmad Fauzi, Ida Tjahajati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 19-25; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2079

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the combination of mix culture bacteria (EM4®:E) and fungi (Trichoderma viridae:TV) on physical quality and in vitro rumen fermentation parameters of peanut hull-based feed supplements. Basal feed was divided into four treatments, which were: P0 (BF); P1 (E:25%+TV:75%); P2 (E:50%+TV:50%),; and P3 (E:75%+TV:25%); and each treatment had three replications. Feeds were fermented facultative anaerobically for nine days. The observed parameters were physical qualities (color, odor, fungi appearance and pH), and in vitro rumen fermentation parameters (rumen pH, microbial protein content, and total volatile fatty acid content). Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA design, and the significance of differences were tested using Kruskall-Wallis test for the physical qualities data and Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT) test for in vitro rumen fermentation parameters. Results showed that the combination of E and TV at different level did not affect odor and the fungi appearance parameters (P≥0.05), however, it significantly affected P≤0.05) color change from blackish (1.64) in P0 to brownish in P1, P2 and P3 of 2.44; 2.69; and 2.80, respectively. The pH also decreased significantly (P≤0.05) by 10.67%. Treatment also did not affect the rumen pH, microbial protein content, and total volatile fatty acid content (P≥0.05). It is concluded that the combination of the EM4® 25%: Trichoderma viridae 75% on peanut-hull based feed supplement fermentation gives the best result on color and pH fermented feed product without affecting the rumen fermentation process.
Ibrahim Abu El- Naser
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 1-10; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2069

Abstract:
This study was done to determine the direct and maternal genetic and phenotypic trends for productive traits such as first lactation milk yield (FLMY, kg), first lactation period (FLP, d) and first lactation daily milk (FLDM, kg), and reproductive traits such as age at first calving (AFC, mo), First days open (FDO, d) and first calving interval (FCI, d). Data were collected over consecutive 25 years (1991 to 2015) of 1104 first lactation of 135 sires and 482 dams maintained at Mahallet Mousa farms of Animal Production Research Institute. Data were analyzed by Animal model to determine genetic parameters for studied traits. Means of FLMY, FLP, FLDM, AFC, FDO and FCI were 1546.5kg, 189d, 7.9kg, 37.9mo, 120.8d and 428d, respectively. The direct heritability (h2a) for same traits were 0.25, 0.18, 0.24, 0.45, 0.18 and 0.19, respectively. Corresponding maternal heritability (h2m) for mentioned traits was 0.12, 0.19, 0.22, 0.25, 0.12 and 0.12, respectively. Genetic correlations (rg) among studied traits were varied between -0.19 to 0.38. Accuracy of predicted breeding value varied between 69 to 94, 0.37 to 94 and 42 to 91% for FLMY, FLP, FLDM, AFC, FDO and FCI of sires, cows and dams, respectively that revealed the genetic improvement could be actualized through each of cows or sires or dams. Additive and maternal genetic, permanent environmental and phenotypic trends were not significant for all studied traits. It indicated that it is important to set up a plan to improve genetic and environmental conditions thus, increasing productivity and realization of high profitability.
Simon Petrus Ginting, Andi Tarigan, Kiston Simanuhuruk
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 26-33; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2196

Abstract:
Lactating goats are prone to negative energy status due to increased body fat reserve mobilization to support the high energy requirement of milk production. The study was aimed to investigate the responses of the lactating goat on diets provided in total-mixed ration differing in the energy sources. The experiment was conducted using a total of 35 does having 2-3 parities and an average bodyweight of 30.3±4.48 kg and BCS of 2.5 ± 0.05 on a scale basis of 1 to 5. Animals were allocated to one of five dietary treatments (seven animals/treatment) formulated to be iso-nitrogen dan iso-calory in a total mixed ration. Cassava meal was used as the source of glucogenic energy and bergafat as the main source of lipogenic energy. There were no DM intake differences (P>0.05) between the glucogenic diet (1.49% and 2.28% fat), but significant increases (P0.05) and ranged from 37 to 43 mg/dl and 39 to 51 mg/dl, respectively. Numerically, however, the blood glucose and urea level linearly increased as the diet becoming more lipogenic due to the increased feed intake. It is concluded that lactating goats offered diets with lipogenic energy sources (7.5% fat content) presented in pelleted total mixed-ration during the entire lactation period had a higher dry matter and nutrient intakes, body weight gain and body condition score compared to those fed diets with glucogenic energy source.
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