Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner

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ISSN / EISSN : 08537380 / 2252696X
Total articles ≅ 214
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Dela Ria Nesti, Ahmad Baidlowi, Achmad Fauzi, Ida Tjahajati
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 19-25; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2079

Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the combination of mix culture bacteria (EM4®:E) and fungi (Trichoderma viridae:TV) on physical quality and in vitro rumen fermentation parameters of peanut hull-based feed supplements. Basal feed was divided into four treatments, which were: P0 (BF); P1 (E:25%+TV:75%); P2 (E:50%+TV:50%),; and P3 (E:75%+TV:25%); and each treatment had three replications. Feeds were fermented facultative anaerobically for nine days. The observed parameters were physical qualities (color, odor, fungi appearance and pH), and in vitro rumen fermentation parameters (rumen pH, microbial protein content, and total volatile fatty acid content). Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA design, and the significance of differences were tested using Kruskall-Wallis test for the physical qualities data and Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT) test for in vitro rumen fermentation parameters. Results showed that the combination of E and TV at different level did not affect odor and the fungi appearance parameters (P≥0.05), however, it significantly affected P≤0.05) color change from blackish (1.64) in P0 to brownish in P1, P2 and P3 of 2.44; 2.69; and 2.80, respectively. The pH also decreased significantly (P≤0.05) by 10.67%. Treatment also did not affect the rumen pH, microbial protein content, and total volatile fatty acid content (P≥0.05). It is concluded that the combination of the EM4® 25%: Trichoderma viridae 75% on peanut-hull based feed supplement fermentation gives the best result on color and pH fermented feed product without affecting the rumen fermentation process.
Marziyeh Naimi, Mehrdad Shariati, Sirous Naeimi, Mohammad Amin Edalatmanesh
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 11-18; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2161

Abstract:
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic and carcinogenic compound produced in cooking process. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) gene expression level and ovarian histopathological changes in AA-treated rats. Thirty-six female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups including control, positive control (+VE Con), negative control (-VE Con), experimental 1 (Exp1), experimental 2 (Exp2) and experimental 3 (Exp3). Twenty eight days after the treatment, ERK gene expression level was measured by real-time PCR method and ovarian histopathological changes were evaluated. The ERK gene expression level was significantly decreased in the +VE Con, Exp1 and Exp2 groups as compared to the control group (p˂0.05), but not in the -VE Con and Exp3 groups (p˃0.05). Histologically, the +VE Con group showed a significant decrease in the number of primary, secondary and Graafian follicles as well as corpus luteum as compared to the control group (p˂0.05), but not in the negative, Exp2 and Exp3 groups (p˃0.05). In the Exp1 group, the number of primary and secondary follicles as well as corpus luteum significantly decreased (p˂0.05), however, the numbers of Graafian follicle and the corpus luteum were significantly increased as compared to the +VE Con group (p˂0.05). The AA was supposed to increase the apoptosis and folliculogenesis degradation in the rat ovarian tissue by decreasing ERK gene expression. Administration of NAC ameliorated the deleterious effects of AA in a dose-dependent manner and improve folliculogenesis by reducing apoptosis level. Thus, the NAC supplement could be helpful in ameliorating animal fertility.
David Kurniawan, Citra Dewi Yulia Chistie
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 34-38; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2053

Abstract:
This study was aimed to investigate performance and quality of broiler duck carcasses fed with Morinda citrifolia and Arthrospira plattensis. A total of 168 two-week-old broiler duck with an initial average body weight of 463 ± 29.38 g and a diversity of 6.35 % were randomly allotted to 7 experimental groups with 4 replications each with 6 bird per replication. Treatments were T0 (basal diet as a control), T1 (basal diet + 0.2% of Morinda citrifolia powder (MP)), T2 (basal diet + 0.5% of Arthrospira plattensis powde(AP)) , T3 (basal diet + 0.2% of MP+ 0.5% of AP), T4 (basal diet + 0.4% of MP + 0.5% of AP), T5 (basal diet + 0.2% of MP + 0.1% of AP), T6 (basal diet 0.4% of MP + 0.1% of AP). Variables measured were feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass percentage, abdominal fat, and visceral organ. Data were analyzed for variance based on a Completely Randomize Design and continued with Duncan’s multiple Range Test for differences. Result showed that the treatments did not affect (P>0.05) on feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The treatments also did not affect (P>0.05) carcass percentage, abdominal fat, and visceral organ. The diet did not significantly improve performance and quality of broiler duck carcasses.
Ibrahim Abu El- Naser
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 1-10; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2069

Abstract:
This study was done to determine the direct and maternal genetic and phenotypic trends for productive traits such as first lactation milk yield (FLMY, kg), first lactation period (FLP, d) and first lactation daily milk (FLDM, kg), and reproductive traits such as age at first calving (AFC, mo), First days open (FDO, d) and first calving interval (FCI, d). Data were collected over consecutive 25 years (1991 to 2015) of 1104 first lactation of 135 sires and 482 dams maintained at Mahallet Mousa farms of Animal Production Research Institute. Data were analyzed by Animal model to determine genetic parameters for studied traits. Means of FLMY, FLP, FLDM, AFC, FDO and FCI were 1546.5kg, 189d, 7.9kg, 37.9mo, 120.8d and 428d, respectively. The direct heritability (h2a) for same traits were 0.25, 0.18, 0.24, 0.45, 0.18 and 0.19, respectively. Corresponding maternal heritability (h2m) for mentioned traits was 0.12, 0.19, 0.22, 0.25, 0.12 and 0.12, respectively. Genetic correlations (rg) among studied traits were varied between -0.19 to 0.38. Accuracy of predicted breeding value varied between 69 to 94, 0.37 to 94 and 42 to 91% for FLMY, FLP, FLDM, AFC, FDO and FCI of sires, cows and dams, respectively that revealed the genetic improvement could be actualized through each of cows or sires or dams. Additive and maternal genetic, permanent environmental and phenotypic trends were not significant for all studied traits. It indicated that it is important to set up a plan to improve genetic and environmental conditions thus, increasing productivity and realization of high profitability.
Simon Petrus Ginting, Andi Tarigan, Kiston Simanuhuruk
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 25, pp 26-33; doi:10.14334/jitv.v25i1.2196

Abstract:
Lactating goats are prone to negative energy status due to increased body fat reserve mobilization to support the high energy requirement of milk production. The study was aimed to investigate the responses of the lactating goat on diets provided in total-mixed ration differing in the energy sources. The experiment was conducted using a total of 35 does having 2-3 parities and an average bodyweight of 30.3±4.48 kg and BCS of 2.5 ± 0.05 on a scale basis of 1 to 5. Animals were allocated to one of five dietary treatments (seven animals/treatment) formulated to be iso-nitrogen dan iso-calory in a total mixed ration. Cassava meal was used as the source of glucogenic energy and bergafat as the main source of lipogenic energy. There were no DM intake differences (P>0.05) between the glucogenic diet (1.49% and 2.28% fat), but significant increases (P0.05) and ranged from 37 to 43 mg/dl and 39 to 51 mg/dl, respectively. Numerically, however, the blood glucose and urea level linearly increased as the diet becoming more lipogenic due to the increased feed intake. It is concluded that lactating goats offered diets with lipogenic energy sources (7.5% fat content) presented in pelleted total mixed-ration during the entire lactation period had a higher dry matter and nutrient intakes, body weight gain and body condition score compared to those fed diets with glucogenic energy source.
Andri Cahya Irawan
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2025

Abstract:
Black Soldier Fly are natural antibiotics. It is expected that the use of BSF larvae in poultry rations as an alternative source of conventional protein will contribute to improving the immune status and maintaining animal health, thereby reducing the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the best type of BSF protein for determining the health status of laying hens based on the activity and capacity of macrophage phagocytosis on the non-protein A bacterium Staphyllococcus aureus. Results of this study indicated that the BSF extract (P3) has the highest phagocytic capacity value. This result proves that the BSF extract can induce macrophage cells to optimally process bacterial cells or foreign phagocyte particles. The highest average activity value, and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages was resulted from BSF extract (P3), respectively was 91.34 ± 0.38% and 22.84 macrophage-1 bacteria.
Asep Sudarman, G B Listiawan, L Khodijah
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2006

Abstract:
This research aimed to evaluate the performance of fattened madura cattle fed on coffee husk as a source of fibre to substitute grasses. Twenty Madura steers aged approximately 1.5 to 2.0 years with initial weight of 165-190 kg were divided randomly into four different experimental diets, namely R0= 90% concentrates +0% coffee husk +10% napier grass, R1= 90 % concentrates +3.33% coffee husk +6.67% napier grass, R2 = 90% concentrate +10% 6.67% coffee husk +3.33% napier grass, R3 = 90% concentrates 90% + 10% coffee husk +0% napier grass. The feed was given at 3% body weight of dry mater. The cows were kept in individual pen for two months. Variables measured were dry mater intake, feed efficiency, average daily gain (ADG), digestibility of feed and income over feed cost. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance based on randomized block design followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that dry matter intake, ADG, feed efficiency and feed digestibility of cattle on each treatment of the feed were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Average of dry matter intake and daily gain for R0, R1, R2, and R3 were 6.01, 5.84, 5.73 and 5.62 kg/head/day and 0.88, 0.87, 0.84 and 0.93 kg/head/day respectively. While the average of feed efficiency and DM digestibility for R0, R1, R2, and R3 were 14.64, 14.89, 14.65 and 16.54 % and 84.82, 84.37, 83.47 and 83.30 %, respectively. It is concluded that the used of 10% coffee husk as a source of fibre for substitution of napier grass can be used without negative effect on madura’s cattle performances and tend to give higher values of IOFC on fattening program.
Tike Sartika, Sofjan Iskandar
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 151-157; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2033

Abstract:
KUB-2 line of chicken has improved local chicken selected from the KUB-1 chicken line. KUB-2 was selected for more egg production and yellow shank. KUB-1 chicken has 64% various of black feather color, which sometimes tends to have unpreferred dark carcass. Yellow shank color has a positive correlation with the skin color of carcass. As many as 517 pullets of KUB-2 at 4th generation were divided into two groups of 194 pullets of KUB-2kk (yellow shank) and 323 pullets of KUB-2nk non-yellow shank). The chickens were raised intensively in the individual cages for the 24 weeks observation. Variables measured were age at first egg (AFE) bodyweight at first egg (BWFE), egg weight at first egg (EWFE), average egg weight (AEW), average egg production (AEP) during 24 weeks, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 25-43 weeks of age, and mortality. The result showed that there was no statistically significant different (p>0.05) between KUB-2nk and KUB-2kk respectively for AFE of 156.2 d and 158.1 d, for BWFE of 1788 g and 1808 g, for EWFE of 31.32 g and 31.34 g, for AEP24 of 103.3 eggs or 61.5% and 101.9 eggs or 60.7%, and for FCR25-43 of 3.53 and 3.54. AEW increased with increasing age of hen, the mortality of the whole population was 0.98%.
Tuti Haryati, Arnold P Sinurat, H Hamid, Tresnawati Purwadaria
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 158-165; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2055

Abstract:
BS4 enzyme that is produced from solid substrate fermentation (SSF) on coconut cake with Eupenicillium javanicum BS4 in tray bioreactor has been applied as a feed additive. It increases the nutritional value of animal feedstuff. The BS4 production on SSF may be influenced by the better aeration through the perforated trays or by the thinner substrate. The aim of this research is to optimize the production of BS4 with different substrate thicknesses and types of trays. The trial was carried out using a factorial randomized design (2x2x3) with 6 replicates. The first factor was the type of trays: i.e., non-perforated and perforated tray. The second factor was the thickness of the substrate: i.e., 1.5 and 3.0 cm, while the third factor was the duration of fermentation: i.e. 5, and 7 days. The variables observed were moisture content, dry matter loss (DML), mannanase and saccharification activities, soluble protein content, their specific activities, and yield. Statistical analysis showed no interactions between the three factors, but there were interactions between types of trays and substrate thicknesses, as well as type of trays and incubation times on the mannanase activity and yield of mannanase. The results showed that DML was observed on day 7 were around 31.43- 36.89. The highest mannanase activity was observed on the non-perforated tray with 3 cm thickness on day 7. The saccharification activity towards palm kernel meal was better in the non-perforated tray on day 7 but not influenced by The yield value of mannanase and saccharification activities on a non-perforated tray with 3.0 cm thickness on day 7 was also the highest. Based on energy efficiency and the cost of production, it can be concluded that the optimum condition to produce the BS4 enzyme was observed in the non-perforated tray with 3 cm thickness and fermented for 7 days.
Ibrahim Abu El- Naser
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner, Volume 24, pp 143-150; doi:10.14334/jitv.v24i4.2034

Abstract:
Data in this study were collected from live body weight records and milk yield for the first three lactations of Egyptian buffaloes maintained at the Mahallet Mousa Experimental Station of Animal Production Research Institute, relying on 987 records of Egyptian buffaloes spread over 16 years. These data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using animal model. Overall means in kilograms of BW, WW, W18, WFC, 1stMY, 2ndMY and 3rdMY were 36.56, 96.95, 322.02, 462.09, 1561.53, 1755 and 1837.71, respectively. Direct additive heritability (h2a) for mentioned traits were 0.31, 0.22, 0.24, 0.27, 0.23, 0.23 and 0.17, respectively. Corresponding computation of maternal heritability (h2m) for same traits were 0.39, 0.34, 0.22, 0.40, 0.29, 0.31 and 0.21, respectively. Evaluation of genetic correlations among different all studied traits were positive and ranged from 0.07 to 0.83, while phenotypic correlations were positive and ranged from 0.02 to 0.55. Accuracy of (PBV's) varying from 62 to 76, 62 to 83 and 41 to 77% for sires, cows and dams, successively; pointing out the genetic improvement could be achieved through any pathway of them. Higher direct and maternal heritability for BW and WFC and genetic correlations between first three lactations milk yield and each of BW and WFC higher than genetic correlations between first three lactations milk yield and WW and W18. Therefore, it is appropriate to select buffalo female calves for live body weight at birth than for live body weights at other ages.